Publications and tools


  1. To what extent is social protection associated with better firm level performance?: A case study of SMEs in Indonesia

    30 July 2019

    The relationship between social protection and enterprise performance is much debated in the literature, and evidence is particularly limited in the case of small and medium-sized enterprises in developing economies. This paper examines how the provision of social security influenced business performance in Indonesia using census data from 2010 to 2014.

  2. Reversing Pension Privatizations. Rebuilding public pension systems in Eastern Europe and Latin America

    31 March 2019

    From 1981 to 2014, thirty countries privatized fully or partially their public mandatory pensions; as of 2018, eighteen countries have reversed the privatization.

  3. General Survey concerning the Social Protection Floors Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202)

    28 February 2019

    The Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations has just published its annual General Survey on member States' national law and practice concerning social protection floors.

  4. Social security gap in the coffee sector in Indonesia

    27 February 2019

    This study aims to provide policy recommendations for improving social security coverage (BPJS Ketenagakerjaan or BPJS TK), by exploring how social security schemes are implemented in different sectors and revealing the attitude in social security between different types of employment and different chains.

  5. 100 years of social protection. The road to universal social protection systems and floors. Vol. 1: 50 country cases

    07 February 2019

    This book is a compendium of 50 country good practices in building national social protection systems including floors.

  6. Towards universal social protection for children: Achieving SDG 1.3

    06 February 2019

    The importance of ensuring adequate social protection for children has long been high on the agenda of both the ILO and UNICEF. For children, social protection takes on a special significance, since the negative effects of poverty and deprivation in childhood have ramifications that can last a lifetime.


  1. Social protection. A solution for sustainable development

    31 October 2018

    This leaflet presents social protection in a pedagogic way and the contribution of the ILO to the extension of social protection to all.

  2. Reversing pension privatization: Rebuilding public pension systems in Eastern European and Latin American countries (2000-18)

    31 October 2018

  3. Pension Privatization and Reversal of Pension Reforms in Argentina

    30 October 2018

  4. Reversing pension privatization in Bolivia

    30 October 2018

  5. Reversing privatization and re-nationalizing pensions in Hungary

    30 October 2018

  6. Reversing pension privatization in Kazakhstan

    30 October 2018

  7. Reversing pension privatization: The case of Polish pension reform and re-reforms

    30 October 2018

  8. The Reversal of Pension Privatization in Ecuador

    30 October 2018

  9. Repeal of the privatization of the pension system in Nicaragua

    30 October 2018

  10. The Reversal of Pension Privatization in Venezuela

    30 October 2018

  11. Second-pillar pension re-reforms in Bulgaria, Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Macedonia, Romania, and Slovakia. Benefit payouts amidst continuing retrenchment

    30 October 2018

  12. From principles to practice: A method for identifying income sufficiency when applying International Legal Standards

    30 October 2018

    Is access to sufficient level of income required for social protection, and if so at what level? Although ILO Conventions and Recommendations make reference to income standards, much about them has been left unspecified.

  13. The ILO Multi-Pillar pension model: Building equitable and sustainable pension systems

    27 September 2018

    Social Protection for All Issue Brief

  14. Social protection for older persons: Policy trends and statistics 2017-19

    26 September 2018