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World
Employment
and
Social
Outlook
Greening with jobs
World Employment and Social Outlook 2018
World
Employment
and
Social
Outlook
Greening with jobs
World Employment and Social Outlook 2018
million
more jobs will result from achieving the Paris Agreement’s 2°C goal. 24 million jobs will be created and 6 million will be lost, meriting complementary policies to protect workers and ensure that the transition is just.
million
more jobs will result from embracing the circular economy. It encourages goods to be recycled, reused, remanufactured and repaired and move away from a extract-produce-use-discard economy.
billion
jobs depend on a stable and healthy environment. Jobs industries like agriculture, fisheries and forestry, but also tourism, pharmaceuticals and others depend on natural environmental processes.
World
Employment
and
Social
Outlook
Greening with jobs
World Employment and Social Outlook 2018
01
CHAPTER ONE
Environmental sustainability
and decent work
Environmental sustainability
and decent work
1.2
billion jobs depend on a healthy and stable environment
Environmental degradation hurts jobs and working conditions, as work depends on natural resources, on ecosystem services and on a stable, disaster-free environment.
23
countries have seen their economies grow and both their GHG emissions and footprint decline
They have shown it is possible to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, notably by using more renewable energy, and subsidizing green jobs and products. Decent work is compatible with environmental sustainability if economic growth itself is sustainable.
2
per cent of working hours, the equivalent of 72 million full-time jobs will be lost in 2030 due to heat stress
Temperature increases – even under the most conservative climate change scenarios – will make heat stress more likely, reducing the hours available for work, particularly in agriculture.
23
million working life years have been lost to disasters every year since 2000
Lives are lost, people are hurt and infrastructure is destroyed as a result of disasters produced or enhanced by human activity. Every year, the equivalent of 0.8 per cent of a year’s work is lost across the planet.
 
Environmental degradation enhances inequalities
It threatens jobs and worsens working conditions, especially among the world’s most vulnerable people. Environmental sustainability is an issue of social justice.
Environmental sustainability
and decent work
1.2
billion jobs depend on a healthy and stable environment
Environmental degradation hurts jobs and working conditions, as work depends on natural resources, on ecosystem services and on a stable, disaster-free environment.
23
countries have seen their economies grow and both their GHG emissions and footprint decline
They have shown it is possible to decouple economic growth from greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, notably by using more renewable energy, and subsidizing green jobs and products. Decent work is compatible with environmental sustainability if economic growth itself is sustainable.
2
per cent of working hours, the equivalent of 72 million full-time jobs will be lost in 2030 due to heat stress
Temperature increases – even under the most conservative climate change scenarios – will make heat stress more likely, reducing the hours available for work, particularly in agriculture.
23
million working life years have been lost to disasters every year since 2000
Lives are lost, people are hurt and infrastructure is destroyed as a result of disasters produced or enhanced by human activity. Every year, the equivalent of 0.8 per cent of a year’s work is lost across the planet.
 
Environmental degradation enhances inequalities
It threatens jobs and worsens working conditions, especially among the world’s most vulnerable people. Environmental sustainability is an issue of social justice.
1.2
billion jobs depend on a healthy and stable environment
Environmental degradation hurts jobs and working conditions, as work depends on natural resources, on ecosystem services and on a stable, disaster-free environment.
02
CHAPTER TWO
The employment impact of the transition to a green economy
The employment impact of
the transition to a green economy
18
million jobs can be created by achieving sustainability in the energy sector
Limiting global warming to 2°C by the end of the century will create, by 2030, jobs in in construction, electrical machinery manufacturing, copper mining, renewable energy production and biomass crop cultivation. But there will be fewer jobs in petroleum extraction and refinery, coal mining and production of electricity from coal meriting policies to protect these workers to make sure the transition is just for all.
6
million jobs can be created by embracing the circular economy
Moving away from an extract-manufacture-use-discard economy will shed jobs in extractive industries and create new ones in waste management, the re-processing of materials, and services like rental and repair.
 
Promoting sustainability in agriculture will change rural economies
A shift to conservation agriculture may shed jobs but improve the quality of employment, while a shift to organic agriculture may create jobs, but put more pressure on the land. New policies are needed to ensure that the transition in agriculture is an opportunity for workers and economies.
 
Workers and employers are key actors in the transition through green jobs and sustainable enterprises
They have made significant contributions through green jobs and sustainable business practices. But stronger commitment by firms is needed to achieve environmental sustainability at the global level.
The employment impact of
the transition to a green economy
18
million jobs can be created by achieving sustainability in the energy sector
Limiting global warming to 2°C by the end of the century will create, by 2030, jobs in in construction, electrical machinery manufacturing, copper mining, renewable energy production and biomass crop cultivation. But there will be fewer jobs in petroleum extraction and refinery, coal mining and production of electricity from coal meriting policies to protect these workers to make sure the transition is just for all.
6
million jobs can be created by embracing the circular economy
Moving away from an extract-manufacture-use-discard economy will shed jobs in extractive industries and create new ones in waste management, the re-processing of materials, and services like rental and repair.
 
Promoting sustainability in agriculture will change rural economies
A shift to conservation agriculture may shed jobs but improve the quality of employment, while a shift to organic agriculture may create jobs, but put more pressure on the land. New policies are needed to ensure that the transition in agriculture is an opportunity for workers and economies.
 
Workers and employers are key actors in the transition through green jobs and sustainable enterprises
They have made significant contributions through green jobs and sustainable business practices. But stronger commitment by firms is needed to achieve environmental sustainability at the global level.
18
million jobs can be created by achieving sustainability in the energy sector
Limiting global warming to 2°C by the end of the century will create, by 2030, jobs in in construction, electrical machinery manufacturing, copper mining, renewable energy production and biomass crop cultivation. But there will be fewer jobs in petroleum extraction and refinery, coal mining and production of electricity from coal meriting policies to protect these workers to make sure the transition is just for all.
03
CHAPTER THREE
Regulatory frameworks: Integration, partnerships and dialogue
Regulatory frameworks:
Integration, partnerships and dialogue
 
International labour standards ensure a just transition to a green economy
  • They provide the legal foundation to deal with social issues of the green economy, and can promote decent working conditions in green sectors.
  • They provide a legal framework for skills relevant for the green transition.
  • They ensure public voice and participation in decision making related to environmental and climate change policies affecting the world of work.
  • They protect workers who are forced from their homes and across borders as a result of climate change and natural disasters.
 
Several ILO instruments contribute to protecting the environment
Alongside social and developmental aspects, ILO instruments also support and reinforce the environmental pillar of the green economy and, more broadly, sustainable development. ILO Convention No. 169, for example, requires environmental impact assessments for development activities that may affect indigenous and tribal communities. ILO instruments on occupational safety and health protection contain measures that contribute to the protection and preservation of the environment. For example, the management of pollution and waste disposal is addressed by the Asbestos Convention, 1986 (No. 162) and Recommendation (No. 172), the Chemicals Convention, 1990 (No. 170) and Recommendation (No. 177), and the Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001 (No. 184) and Recommendation (No. 192).
 
Some countries are integrating decent work agenda in their climate and environmental legislation
Multilateral environmental agreements, which are binding agreements between States, increasingly include labour dimensions, such as environmental rights at work, occupational safety and health, employment protection and promotion. A few countries have adopted a broad and comprehensive policy framework on the green economy. Few other countries integrated labour issues into laws and policies related to specific issues such as climate change, energy, land use, agriculture, forestry, waste management and transport.
 
Social dialogue can help a transition to sustainable economies
  • Prevent and reduce the environmental impact of enterprises.
  • Put into action environmental policies, plans and actions within an enterprise.
  • Improve working conditions, as appropriate environmental regulations and practices also help to prevent and minimize risks to worker health.
  • Preserve the quality of jobs and promote the quality of new green jobs.
  • Enhance public participation and voice in environmental decisions and decision-making processes.
Regulatory frameworks:
Integration, partnerships and dialogue
 
International labour standards ensure a just transition to a green economy
  • They provide the legal foundation to deal with social issues of the green economy, and can promote decent working conditions in green sectors.
  • They provide a legal framework for skills relevant for the green transition.
  • They ensure public voice and participation in decision making related to environmental and climate change policies affecting the world of work.
  • They protect workers who are forced from their homes and across borders as a result of climate change and natural disasters.
 
Several ILO instruments contribute to protecting the environment
Alongside social and developmental aspects, ILO instruments also support and reinforce the environmental pillar of the green economy and, more broadly, sustainable development. ILO Convention No. 169, for example, requires environmental impact assessments for development activities that may affect indigenous and tribal communities. ILO instruments on occupational safety and health protection contain measures that contribute to the protection and preservation of the environment. For example, the management of pollution and waste disposal is addressed by the Asbestos Convention, 1986 (No. 162) and Recommendation (No. 172), the Chemicals Convention, 1990 (No. 170) and Recommendation (No. 177), and the Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001 (No. 184) and Recommendation (No. 192).
 
Some countries are integrating decent work agenda in their climate and environmental legislation
Multilateral environmental agreements, which are binding agreements between States, increasingly include labour dimensions, such as environmental rights at work, occupational safety and health, employment protection and promotion. A few countries have adopted a broad and comprehensive policy framework on the green economy. Few other countries integrated labour issues into laws and policies related to specific issues such as climate change, energy, land use, agriculture, forestry, waste management and transport.
 
Social dialogue can help a transition to sustainable economies
  • Prevent and reduce the environmental impact of enterprises.
  • Put into action environmental policies, plans and actions within an enterprise.
  • Improve working conditions, as appropriate environmental regulations and practices also help to prevent and minimize risks to worker health.
  • Preserve the quality of jobs and promote the quality of new green jobs.
  • Enhance public participation and voice in environmental decisions and decision-making processes.
 
International labour standards ensure a just transition to a green economy
  • They provide the legal foundation to deal with social issues of the green economy, and can promote decent working conditions in green sectors.
  • They provide a legal framework for skills relevant for the green transition.
  • They ensure public voice and participation in decision making related to environmental and climate change policies affecting the world of work.
  • They protect workers who are forced from their homes and across borders as a result of climate change and natural disasters.
04
CHAPTER FOUR
Protecting workers
and the environment
Protecting workers
and the environment
 
Workers and their families affected by climate change need social protection
The need for social protection systems will increase as temperatures increase, precipitation patterns change and natural disasters become more common and intense.
 
Workers affected by the transition to a green economy need social protection
Unemployment protection schemes need to cover more workers and support those who lose their jobs in the shift to an environmentally sustainable economy.
 
Cash transfer programmes help people cope with environmental events
In countries like Kenya or Ethiopia, cash transfer programmes are adapted to climate variations to support people affected by natural disasters or climate events. They can also support workers who lose out from the green transition, as it is the case in Egypt.
50
per cent of public employment programmes include a green component
Public employment programmes can combine economic, social and environmental objectives to support adaptation to and mitigation of environmental degradation.
 
Payment for ecosystem services can also target environmental and social objectives
If carefully designed and implemented, payments for ecosystem services schemes offer cost-effective protection for the environment, while also supporting household incomes. .
 
Extending social protection and green investment leads to positive economic and social outcomes
If well-designed, policies that extend transfers, strengthen social protection and support green investment are financially viable and conducive to higher growth, employment creation and a fairer income distribution.
Protecting workers
and the environment
 
Workers and their families affected by climate change need social protection
The need for social protection systems will increase as temperatures increase, precipitation patterns change and natural disasters become more common and intense.
 
Workers affected by the transition to a green economy need social protection
Unemployment protection schemes need to cover more workers and support those who lose their jobs in the shift to an environmentally sustainable economy.
 
Cash transfer programmes help people cope with environmental events
In countries like Kenya or Ethiopia, cash transfer programmes are adapted to climate variations to support people affected by natural disasters or climate events. They can also support workers who lose out from the green transition, as it is the case in Egypt.
50
per cent of public employment programmes include a green component
Public employment programmes can combine economic, social and environmental objectives to support adaptation to and mitigation of environmental degradation.
 
Payment for ecosystem services can also target environmental and social objectives
If carefully designed and implemented, payments for ecosystem services schemes offer cost-effective protection for the environment, while also supporting household incomes.
 
Extending social protection and green investment leads to positive economic and social outcomes
If well-designed, policies that extend transfers, strengthen social protection and support green investment are financially viable and conducive to higher growth, employment creation and a fairer income distribution.
 
Workers and their families affected by climate change need social protection
The need for social protection systems will increase as temperatures increase, precipitation patterns change and natural disasters become more common and intense.
05
CHAPTER FIVE
Skills for the
green transition
Skills for
the green transition
 
Imbalances persist between skills offered and skills needed for the green transition
This skills mismatch is identified as an obstacle to the greening of the economy in 21 of 27 countries surveyed.
 
A few countries integrate environmental sustainability and skills policies
Only a few advanced and emerging countries have environmental sustainability policies that make explicit reference to skills development or full-fledged policies with a focus on skills for the green transition.
 
Not all countries have developed or utilized their skills institutions to prepare for the green transition
Of the 27 countries surveyed, around one-third – most of them low- and middle-income countries – are yet to mainstream environmental sustainability in their skills development measures.
 
Social dialogue is key to facilitate a just transition
Discussions on skills for the green transition tend to be led by governments with the involvement of employers, but to a lesser extent of trade unions. The employers’ associations play a pivotal role in improving the matching of skills demand and supply, by informing policy-makers of the changing skills needs. The participation of workers’ organizations can help ensure that equity considerations are taken into account, including facilitating the access of all to training.
Skills for
the green transition
 
Imbalances persist between skills offered and skills needed for the green transition
This skills mismatch is identified as an obstacle to the greening of the economy in 21 of 27 countries surveyed.
 
A few countries integrate environmental sustainability and skills policies
Only a few advanced and emerging countries have environmental sustainability policies that make explicit reference to skills development or full-fledged policies with a focus on skills for the green transition.
 
Not all countries have developed or utilized their skills institutions to prepare for the green transition
Of the 27 countries surveyed, around one-third – most of them low- and middle-income countries – are yet to mainstream environmental sustainability in their skills development measures.
 
Social dialogue is key to facilitate a just transition
Discussions on skills for the green transition tend to be led by governments with the involvement of employers, but to a lesser extent of trade unions. The employers’ associations play a pivotal role in improving the matching of skills demand and supply, by informing policy-makers of the changing skills needs. The participation of workers’ organizations can help ensure that equity considerations are taken into account, including facilitating the access of all to training.
 
Imbalances persist between skills offered and skills needed for the green transition
This skills mismatch is identified as an obstacle to the greening of the economy in 21 of 27 countries surveyed.