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Index of Volumes

VOLUME 139, NUMBER 3 2000/3


The economics of child labour: A framework for measurement

Richard ANKER

How much is reliably known about the complexities of child labour? This article provides a conceptual framework within which to measure the economic aspects of the phenomenon. Contending that so far policy approaches have been too simplistic, the author outlines the reasons for concern about child labour, before explaining how the various forms should be defined and measured, and indicating pitfalls to avoid. Exploring these complexities raises questions such as school quality, whether child labourers take adults' jobs, and positive aspects of certain non-hazardous forms of child labour. Finally, he draws out policy and programme implications.

Trade liberalization, employment and global inequality


Trade liberalization is popularly seen as responsible for growing international economic inequality, adverse trends in employment and low-skilled wages in industrialized countries, and lowered global labour standards. Analysing data on employment and trade between Japan and the United States and six large developing countries, the author concludes that growing international economic inequality is attributable not to trade liberalization but to factors such as non-liberalization of trade in agricultural products, and poorer economies' inadequate infrastructure and dependence on exporting primary commodities. The global net effect of international trade on overall employment is positive, and helps raise labour standards in developing countries.

The Japan Model and the future of employment and wage systems


This article tackles the view that Japan's lifetime employment system (LES) and seniority-based wage system (SWS) are nearing collapse. Starting with an overview of the development of the "Japan Model" of production and labour management, and that of its wage systems, the author then argues his case, presenting evidence mostly from manufacturing industry and individual enterprises. He discerns no major changes in the LES but finds drastic changes have occurred in the wage system: a general move towards multiple wage systems, some growth in work-based elements in wages, and a decline in the concept of the age-based living wage.

Changes of the law applicable to an international contract of employment


The parties to an international contract of employment may, in the course of its performance, decide to make it subject to the law of a different country or relocate to another country the place where it is performed. A court having to settle any dispute that arises thereafter will first have to determine the (new) law applicable to the contract. In such situations the Rome Convention of 19 June 1980 offers a much-needed framework for assessing the validity of a choice of law or the implications of relocation for the contract's legal regime with due regard to the parties' interests.

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ISSN 1564-913X

Updated by MCN. Approved by IA . Last update: 23 May 2000.