Only half of Indonesian women can participate in the workforce, compared to more than eighty percent of men. The 5R concept can lead to the needed social changes that prevent women to leave the workforce due to care and domestic responsibilities."Early Dewi Nuriana, ILO’s Programme Officer for Care Economy
At the beginning of the dialogue, Early Dewi Nuriana, ILO’s Programme Officer for Care Economy, introduced the 5R principles of the care economy: Recognition, reduction, redistribution, representation and reward. “Only half of Indonesian women can participate in the workforce, compared to more than eighty percent of men. The 5R concept can lead to the needed social changes that prevent women to leave the workforce due to care and domestic responsibilities,” she added.
Maternity and paternity leavesThe dialogue also examined that women’s reproductive functions and imbalance childcare responsibility between men and women have become one of the factors that determine women participation in the labour market. To date, the Indonesian People's Representative Council (DPR) has announced a new bill on maternal and child health (RUU KIA) which proposes an extension of maternity and paternity leave.
The bill proposes the extension of maternity leave from 3 to 6 months and paternity leave from 2 to 40 days. Still in the review process by relevant ministries, bill has received various responses from employers on the labour cost implication and from workers on less recruitment of female employee or more contract termination during pregnancy.
The contribution can be shared among employers and workers. Through social insurance scheme, the employers will bear a lower burden to pay maternity benefit, even when the maternity leave is extended."Ippei Tsuruga, ILO’s Programme Manager for Social Protection
During the discussion, Ippei also presented the results of ILO actuarial study that to have a 6-month maternity leave with full salary, the contribution of 1.3% is required; while for a-40 day paternity leave with full pay requires a contribution of 0.25%.
A best practice from one of the multinational companies was also shared. Sifalina, Industrial Relations Officer of PT HM Sampoerna, explained that since December last year, the company has changed the terms of maternity and paternity leaves to main care takers and secondary care takers. “This is to avoid dichotomy between women and men regarding childcare that should be an equal obligation,” she said.
Sifalina also shared that it took a consultation and analysis process of one year between the management and trade unions to reach into an agreement of 4.5 months fully paid and 1.5 unpaid maternity leave and 5 days fully paid paternity leave with 2 months paid leave as well as an additional a-month unpaid leave that can be taken throughout the period of one year.
Decent work deficit persists in care servicesIn terms of care services, the availability of quality childcare facilities is still limited in Indonesia. Care work is still lacking in policy and, as a result many care workers must work without a decent pay.
These figures show that the role of care workers who have a significant role to directly support women to stay in the workplace is still not recognized and far from having and decent working conditions."Prof. Dr. Ir. Netti Herawati, M.Sc, Chairperson of the Early Childhood Educators Association (Himpaudi)
“These figures show that the role of care workers who have a significant role to directly support women to stay in the workplace is still not recognized and far from having and decent working conditions,” she stated.
Responding to this, Endah Prihatiningsih, Policy Analyst at the Ministry of Women's Empowerment and Child Protection, acknowledged that there are still challenges in providing adequate and efficient childcare services in Indonesia. “There is an inequality of services between urban and rural areas in terms of availability and quality. This is homework to create good policy and standard for childcare service to be affordable for all workers and built upon the best interests of the children," said Endah
The ILO latest report on care economy reveals that the care economy could generate nearly 300 million jobs worldwide by 2035. Therefore, transformative policy really does matter in determining the level of employment, working conditions, pay and status of care workers. The existence and representativeness of workers’ organizations covering care workers, as well as the coverage of social dialogue mechanisms, including collective bargaining, also play an important role.