This study aims at enlightening the various factors that affect their reintegration in Albania. The study conducted through a national level survey in September-October 2013 suggests that the return migration phenomenon has assumed significant size, particularly after 2009; therefore, the resolving of the problems and the emigrants’ reintegration are the challenges of the Albanian society. Hence, the civil society, the policy makers, the international organizations, the local and national administrative structures, the academic and university community will get hereby a useful tool to understand the problems of migration by contributing to an efficient approach for the reintegration of emigrants into the society. The specific objectives of the survey are:
• To profile return migration to Albania, push and pull factors, characteristics of returning migrants;
• To collect information on migrants’ experiences and perceptions of reintegration in Albania;
• To formulate several recommendations for further research on return migration as well as the provision of services that facilitate the reintegration of returnees.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Unit of Analysis
The survey found out that a total of 133, 544 Albanian citizens of the age segment 18- above returned to Albania in the period 2009-2013.
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
Institute of Statistics of Albania
Republic of Albania
The sample size for a particular survey is determined by the accuracy required for the survey estimates for each domain, as well as by the resource and operational constraints. The accuracy of the survey results depends on both the sampling error, which can be measured through variance estimation, and the non-sampling error from all other sources, such as response and other measurement errors, coding and data entry errors. It is important to emphasize that INSTAT recognizes that the sample size of a particular survey is determined by the accuracy required for the national level estimates, as well influenced by logistical issues related to the organization and size of the teams, and the workload for survey administration and data collection. Considering all of these factors, calculations suggested that a sample size of 2000 individuals would give sufficient power to meet the study objectives. When multi-stage sampling is used, the design effect mostly measures the impact of the level of clustering on the sampling efficiency. The design effect depends on the number of sample individuals selected in each stratum. The sample size for
Deviations from the Sample Design
The study consisted in a cross-sectional population-based household survey conducted at a national level across each of the 12 prefectures in Albania. A stratified sample designed was used for selecting the individual for sampling. The primary sampling units (PSUs) selected at the first stage are the enumeration areas (EAs), which are small operational areas defined on maps for the 2011 Census enumeration. To control coverage errors, which make the sample less representative, the sampling frame must be of an optimum quality during all the stages of selections. At the first stage, the EA must cover all the areas inhabited by the population under study, without omission or duplication. The boundaries of the EA must be clearly defined and subject to easy identification in the field. SAS software was used at this stage to systematically select the sample of (EAs) with probability proportion to size (PPS) within each prefecture. The second stage of selection dealt with household lists from the selected EAs. The list of households enumerated in the 2011 Census for each sample EA was used as the sampling with equal probability. The third stage of selection was the individual selection in the pre-selected household. The advantages of this two-stage selection procedure are:
1. The selection procedure is simple to implement and reduces possible non-sampling errors in the selection process.
2. It is easy to locate the selected individuals, reducing non-sampling errors and non-response.
3. The interviewers interview only the individuals in the pre-selected households. No replacement of household was permitted, preventing survey bias. When developing the sample selection criteria, special attention was paid to define the study population and its
characteristics. Based upon pre-established criteria an individual was considered eligible to be surveyed if he/she was
4. An Albanian citizen, who had migrated abroad and returned to Albania either voluntary or involuntary;
5. 18 years old and above.
The goal was to generate a sample of households that would allow for the production of statistically reliable estimates of the nature and extent of return migration to Albania and reintegration needs of returnees at the national level, and would allow for urban versus rural comparisons.
The survey also found that the majority of responses (55%) indicate that employment opportunities should be allocated to enable smooth return and reintegration processes. Financial incentives (25%) were also perceived as important, as well as professional training programs (6%).
In view of the relatively small sample size, accuracy is very important. Estimates in some subgroups are relatively inaccurate with big coefficients of variation. Supposing that the design effect for small proportions is close to deff = 1, in calculating coefficients of variation we can use formulas for simple random sampling.
Similar conclusions can be used in calculating estimates for the population. In publishing estimates the following criteria for accuracy were taken into consideration:
•• Estimates with the coefficient of variation CV < 0.10 are published without limitation.
•• Estimates with 0.10 < CV< 0.15 are stated in single parentheses
•• Estimates with 0.15 < CV < 0.30 are stated in double parentheses
•• Estimates with accuracy less that CV< 0.30 are not published
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Time periods (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Type of Research Instrument
The questionnaire was structured along three main migratory stages:
- Stage 1: Situation before leaving the country of origin;
- Stage 2: Experience of migration lived in the main country of immigration;
- Stage 3: Return to the country of origin – Postreturn conditions.
The survey was conducted through a structured questionnaire. In line with the objectives of the survey, the contents of the questionnaire were geared towards collecting the amount of necessary information on the following issues:
- Socio-economic conditions and socio-demographic characteristics of returnees prior to departure from Albania, during migration and upon return;
- Reasons for leaving the country and for returning to Albania;
- Experiences of integration in the last country of emigration and their influence on the decision to return to Albania;
- Process of return to Albania and prospect of stay; Links with the last country of immigration;
- Reintegration support and returnee reintegration experiences in Albania.
The use of this dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name)
- the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online)
Example: Albania Returm Migration Survey (RMS) 2013, Ref. ALB_2013_RMPS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
In September 2012 INSTAT has developed a new well-functioning website with user friendly structure. All statistical data produced by INSTAT are:
- Free of charge
- Available online at web in Excel format
- Available online readable from different operation system
- Can be accessed by using the PC-AXIS software in non proprietary format (CSV, XLS)
- Published on time according to the calendar of publications
- Access is not discriminatory
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