Forced labour, modern slavery and human trafficking
Facts and figures
- 49.6 million people were living in modern slavery in 2021, of which 27.6 million were in forced labour and 22 million in forced marriage.
- Of the 27.6 million people in forced labour, 17.3 million are exploited in the private sector; 6.3 million in forced commercial sexual exploitation, and 3.9 million in forced labour imposed by state.
- Women and girls account for 4.9 million of those in forced commercial sexual exploitation, and for 6 million of those in forced labour in other economic sectors.
- 12% of all those in forced labour are children. More than half of these children are in commercial sexual exploitation.
- The Asia and the Pacific region has the highest number of people in forced labour (15.1 million) and the Arab States the highest prevalence (5.3 per thousand people).
- Addressing decent work deficits in the informal economy, as part of broader efforts towards economic formalization, is a priority for progress against forced labour.
Digital Technology: A Game Changer in the Fight Against Child Labour in Uganda's Agriculture Sector
30 March 2023
Fair Recruitment Initiative for Africa
09 March 2023
Promotion of social dialogue
Bipartite dialogues improve productivity of the palm oil industry and make business more resilient
22 February 2023
Advancing decent work for social justice – a high-level event in Tashkent
21 February 2023
The Fair Recruitment Initiative
The ILO has launched a global “Fair Recruitment Initiative” to: (i) help prevent human trafficking; (ii) protect the rights of workers, including migrant workers, from abusive and fraudulent practices during the recruitment and placement process; and (iii) reduce the cost of labour migration and enhance development gains.
2030 Agenda for sustainable development
ILO contributions to achieve SDG Targent 8.7
Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking, and end child labour in all its forms.
It's time to ratify the ILO's Forced Labour Protocol
The new legally-binding ILO Protocol on Forced Labour aims to strengthen global efforts towards combating forced labour, trafficking and slavery-like practices. Governments now have the opportunity to ratify the Protocol and integrate new measures at the national and regional levels to combat this crime.
IPEC+ Global Flagship Programme Implementation
28 November 2022
Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage
12 September 2022
Global Estimates of Modern Slavery: Forced Labour and Forced Marriage - Executive Summary
12 September 2022