Starting the new millennium right: Decent employment for young people
By Gianni ROSAS and Giovanna ROSSIGNOTTI
There is growing recognition of the crucial significance of youth employment for successfully achieving poverty eradication, sustainable development and lasting peace. This article presents essential facts about youth employment today in both developing and industrialized countries, including demographic and labour market trends affecting young people, and employment and unemployment trends. The authors argue for integrated policies focusing on employment, to help young people get decent work, at a fair wage and with their jobs protected. Measures to enhance employability are reviewed, as are the benefits of youth employment for individuals, the economy and society, notably in developing countries.
Understanding youth labour market disadvantage: Evidence from south-east Europe
By Alexandre KOLEV and Catherine SAGET
Youth labour market disadvantage is not confined to high youth unemployment. In south-east Europe, it includes widespread underemployment, unprotected informal employment and discouragement â€“ in addition to an average youth unemployment rate 2.5 times higher than that of the European Union. In young peopleâ€™s experience, these disadvantages can be compounded by others, more generic, such as ethnicity, sex, educational level and social background. Using a range of measures, the authors explore the nature, causes and consequences of youth labour market disadvantage, concluding with an outline of the preventive and remedial labour market programmes that would be needed to complement employment-oriented macroeconomic policies.
The impact of children's work on schooling: Multi-country evidence
By Ranjan RAY and Geoffrey LANCASTER
Is there a threshold of hours of work below which the schooling of 12-14 year-olds is not adversely affected by child labour? In order to answer this question, the authors draw on child labour data sets from seven countries to estimate the effects of child labour on school attendance and performance and on non-schooling variables such as mean study time and literacy, controlling for the endogeneity of child labour hours as a regressor. They find robust evidence that child labour hours have a strong negative impact on the educational variables from the moment a child enters the labour market.
Child work in Zambia: A comparative study of survey instruments
By Niels-Hugo BLUNCH, Amit DAR, Lorenzo GUARCELLO, Scott LYON, Amy RITUALO and Furio C. ROSATI
The World Bank's household surveys and the surveys carried out under the ILO's Statistical Information and Monitoring Programme on Child Labour are among the main sources of the data currently used to study the nature and extent of child labour. This article looks at the relative strengths and weaknesses of these instruments on the basis of surveys conducted in Zambia in 1998 (by the World Bank) and in 1999 (by the ILO). The authors compare not only the survey questionnaires, but also the data they generated and the policy conclusions that could be drawn from an analysis of those data.
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