Working papers

  1. ILO Working paper 37

    Trade and Decent Work: Adequate Earnings in the Mexican Manufacturing Industries

    13 July 2021

    This paper analyses the impact of non-preferential trade liberalization and exposure to globalization on “adequate earnings” in Mexico between 2003 and 2020, using data from the national labour force and manufacturing industries surveys. Trade liberalization and globalization contributed to a reduction in working poverty and low-wage workers.

  2. ILO Working paper 36

    Trade agreements and decent work in Mexico: the case of the automotive and textile industries

    29 June 2021

    The study applies the framework of decent work indicators developed by the International Labour Organization (ILO), in combination with input–output analysis, to explore selected links between international trade and certain indicators of decent work in two industries of Mexico’s manufacturing sector: automotive and textile.

  3. ILO Working paper 35

    Estimating labour market transitions from labour force surveys: The case of Viet Nam

    23 June 2021

    This paper discusses methodologies to estimate the incidence and frequency of labour market transitions, and applies these methodologies to labour force survey data from Viet Nam in 2011-19. It demonstrates the feasibility and value of transitions data for labour market analysis.

  4. ILO Working paper 34

    Old age work and income security in middle income countries: comparing the cases

    25 May 2021

    This paper considers the demographic ageing trend experienced in 35 middle-income countries. It examines employment and other related dimensions that can reflect their preparedness to secure adequate income for their ageing population. Drawing from country-specific indicators, this study applies factor analysis to approximate underlying relative differences between countries in terms of economic and social preparedness, distributional vulnerability and gender inequality.

  5. ILO Working Paper 33

    Preferential tax regimes for MSMEs: Operational aspects, impact evidence and policy implications

    17 June 2021

  6. ILO Working paper 32

    Digital Work in Eastern Europe: Overview of Trends, Outcomes, and Policy Responses

    25 May 2021

    This paper presents the emergence and growth of digital labour markets in Eastern Europe over the period 1999-2019. It presents the profiles of digital workers, their working conditions and discusses how these are shaped by the business models of digital labour platforms.

  7. ILO Working paper 31

    Turning up the heat: Exploring potential links between climate change and gender-based violence and harassment in the garment sector

    17 May 2021

    This working paper highlights the intersection between climate change and gender-based violence and harassment by exploring how climate change, measured by increasing heat stress and extreme weather events, could lead to heightened violence being faced by the (mostly female) workers in the sector as a result of its impact on productivity.

  8. ILO Working Paper 30

    The impact of extreme weather on temporary work absence

    12 May 2021

    The study examines the impact that extreme weather has on temporary work absence in Jamaica, a central concern given the country’s negative experience with such events. The study uses quarterly data containing key labour market indicators on an unbalanced panel of individuals along with climatic data for the period 2004 to 2014. The findings are several.

  9. ILO Working paper 29

    Public Employment Programmes in the Care Economy - The Case of South Africa

    29 April 2021

    The COVID-19 pandemic and associated economic crisis have increased unemployment levels in the care economy, detrimental effects of which are felt by care workers, the majority of whom are women. The South African experience shows that Public Employment Programmes (PEPs) have contributed to the progressive realisation of decent work where as a first step in the trajectory, they have recognised and renumerated care related labour as work. This case study raises a series of questions for further consideration about the role of PEPs in this context, particularly their efficacy in the provision of direct care services.

  10. ILO working paper 28

    Social Protection in the Cultural and Creative Sector - Country Practices and Innovations

    20 April 2021