Evolution of the industrial relations system in Pakistan

A discussion paper on evolution of industrial relations in Pakistan.

The main purpose of this paper is to document developments and concerns with regard to unions, unionism, employment patterns, and industrial relations. It looks into the evolution of the industrial relations system in Pakistan with a focus on the legal framework, dealing with the formation of unions, collective bargaining, and the role of the government and social partners. It also looks into the dispute settlement mechanism, collective bargaining, and social dialogue.

The study is organized in the following manner. This introductory section is followed by an analysis of employment and labour market indicators in Section 2. This is followed by a discussion on the legal framework, dealing with working conditions and industrial relations, in Section 3. Workers’ and employers’ organizations are discussed in Sections 4 and 5, respectively. Wages are analysed in Section 6, while collective bargaining is covered in Section 7. Dispute settlement is presented in Section 8. Tripartism and social dialogue are covered in Section 9. The paper ends with concluding remarks in Section 10.