Publications

  1. National Tripartite Social Dialogue. An ILO guide for improved governance.

    Constituents have asked the ILO for support to establish a framework within which member States can promote tripartite social dialogue at the national level. This guide is a response to this request.

    It is meant to offer constituents a range of options when establishing a mechanism for national tripartite social dialogue or when reinforcing the existing system. However, the guide is not meant to be a normative document. It draws on the stipulations of international labour standards and on the lessons learned and experience gained by the ILO over the years in promoting social dialogue and providing policy advice, capacity building and practical guidance to tripartite constituents in all regions of the world.

April 2012

  1. Working Paper No. 36: "Non-standard workers: Good practices of social dialogue and collective bargaining"

    26 April 2012

    This paper provides a comparative synthesis analysis of a series of national studies on non-standard work, collective bargaining and social dialogue in selected countries (Argentina,Colombia, India, Indonesia, Hungary, Japan and South Africa), which the Industrial and Employment Relations Department (DIALOGUE) of the ILO has conducted as a pilot project under the ILO’s Global Product on “Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial relations”. The national studies aimed at identifying current and emerging non-standard forms of work arrangements within which workers are in need of protection; examining good practices in which people in non-standard forms of work are organized; analysing the role that collective bargaining and other forms of social dialogue play in improving the terms and conditions as well as the status of non-standard workers; and identifying good practices in this regard.

March 2012

  1. The political economy of pension reforms in times of global crisis: State unilateralism or social dialogue?

    27 March 2012

    This paper examines the political economy of pension reforms in times of economic crisis and its impact on social dialogue and tripartite institutions in ten countries.

  2. Working Paper No. 38: "Social dialogue and collective bargaining in times of crisis: The case of Greece"

    08 March 2012

    This paper is part of a series of national studies on collective bargaining and effective responses to the crisis under the Global Product on ‘Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial relations’. It analyses the profound impacts of the financial crisis on industrial relations institutions and practices in Greece. A series of austerity measures have been put in place through new legislation. These include prohibition of salary increases, cuts in pay and benefits for public-sector employees, limits on public-sector hiring, increases in VAT and other taxes, changes in the limitations on mass layoffs and levels of severance compensation payments, and introduction of sub-minimum wages for new entrants to the labour market and those who are on apprenticeships.

  3. Working Paper No. 32: "Collective bargaining in times of crisis: A case study of South Africa"

    06 March 2012

    This paper is one of a series of national studies on collective bargaining and effective responses to the crisis under the Global Product on ‘Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial relations’. It analyses the context in which social dialogue and collective bargaining took place in South Africa during the crisis.

  4. Working Paper No. 22: "Comparative study on social dialogue and gender equality in New Zealand, Australia and Fiji"

    06 March 2012

    This paper is a part of a comparative research project whose objective is to demonstrate that gender equality and social dialogue are mutually beneficial and their promotion should go hand-in-hand. Despite several studies on each topic separately, there is a knowledge gap worldwide on how gender equality at work is advanced through social dialogue. This study provides comprehensive information in a comparative perspective on three countries of the Pacific: Australia, New Zealand and Fiji.

December 2011

  1. Working Paper No. 34: "Promoting gender equality through social dialogue: Global trends and persistent obstacles"

    01 December 2011

    This paper is part of a comparative research project whose objective is to demonstrate that gender equality and social dialogue are mutually beneficial and their promotion should go hand-in-hand. This study highlights the great potential of tripartite social dialogue and collective bargaining as tools for promoting gender equality. The paper has two focuses: issues of participation and representation in tripartite bodies, as well as within government units, trade unions and employers’ organisations; and the promotion of gender equality. This study concludes the advancement in these two areas is inextricably linked.

November 2011

  1. Working Paper No. 30: "Non-regular workers in India: Social dialogue and organizational and bargaining strategies and practices"

    01 November 2011

    This paper is one of a series of national studies on collective bargaining, social dialogue and non-standard work. Since the adoption of liberalization policies in 1991, the labour market in India has seen tremendous growth in the number of non-regular workers, in particular contract workers. The paper includes a number of examples of trade unions seeking various ways of improving the terms and conditions of work for non-regular workers, particularly contract workers, through collective organization and collective bargaining. The paper shows that a key approach to successful collective bargaining on behalf of contract workers is to ensure the involvement of “principal employers” that hold real power in negotiating and determining terms and conditions of work (multi-employer bargaining).

  2. Working Paper No. 31: Social dialogue during the financial and economic crisis: "Results from the ILO/WB inventory using a Boolean analysis on 44 countries"

    01 November 2011

    This study is a joint ILO/WB Inventory of policy responses to the 2008 financial and economic crisis. The paper seeks to identify the conditions in which a social dialogue response to the economic and financial crisis emerges at the national level. The study adopts an innovative Boolean methodology which focused on identifying necessary and sufficient conditions for national dialogue to emerge. The main results of the analysis stress the importance of freedom association as a necessary condition for a social dialogue response to the crisis to emerge.

  3. Working Paper 23: "Collective bargaining and balanced recovery: The case of Austria"

    01 November 2011

    This paper is part of a series of national studies on collective bargaining and effective responses to the crisis under the Global Product on ‘Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial relations’. The national studies seek to examine the impact of the crisis on industrial relations and collective bargaining institutions; identify the ways in which collective bargaining was used to mitigate the effects of the crisis and the outcomes as they relate to: employment wages, working time, and employment relations. They identify good practices in this regard and consider the implications for balanced and effective recovery.

October 2011

  1. Social Dialogue and social security governance: A topical ILO perspective

    30 October 2011

    This article commences with a short review of how the ILO’s approach to social security and its governance were established. A selective discussion of relevant underlying principles of social security is then followed by an examination of the current stresses confronting social security systems and of the differing social security needs of distinct population groups in society. Supported by select national experiences, the role of social dialogue in the governance of social security is then discussed. The global financial and economic crisis has certainly had a negative impact on social security finances, ultimately if not immediately, and more severely in some countries than others, and this has led to an increased emphasis on social security reform in national policy agendas — a process that has thrown light on the difficult challenges facing meaningful social dialogue in many countries. The article concludes by making the case for a strengthened role for trade unions and employers in social dialogue in support of the governance of national social security schemes and systems.

  2. Working Paper 29: "Non-regular work: Trends, labour law policy, and industrial relations developments – The case of Japan"

    10 October 2011

    This paper is one of a series of national studies on collective bargaining, social dialogue and non-standard work conducted as a pilot under the Global Product on „Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial and employment relations‟. The national studies aim at identifying current and emerging non-standard forms of work arrangements within which workers are in need of protection; examining good practices in which those in nonstandard forms of work are organized; analyzing the role that collective bargaining and other forms of social dialogue play in improving the terms and conditions as well as the status of non-standard workers and identifying good practices in this regard.

September 2011

  1. DIALOGUE in Brief No. 3 - Employment protection legislation tested by the economic crisis. A global review of the regulation of collective dismissals for economic reasons.

    30 September 2011

    The brief identifies the principal elements of the regulation of collective dismissals for economic reasons in over 125 countries, together with reforms introduced between 2008 and 2011. It considers the national legislative provisions regulating the seven subject areas of the employment protection legislation (EPL).

  2. Shaping Global Industrial Relations. The impact of International Framework Agreements

    30 September 2011

    Assesses the phenomenon of IFAs, examining their impact around the world as well as their effectiveness in fostering labour-management dialogue

  3. Working Paper 28: "Non-standard workers, collective bargaining and social dialogue: The case of South Africa"

    10 September 2011

    This paper is one of a series of national studies on collective bargaining, social dialogue and non-standard work conducted as a pilot under the Global Product on ‘Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial and employment relations’. The national studies aim at identifying current and emerging non-standard forms of work arrangements within which workers are in need of protection; examining good practices in which those in nonstandard forms of work are organized; analyzing the role that collective bargaining and other forms of social dialogue play in improving the terms and conditions as well as the status of non-standard workers and identifying good practices in this regard.

August 2011

  1. Working Paper 24: "Cambodia's Arbitration Council: Institution-building in a developing country"

    12 August 2011

    This paper is a joint effort of the International Labour Office and the World Bank. It is the story of the Arbitration Council written from an insider’s perspective, with first-hand knowledge and insights that an outside researcher would be hard-pressed to obtain. The value of this perspective is evident as the reader moves through the paper. The limitations, at least in principle, should also be acknowledged. Ultimately, however, the Arbitration Council can be evaluated on its own merits, and those interested in learning more about the institution are encouraged to contact the staff directly.

June 2011

  1. The politics of economic adjustment in Europe : State unilateralism or social dialogue?

    30 June 2011

    This article depicts the process of design and implementation of austerity policies aimed at reducing public deficits and debt in eight European countries and the role of social dialogue in this context. It is argued that, as governments are shifting policy priorities from economic stimulus towards fiscal consolidation and debt reduction, social dialogue and tripartism are given a less prominent role compared to the first phase of the global economic crisis, during which they played a significant part in devising crisis responses. Austerity policies are presented as being inevitable and non-negotiable. This may not be surprising, considering that the current structural adjustment promoted by the international financial institutions (IFIs), and lately the European Union (EU), is based on Washington Consensus policies which usually exclude public deliberation. The chapter argues that social dialogue should remain part of policy design and implementation even in times of crisis, and highlights several ways of rebalancing the negotiating powers of actors in the real economy to enable them to influence policy choices.

  2. Promoting collective bargaining Convention No. 154

    01 June 2011

    This booklet outlines the main elements and the points to consider when ratifying and applying Convention 154. It also explains how the ILO can help and replies to frequently asked questions.

  3. Promote tripartite consultation: Ratify and apply Convention No. 144

    01 June 2011

    This booklet outlines the main elements of Convention No. 144; points to consider when ratifying and applying Convention No. 144; and information on how the ILO can help with ratification.

May 2011

  1. Executive summary - The Role of Collective Bargaining in the Global Economy

    30 May 2011

    This book looks at the role that collective bargaining plays in ensuring that workers are able to obtain a fair share of the benefits arising from participation in the global economy and in providing a measure of security against the risk to employment and wages. The various authors examine how this fundamental principle and right at work is realized in different countries and how its practice can be reinforced across borders. Co-published with Edward Elgar.

  2. The Role of Collective Bargaining in the Global Economy: Negotiating for Social Justice

    30 May 2011

    This book looks at the role that collective bargaining plays in ensuring that workers are able to obtain a fair share of the benefits arising from participation in the global economy and in providing a measure of security against the risk to employment and wages.