|Index of Volumes|
|VOLUME 138, NUMBER 2||1999/2|
Codes, labels and investor initiatives concerned with labour practices in transnational business have gained some recognition as a means of furthering social objectives. Yet they also raise many awkward issues, from the inconsistency of their coverage and requirements - often at variance with public regulatory frameworks - to the looseness of their implementation and assessment procedures. Besides, enterprises and countries - often developing countries - subjected to these "voluntary" initiatives challenge their fairness. Taking account of current international efforts to address these shortcomings, Diller outlines a multilateral framework that could help private-sector initiatives contribute more effectively to upholding recognized standards of social justice.
Working time: Tendencies and emerging issues
The organization of working time has changed considerably over the past 20 years, as new forms gain ground, working hours are reduced or extended, and more flexible approaches are adopted. Thus, it is no longer clear whether traditional units of measurement (daily/weekly working time -- the basis of several ILO Conventions) reflect actual working time. This article examines some of these issues, starting with an outline of relevant ILO standards, then reporting on major changes and the forces driving them, outlining conditions in which working-time reductions are likely to affect employment positively and concluding with suggested topics for further analysis.
Wages, employment and workers' rights in Latin America, 1970-98
Orthodox neoclassical economic theory predicts that trade liberalization and labour market flexibility will increase employment and foster economic growth, leading also to higher wages. But Latin America's experience over the past three decades shows that this may not happen in practice. In most countries of the region, the gains from economic growth were not passed on to workers, and overall labour market conditions deteriorated. Weeks concludes that only greater protection for trade union rights can redress the imbalance between the bargaining power of labour and of capital and thereby secure a more equitable distribution of the gains from growth.
Compensation for employment injuries in southern Africa: An overview of schemes and proposals for reform
Elaine FULTZ and Bodhi PIERIS
Compensation for employment injury is the only form of social security found generally across southern Africa. But many schemes fail to provide a minimum standard in practice, with low compliance, poor record-keeping, frequent delays in payment, and little protection after lump sums are exhausted. In this overview, the authors first explain employment injury benefits, identifying their economic rationale, essential features and basic types and their relationship to ILO standards; they then compare the coverage, benefits, financing and administration of schemes in the region; and they conclude with suggested priorities for strengthening and reforming the schemes.
Social aspects of the follow-up to the Asian financial crisis
New ILO publications