Working papers


  1. Realising the Right to Social Security and the Right to Food. The contribution of national social protection floors towards food security and the realisation of the right to adequate food for all

    30 November 2015

    This paper identifies conceptual synergies and dissonances between food security and income security.

  2. National experiences in building social protection floors. India’s Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

    30 November 2015

    This study reviews the legislation and implementation of the Indian Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in the light of the provisions of Recommendation No. 202.

  3. The decade of adjustment. A review of austerity trends 2010-2020 in 187 countries

    30 November 2015

    This paper: (i) examines the latest IMF government spending projections for 187 countries between 2005 and 2020; (ii) reviews 616 IMF country reports in 183 countries to identify the main adjustment measures considered by governments in both high-income and developing countries; (iii) applies the United Nations Global Policy Model to simulate the impact of expenditure consolidation on growth and employment; (iv) discusses the threats of austerity to welfare and social progress; and (v) calls for urgent action by governments to adopt alternative and equitable policies for socio-economic recovery.

  4. Long-term care (LTC) protection for older persons: A review of coverage deficits in 46 countries

    24 September 2015

    Due to the global demographic ageing, all countries are challenged by growing longterm care (LTC) needs for older persons. However, these needs are largely ignored and range very low on the policy agendas of most countries. This paper has developed global estimates on LTC protection of persons aged 65 and over.

  5. Income Inequalities in Perspective

    08 May 2015

    This document analysis income and wealth inequalities in a time perspective.

  6. Global evidence on inequities in rural health protection. New data on rural deficits in health coverage for 174 countries

    05 May 2015

    This paper presents global estimates on rural/urban disparities in access to health-care services.

  7. Fiscal space for social protection. Options to expand social investments in 187 countries

    02 May 2015

    This paper presents eight financing alternatives, based on policy positions by the United Nations and international financial institutions, and shows that fiscal space for social protection exists even in the poorest countries.


  1. Can productivity in SMEs be increased by investing in workers' health?

    11 August 2014

    This study investigates the major causes of inadequate or non-existent social protection coverage of workers in SMEs, in both the formal and informal economy, and identifies barriers regarding coverage and access to social protection in health, employment injury, paid sick leave and other social protection benefits.

  2. Reversing pension privatization. The experience of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Hungary

    20 February 2014

    A systematic analysis of the reforms of private pensions systems in four countries due to initial failures in design and performance after its implementation.


  1. Multinational enterprises' engagement in extending social security: Examples of practices and challenges

    20 December 2013

    The present document aims at further analyzing private sector initiatives related to social protection of workers.

  2. Towards a Mozambican Social Protection Floor. Consolidating a comprehensive social protection system in Mozambique. Analysis of policy alternatives and costs

    02 December 2013

    This working paper documents the key elements of the ongoing social protection policy reform in Mozambique and explores the technical and financial arguments underlying the Government’s policy options for the implementation of a national social protection floor in Mozambique.

  3. Costing essential health-care packages based on the framework of national floors of social protection. An innovative ILO approach for countries with limited availability of reliable data

    01 November 2013

    Essential health care is frequently provided in countries where resources are scarce and statistical data limited, particularly regarding utilization rates and related health-care costs. Costing the extension of essential health care to achieve universal coverage is thus hindered, which might be considered as an obstacle to progress in this field. This report provides concepts and recommendations for a macro approach to assessing the cost of providing essential health care to a population.

  4. Social protection floors and gender equality. A brief overview

    01 July 2013

    This document explores some of the linkages between gender inequality and social protection, and assesses the significant contribution that social protection floors can make to promoting gender equality.

  5. Mapping international social protection statistics and indicators

    01 July 2013

    This report summarizes a workshop which brought together representatives from various organizations active in social protection.

  6. The extension of social security and the social responsibility of multinational enterprises. An Exploratory study

    09 May 2013

    An exploratory study on the relation between the extension of social security and corporate social responsibility of multinational enterprises.

  7. Socially responsible investment, decent work and pension funds. Concepts and international experiences

    04 March 2013

    This paper aims at reviewing concepts and internationale experiences of Social responsible investment practices, especially among pension funds.


  1. Fiscal space and the extension of social protection. Lessons learnt from developing countries

    11 August 2012

    This paper focuses on the analysis of experience in creating fiscal space for the extension of social protection. It presents the results of studies conducted in eight developing countries (Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil, Costa Rica, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Thailand) that successfully extended social protection including floors for national social protection systems in recent years. The studies seek to identify the strategies that were adopted to finance the extension of social protection and how the necessary fiscal space was created.

  2. Social security and food security - Successful policy experiences in Brazil

    14 June 2012

    This ESS Paper presents an analysis of the reciprocal relation between the concepts of social security and food security as applied in public policy, with particular emphasis on the social protection floor. The paper also provides the analysis of relevant and effectively implemented experiences of Brazilian public policy which have established a virtuous connection between these two concepts and have achieved important and empirically verifiable outcomes.

  3. Analysis of the Viet Nam National Social Protection Strategy (2011-2020) in the context of social protection floors objectives. A rapid assessment.

    24 May 2012

    The Viet Nam study was launched to support the implementation planning of the draft Social Protection Strategy (2011-2020) in Viet Nam. The ILO, on behalf of the UN CEB SPF Initiative, assessed the existing social protection system of Viet Nam and designed several alternative scenarios, using the Rapid Assessment Protocol (a costing tool developed by the ILO for the SPF Initiative based on previous experiences with the ILO-UNICEF costing tool) to estimate the costs of closing the social protection floor gaps. For each benefit the impact on poverty was estimated using a micro simulation at the household level. Taking into account some fiscal space considerations, the study estimates that the social protection floor gap could be gradually closed progressively over the next 10 to 15 years without a major increase of overall revenues compared to pre-crisis levels.

  4. Can the European elderly afford the financial burden of health and long-term care? Assessing impacts and policy implications

    10 May 2012

    This research report assesses the financial impact of private health and long-term care expenditure on households of the elderly, in particular, the impact of out-of-pocket payments at the time of service delivery and related policy implications.