Fatigue is a growing health and safety concern for the road transport sector and it is the main cause of thousands of road transport accidents and fatalities each year. Governments and employers and workers and their organizations are making strides to combat fatigue, e.g. introducing new technologies, better working time legislation and improved enforcement. However, more needs to be done, especially in less developed countries. Preventive strategies can be implemented within the diverse range of political, economical and social environments in which the road transport industry operates. The ILO’s constituents, through social dialogue, can play a crucial role in developing and implementing these policies.