Discussion Papers


  1. Discussion paper 214

    A policy mix for gender equality: Lessons from high-income countries

    Over the past 15 years, important gains have been made in gender equality. Gender gaps in educational attainment have shrunk substantially. In fact, in many high-income countries, young women’s educational attainment now exceeds that of young men. At the same time, most countries have seen a significant increase in female employment rates – a trend which slowed only with the recent financial crisis.

  2. Discussion paper 213

    Labour incomes and employment GEL simulations of policy options

    This paper discusses the macroeconomic effects of a change in the labour share based on the IILS "Global Economic Linkages" (GEL) model. The results presented below are directly relevant to the analysis of the causes of the current job crisis in advanced economies and the assessment of the policy responses put in place in a majority of them.


  1. Discussion paper 212

    Bridging the gap between labour rights and human rights: The role of ILO law in regional human rights courts

    The emergence of international norms aiming at the protection of the individual is one of the most significant developments of modern international law. Two key dimensions in this regard are international labour law on the one hand and international human rights law on the other.


  1. Discussion paper 210

    Labour market policies in Spain under the current recession

    The objective of this research consists to analyze the main labour market policies implemented in the context of the current crisis in Spain. The current recession is a global phenomenon, not a country-specific one.

  2. Discussion paper 209

    Determinants of unemployment flows Labour market institutions and macroeconomic policies

    The paper makes use of newly developped information on unemployment dynamics. On the basis of a matching model of the labour market the paper analyses the economic, institutional and policy determinants of unemployment in- and outflows.

  3. Discussion paper 208

    Assessing policy effectiveness during the crisis: The case of Indonesia

    Economic crisis has struck Indonesia many times. The two most severe economic crises have been the hyperinflation crisis of 1965/1968 and the multi dimensional Asian crisis of 1997/1998. Currently, a financial crisis hit the world economy, including the Indonesian economy.

  4. Discussion paper 207

    Safeguarding jobs in times of crisis – Lessons from the German experience

    Due to the financial crisis in 2009 economic activity in Germany decreased at a size which has not been observed since World War II. In particular export-oriented firms in manufacturing faced a shrinking demand and therefore an underutilisation of capital and labour. However, with respect to the dramatic decrease in GDP the German labour market remained to be quite robust.


  1. Discussion paper 206

    Did the financial sector profit at the expense of the rest of the economy? Evidence from the United States

    The crisis which originated in the US financial sector in 2007 and subsequently spread to the real economy caused severe economic and social damage around the world. Governments have responded by providing fiscal support to the economy, undertaking exceptional monetary policy measures and introducing programmes targeted to vulnerable groups. In addition, considerable efforts have been made to recapitalise banks.

  2. Discussion paper 205

    Labour provisions in trade arrangements: current trends and perspectives

    Numerous approaches have sought to ensure trade liberalization will contribute to improved social conditions, including the insertion of so-called labour provisions in international trade law instruments.1 A debate arose in the 1990s over the efforts to integrate labour provisions into the multilateral legal framework of the World Trade Organization (WTO), led by the United States and various trade union organizations.

  3. Discussion paper 204

    Labour Standards and Development Finance Institutions: A Review of Current Policies and Activities

    Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) have the purpose of providing financial resources to economic actors in regions and sectors where access to capital is limited. Rather than competing with private sector banks, DFIs generate finance for projects which are considered too risky by the majority of private banks.