A large number of workers in the informal economy face acute decent work deficits. This is exacerbated in the rural economy – especially in agricultural activities, which are characterized by high levels of informality. This policy guidance note highlights the integrated and comprehensive approach of the International Labour Organization (ILO) to addressing informality, which is guided by the new historic landmark Recommendation concerning the transition from the informal to the formal economy (No. 204), adopted at the 104th Session of the International Labour Conference in 2015. Informality in the rural economy is closely linked to other policy concerns that are high on the global development agenda: without measures to tackle income inequality, working poverty and lack of social protection, it will not be possible to address rural poverty, food insecurity and environmental degradation.