|Index of Volumes|
|VOLUME 142, NUMBER 3||2003/3|
Extending social security: Policies for developing countries
Wouter van GINNEKEN
More than half the world's population has no social protection of any sort. The ILO has started a campaign to remedy this state of affairs, to which this article is a contribution. After first defining the concepts of social security and coverage, the author reviews examples of successful approaches and practices used to extend social security in developing countries, notably low-income countries, for the three main social security programmes: social health insurance, contributory pensions and tax-financed social benefits. Finally, some central policy conclusions and strategies are presented.
Gender equality at work in sub-Saharan Africa: A case study of Mali's
Saliha DOUMBIA and Dominique MEURS
Analysing data from a survey of modern-sector enterprises and their workers, the authors find no significant pay gap between women and men at any given skill level. But women tend to be concentrated in intermediate-level jobs: not only do they have greater difficulty finding modern-sector employment in the first place, but few of those who succeed make it to senior positions. The resulting occupational segregation, the authors conclude, calls for a pro-active government policy to increase women's labour force participation in the modern sector coupled with a focus on the societal factors that hamper women's access to wage employment generally.
The certification of corporate conduct: Issues and prospects
What can codes of conduct do for the effective enforcement of labour standards in the production operations of multinationals? What are their limitations? In seeking answers to these questions, the author begins by examining the role and significance of labour standards in the context of today's economic and trade liberalization. With particular emphasis on codes of conduct, he then turns to the main instruments available to multinationals for promoting those standards and, thereby, regaining the confidence of society. The concluding discussion centres on the issues raised by verification and on the need to establish recognized international standards in that respect.
The effects of job-creation schemes in Morocco
Mohammed BOUGROUM and Aomar IBOURK
The authors assess state measures targeting graduate unemployment in Morocco. After first situating the problem in the context of unemployment generally, they show empirically the variety that characterizes the targeted population, the actors involved, and the labour market. Their analysis demonstrates how the theory underlying state intervention in this area produces a partial, reductionist view of the problem. In conclusion, they propose guidelines to enable this diversity and the general characteristics of unemployment to be taken fully into consideration when policy is being formulated.
New ILO publications