|Index of Volumes|
|VOLUME 137, NUMBER 1||1998/1|
Derek ROBINSONDoes gender bias cause differences in pay? The reply necessitates precise measures of pay based on specification of education, experience and occupation. The author presents original analyses of the female/male occupational wage gap in the diverse countries for which adequate data are available in the ILO's 1996 October Earnings Inquiry. Empirical findings cover occupational groups in medicine and in public service, banking and insurance. In addition, some national trends and international differences are indicated. Also presented are major research findings on the female/male wage gap and methodological issues, with advice on the pitfalls to avoid.
Labour, gender and the economic/social divide
Julie A. NELSON
The conceptual framework and methodology that hold sway in the social sciences are closely linked to the topics they study. The effects are not always benign. For example, focusing on autonomous individuals leaves out a range of relationships - cooperative and coercive - that influence economic outcomes. Nelson argues that the devaluation of "soft", "feminine" concerns has impoverished economics, as it has other disciplines. She highlights the hazards that arise when economic policies are derived from analyses that exclude the social, and then gives some indications of how economics might benefit from including more of women's contributions, e.g. in provisioning the household.
Labour-sponsored venture capital corporations: A case-study
The Fonds de Solidarité des Travailleurs du Québec is Canada's oldest labour-sponsored venture capital corporation. Like other such investment funds it enjoys a substantial tax advantage for promoting labour-friendly policies, including worker education and participation. While critics fear that these funds may crowd out other investors, Laliberté's case study suggests otherwise: most of the firms that dealt with the Fund had been unable to raise capital elsewhere or were attracted by its emphasis on improved industrial relations. He makes a convincing argument that such funds help firms restructure and make a net contribution to the economy, justifying a subsidy.
Polish workers during economic transformation: Stability and change, 1984-94
Mary WINTER, Earl W. MORRIS, Krystyna GUTKOWSKA and Marzena JEZEWSKA-ZYCHOWICZ
Based on a detailed survey of 600 households, the authors examine the impact of transformation to a market economy on workers and retirees. Their analysis of disaggregated data shows a surprising degree of job stability. For example, the proportion of workers changing from public- to private-sector employment was relatively small; those who did were not necessarily younger nor those with the highest levels of education; the assumption of higher earnings in the private sector was only found true of urban areas. Though subsequent changes have been more significant, this study is revealing of the micro-level dynamics of transformation.
The Asian financial crisis: Origins and social outlook