|Index of Volumes|
|VOLUME 141, NUMBER 3||2002/3|
Maximizing benefit transfers to the poor: Evidence from South African
Lawrence HADDAD and Michelle ADATO
Targeted public works programmes (PWPs) seek to create physical assets at wages not exceeding market wages for comparable work. But what is their success at poverty reduction, genuine job creation and their performance relative to that of untargeted benefit transfer programmes? Drawing on new data from South Africa, the authors focus on 101 projects in seven PWPs in Western Cape Province, in the mid-1990s. They estimate the rands of public expenditure needed to transfer one rand to the poor, then compare this ratio with that generated by a hypothetical, untargeted transfer programme. Most of the PWPs considerably outperform the benchmark.
Migration for the benefit of all: Towards a new paradigm for economic immigration
Migrant worker programmes (MWPs) offer the promise of increased productivity, lower consumer prices, cultural interchange and higher living standards for workers coming from poorer countries. Unfortunately, these programmes have regularly been bedevilled by various abuses and unintended consequences. Such failures have tended to mitigate popular support among native workers and citizens; this, in turn, has kept MWPs below the levels wanted by employers for maximal productivity. In this article, an argument is made for new market-based MWPs that seek to align the support and interests of native workers, employers, consumers, governments, and the interests of migrants.
Senior citizens: Social dignity, status and the right to representative freedom of organization
Gideon BEN-ISRAEL and Ruth BEN-ISRAEL
Population ageing has produced a new socio-demographic category - "senior citizens" - whose interests and rights, the authors argue, are not adequately provided for in existing legal frameworks, which mostly pre-date the full-scale emergence of this population group. Taking a rights-based approach centring on the concepts of "social solidarity" and "social dignity", they propose to broaden the operational scope of this "framework human right". Their suggestions include a legally recognized status conferring a range of socio-economic rights to senior citizens; non-discrimination on grounds of age; greater flexibility in pension and retirement systems; and organized representation modelled on trade unionism and collective bargaining.
The dynamics of change and the protection of workers
The theme of the second ILO/France Symposium (Lyons, January 2002) was: "The dynamics of change and the protection of workers". In summarizing its proceedings, this "Perspective" focuses on two major topics. The first relates to the implications for statistics, public policy, collective bargaining and labour law of the increasing frequency and diversity of transitions between employment and/or non-employment situations. The second is the question of reconciling career and family life. Job creation, training and social protection are closely linked to security, but Europe is divided between the necessity of protection and the fashionable appeal of tax cuts.