Publications and tools


  1. Actuarial analysis of a proposed unemployment insurance scheme in Indonesia

    22 June 2021

    The report assesses the cost of implementing an unemployment insurance (UI) scheme in Indonesia and identifies which factors influence the cost of such a scheme. This report considers a specific design option for the UI scheme, as well as alternative design options and scenarios.

  2. Building social protection systems: International standards and human rights instruments

    19 May 2021

    A reference for practitioners, policymakers and other stakeholders, as well as a guidebook for the general public.

  3. Extending social protection to the cultural and creative sector

    13 May 2021

    Workers in the cultural and creative sector often lack effective access to social protection.

  4. Tripartite Round Table on Pension Trends and Reforms (30 November-2 December 2020 and 4 December)

    04 May 2021

  5. Social Protection in the Cultural and Creative Sector - Country Practices and Innovations

    20 April 2021

  6. Extending social security to workers in the informal economy. Information and awareness

    15 March 2021

    If workers and employers do not know what social protection schemes are available to them, what their rights and responsibilities are and how they can access such schemes, then social protection policies and programmes have little chance of succeeding. Limited access to information and awareness may significantly hinder the extension of social security.

  7. Extending social security to workers in the informal economy

    12 March 2021

    Key lessons learned from international experience

  8. Assessment of the Social Security Responses to COVID-19

    08 March 2021

    The report reviews the COVID-19 situation and economic data, the social security and related measures implemented to address the economic and social consequences of the COVID-19 pandemics during the first lockdown in the second quarter of 2020.

  9. Extending social protection to rural populations: Perspectives for a common FAO and ILO approach

    11 February 2021

    Extending social protection for all is core to the work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO). The present paper lays out the specific profiles, risks and vulnerabilities of rural populations and explores options to extend social protection coverage to them.

  10. Countering unemployment in the United Kingdom

    05 February 2021

    This report charts the evolution of measures to combat unemployment in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the three decades 1970–2000.

  11. China's move to measuring relative poverty: implications for social protection

    01 February 2021

  12. Enterprise Formalization: Tailored registration, tax and social security requirements for MSEs

    25 January 2021

  13. Towards solid social protection floors? The role of non-contributory provision during the COVID-19 crisis and beyond

    21 January 2021

    The COVID-19 crisis has emphasized the importance of guaranteeing access to at least essential health care and to basic income security for all over the life cycle, as stipulated in the Social Protection Floors Recommendation, 2012 (No. 202).

  14. Assessment of the Social Protection System in Georgia

    19 January 2021

    The assessment of a social protection system in the Republic of Georgia carried out at the outset of the COVID-19 global pandemic reiterates the importance of national social protection floors to protect people in case of different risk across the lifecycle and covariate shocks. Social protection floors (SPF) promote four essential guarantees: i) access to essential health care services including maternity benefits; ii) children’s income security through family and child benefits; iii) minimum income security for those who are not able to earn sufficient income; and iv) access to pensions for old age and disability. SPF policies should facilitate effective access to essential goods and services and be implemented in close coordination with other policies enhancing employability, reducing informality and precariousness and creating decent jobs.


  1. Rules and practices of severance pay in Indonesia - the Labour Law Number 13 of 2003

    23 December 2020

    This paper aims at systematically organizing multiple factors and presenting a comprehensive framework for calculating termination payments according to the law.

  2. Exploring policy options for an employment insurance scheme in Indonesia

    08 December 2020

    This paper primarily aims at exploring parametric options to design an employment insurance scheme in Indonesia, and discusses pros and cons for each policy option.

  3. Legal, financial and administrative considerations for an employment insurance system in Indonesia

    02 December 2020

    The present report brings together additional research and findings concerning the potential introduction of employment insurance in Indonesia. It provides background and context to the ongoing dialogue on the subject as well as some preliminary insights on what could be achievable.

  4. Handbook on social health protection for refugees: Approaches, lessons learned and practical tools to assess coverage options

    09 November 2020

    The purpose of this handbook is to guide UNHCR public health and programme staff and ILO staff working on social protection at country level on the considerations and practical steps required to assess options for the inclusion of refugees in national social health protection schemes.

  5. Assessment of the impact of COVID-19 on the socio-economic situation in Uzbekistan: Income, labour market and access to social protection. Overview of crisis measures and ways to improve state policy

    03 November 2020

    This report was prepared by the joint team from the International Labour Organization (ILO) and national consultants from Republic of Uzbekistan.

  6. An assessment of the social protection system in Uzbekistan Based on the Core Diagnostic instrument (CODI) A joint report by ILO, UNICEF, and the World Bank

    30 October 2020

    This report was prepared by the joint team from the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Bank, and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Fieldwork for the assessment took place between October 2018 and August 2019.