Non-standard forms of employment

"Non-standard forms of employment” is an umbrella term for different employment arrangements that deviate from standard employment. They include temporary employment; part-time and on-call work; temporary agency work and other multiparty employment relationships; as well as disguised employment and dependent self-employment. Non-standard employment features prominently in crowdwork and the gig economy.

The increase in non-standard forms of employment in the past few decades has been driven by a variety of forces, including demographic shifts, labour market regulations, macroeconomic fluctuations, and technological changes. In some instances, non-standard forms of employment accommodated such changes and allowed more workers to get integrated into the labour market, in others, they posed challenges for working conditions and for performance of companies, as well as for the overall performance of labour markets, economies and societies. While digital labour platforms are a product of technological advances, work on these platforms resembles many long-standing work arrangements, mererly with a digital tool service as an intermediary.


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