Working papers


  1. Social programmes, food security and poverty in Peru

    06 November 2003

    Recommendations are aimed mainly at improving targeting by going beyond the isolated concept of poverty and by encouraging intersectoriality. In terms of how the programmes respond to public demand, there is a need to incorporate the perception of poverty and extreme poverty by the poor, as well as the means for overcoming these, as objectives and mechanisms of the social programmes.


  1. Social protection and crises in the Congo: from humanitarian aid to sustainable development

    06 November 2002

    The two Congos have been through a number of crises,which have given rise to a whole host of humanitarian problems. Using the experiences of the two countries as a basis, the report considers to what extent and under what conditions the distribution of humanitarian aid contributes to the development of sustainable social protection. In reality the impact of the crises on the statutory social security system has been extremely adverse, because the latter is at a loss how to cope with thw new challenges and the present state of the manegement of the system does not facilitate the establishement of appropriate solutions. The humanitarian agencies take action in isolated cases, with no overall strategy or vision for overcoming the crisis, and thus there is no interlinking of humanitarian aid and development. What will be the future role of NGOs and social security agencies in the development of sustainable systems of social protection? In view of the widespread poverty that exists, the development of sustainable social protection systems depends not only on interlinking micro credit, micro enterprise and micro healht insurance, but also on new social protection systems, in particular humanitarian social protection, which organizes allocations in kind to healthcare coverage, and temporary mutual health insurance, which covers individuals who do not yet have their own socio-occupational mutual health insurance.

  2. Towards the universalization of social security: The experience of Tunisia

    06 November 2002

    In Tunisia, the number of persons liable to be covered under a social security scheme was estimated in 1999 as 85.5 per cent of the population in employment. The 16.5 per cent of the employed population not yet covered by social security legislation include the following: casual and seasonal agricultural workers, workers on development sites, domestic employees, home helpers, religious officials, the unemploed. The two social security schemes governing the formal sector have registered the best social coverage. However, coverage of other sectors such as self-employed, agricultural and non-agricultural workers and agricultural labourers have not experienced equal success. In order to increase coverage in these schemes measures have been taken with varying success. The objective is to extend and improve coverage of social security by conducting studies and adapting schemes to the needs and financial capacities of the categories of persons; modifying the conditions for determining and recovering contributions taking into account the specific characteristics of the populations concerned; and consulting the representatives of the target population and of employers at all stages during the establishment of the system.

  3. The Non-Contributory Pension programme in Argentina: Assessing the impact on poverty reduction

    06 November 2002

    There is increasing acknowledgement of the need to extend the scope of social protection to those segments of the population that have traditionally been excluded from social security. Non-contributory pension programmes constitute an excellent alternative that merits examination. This report will describe and evaluate numerous aspects of the Non-Contributory Pension (NCP) programme in Argentina. The NCP programme - much like other social security programmes in this country - developed in a disorganized manner, involving the grant of various categories of benefits.

  4. The extension of social security coverage: The approach of the International Labour Office

    06 November 2002

    Without the introduction of effective measures to extend coverage, the proportion of the population excluded from all protection will increase considerably in the coming years. To meet this challenge, the ILO has developed a new strategy for improving and extending social security coverage. This consists in implementing three complementary forms of action: extension based on "classical" social security mechanism: social insurance, universal benefits and systems and social assistance programmes; the promotion of and support for the development of decentralized systems deriving from local initiatives, in particular micro-insurance; the design of linkages and bridges between decentralized systems and other forms of social protection and public initiatives.

  5. Public-private partnerships in the health sector. Experiences from developing countries

    06 November 2002

    Theoretical foundations of the concept of public-private-partnership (PPP) are briefly discussed and different forms of cooperation are described. The major part of the paper discusses PPP health sector experiences in developing countries in different regions of the world. Following that, the case studies and the insights from the theoretical overview are presented in order to derive determinants for a successful PPP. The identification of conditions under which PPP can contribute to an increase in access to social protection at lower cost is helpful to design appropriate social policies. The paper closes with open questions for discussion and future research needs.


  1. Contribution of Mutual Health Organisations to Financing, Delivery and Access to Health Care

    01 January 1998

    Synthesis of Research in Nine West and Central African Countries