|Index of Volumes|
|VOLUME 143, NUMBER 1-2||2004/1-2|
More equitable globalization
The social dimension of globalization: A review of the literature
Bernhard G. GUNTER and Rolph van der HOEVEN
With globalization affecting so many inter-connected areas, it is difficult to grasp its full impact. This literature review of over 120 sources considers the impact of globalization on wages and taxes, poverty, inequality, insecurity, child labour, gender, and migration. Opening with some stylized facts concerning globalization in 1985-2002, the authors then highlight recent findings on these areas, reporting on controversies and on emerging consensus where it exists. There follows a review of national and international policy responses designed to make globalization more sustainable and equitable and to deliver decent jobs, security and a voice in decision-making.
The changing structure of trade linked to global production systems: What are the policy implications?
In considering the effects of economic globalization, increasing trade openness and growth arguably matter less than the concomitant change in the structure of world trade: the rise in intermediate goods trade resulting from the break-up of the production process into different parts and their location in different countries. This article examines the extent of that structural change, its causes, and its implications for theory and policy. In particular, Milberg argues, international trade and investment theories need refocusing away from the mutually beneficial world of comparative advantage and internalization, toward a theory of the competitive struggle of absolute advantage and externalization.
Globalization and perceptions of social inequality
With globalization often being associated with unfair social outcomes, it is crucial to know more about how social inequality is perceived across the world. Comparing data gathered by the International Social Survey Programme in 1987, 1992 and 1999, the author examines perceptions of social inequality over time in a number of organized market economies, countries undergoing transition, developing countries, and English-speaking countries. He reports on perceptions of inequality within countries, between countries, and the extent of support for income redistribution both nationally and internationally. Some results are predictable, others surprising, all of them thought-provoking for politicians and policy-makers.
Globalization, social exclusion and gender
Marilyn CARR and Martha CHEN
Globalization affects people differently, depending on who they are and what they do for a living: it opens up new opportunities for some, but increases the vulnerability of others. This article examines the employment outcomes of globalization with a special focus on processes and factors of social exclusion/inclusion that affect workers - particularly women employed in export-processing zones and those informally employed or self-employed in global value chains. The authors conclude with a set of specific recommendations for international, national and local-level institutional and regulatory reform aimed at providing different categories of vulnerable workers with more secure and empowering opportunities.
Inclusive development and decent work for all
Globalization, the author argues, reproduces between central and peripheral countries the same perverse "concentrating and excluding" pattern of growth as that observed within countries, benefiting a few insiders and leaving many outsiders behind. Based on a historical review of successive conceptualizations of development, his case for "inclusiveness" is a plea for correcting this asymmetrical process by striking a better balance between economic efficiency, decent work and environmental protection. Given the unruliness of the globalization process, national-level policies must be relied upon to bring the excluded into the economic mainstream, notably by helping informal-sector workers make the transition to formal entrepreneurship.
Globalization and decent work policy: Reflections upon a new legal approach
The organization of production and services is growing increasingly complex. Labour markets are becoming more competitive. And work is taking on a widening variety of different forms. These developments call for an adjustment of labour regulations, both statutory and contractually negotiated. Based on a classification of international labour standards into three categories - those laying down fundamental rights, those governing technical aspects of work and employment, and those setting guidelines for social policy - the author considers innovative approaches that could help to bring about the necessary adjustment. His concluding remarks highlight the roles of the State and labour courts in this process.