This study, commissioned by the United Nations in India and financially supported by the Government of Japan, considers the feasibility of a Social Protection Floor for India. It outlines the key characteristics of the Indian workforce and shows how this both necessitates and poses a challenge for building a Social Protection Floor. The study further examines the existing social protection programmes in India, with a particular emphasis on the trends in financial expenditure on social protection. Laying down a structure of a possible Social Protection Floor for India, the study shows how entitlement based social protection arrangements are beginning to emerge in many areas. Analysing th possible cost implications of a Social Protection Floor, the study discussed the fiscal challenge and issues related to the design and delivery of social security in the Indian context. Based on this analysis, a road map for a Social Protection Floor in India is proposed and discussed.