Publications

  1. National Tripartite Social Dialogue. An ILO guide for improved governance.

    Constituents have asked the ILO for support to establish a framework within which member States can promote tripartite social dialogue at the national level. This guide is a response to this request.

    It is meant to offer constituents a range of options when establishing a mechanism for national tripartite social dialogue or when reinforcing the existing system. However, the guide is not meant to be a normative document. It draws on the stipulations of international labour standards and on the lessons learned and experience gained by the ILO over the years in promoting social dialogue and providing policy advice, capacity building and practical guidance to tripartite constituents in all regions of the world.

October 2013

  1. Working Paper No. 52, "Addressing labour market segmentation: The role of labour law"

    09 October 2013

    The current paper is one in the series of thematic papers. It makes an essential contribution to the discussion on contractual segmentation of labour markets by providing an analysis of theoretical, empirical and normative literature with a view to understanding possible legal causes of segmentation and the role of labour law in alleviating its effects. It does also discuss legal techniques used to address the effects of segmentation and offers a policy perspective on how to approach labour law and labour market reforms.

  2. Working Paper No. 51, "From negotiation to imposition: Social dialogue in austerity times in Spain"

    09 October 2013

    This paper is part of a series of studies funded by the European Commission in the framework of a project of the International Labour Organization (ILO) on “Promoting a balanced and inclusive recovery from the crisis in Europe through sound industrial relations and social dialogue”. It shows that social dialogue is facing challenges and tensions in the context of austerity policies and institutional reforms. During the two decades preceding the crisis, social dialogue in Spain played a fundamental role and was a distinctive trait of industrial relations. As a result of the financial and debt crisis, Spain has witnessed an unprecedented period of reforms and economic adjustment. In this context, social dialogue as a tool for socio-economic governance has been questioned for both its legitimacy and effectiveness.

  3. Working Paper No. 50, "Coping with the crisis in Italy: Employment relations and social dialogue amidst the recession"

    09 October 2013

    This study on Italy shows that the initial responses to the economic crisis in Italy were designed with the participation of the social partners and focused on supporting small and medium–sized enterprises (SMEs). At the local level, an agreement was concluded between the Government and the regional administrations to strengthen the Wages Guarantee Fund (CIG), a special public fund used to protect workers’ income. The authors contend that the measures were successful in retaining employment and demonstrated the ability to address challenges through social concertation.

August 2013

  1. Gender equality in tripartite social dialogue in Europe and Central Asia

    14 August 2013

    This technical brief presents unique data on the participation of men and women in tripartite social dialogue in 50 countries in Europe and Central Asia (ECA region). Despite tangible progress, women remain under-represented in national social dialogue institutions in the ECA region (18 per cent of participants). The target set by the United Nations of at least 30 per cent of women at decision-making level is achieved only in 15 per cent of social dialogue bodies. In 18 per cent of countries women are not represented at all. The best results are in Western Europe (17 per cent), followed by Eastern Europe and Central Asia (14 per cent), and Central and South Eastern Europe (8 per cent). More encouraging figures come from the analysis of the gender composition of tripartite delegations in the International Labour Conference. In 2012, the best result among regions was that of the European delegations (36 per cent), while the whole Conference registered 27 per cent women participants. The European Regional Conference in Oslo in 2013 gathered delegates from 42 countries out of whom 41 per cent were women. The brief concludes with some policy advice for further promoting gender equality in social dialogue institutions at national, regional and international level.

April 2013

  1. Working Paper No. 44, "Social dialogue and gender equality in the European Union"

    30 April 2013

    This paper forms part of a comparative research project whose objective is to demonstrate that gender equality and social dialogue are mutually beneficial and that their promotion should go hand in hand. Despite several studies on each topic separately, there is a knowledge gap worldwide on how gender equality at work is advanced through social dialogue. The topic is examined from qualitative and quantitative aspects.

  2. Working Paper No. 49, "The impact of the eurozone crisis on Irish social partnership: A political economy analysis"

    30 April 2013

    This paper is part of a series of studies funded by the European Commission in the framework of an ILO research project on “Promoting a balanced and inclusive recovery from the crisis in Europe through sound industrial relations and social dialogue”. This project resulted from a partnership agreement between the ILO and the European Commission, which is aimed at the study of the impact of the crisis and crisis-response policies on national tripartite social dialogue, collective bargaining, and labour law in the member States of the ILO and those of the European Union (EU). A special focus is on the role of social dialogue actors and institutions in an admittedly difficult economic and political context marked by austerity policies.

  3. Labour Dispute Systems: Guidelines for improved performance

    23 April 2013

    Effective dispute prevention and resolution procedures and mechanisms provide an important underpinning for sound and stable industrial and employment relations. This guide is part of the ILO’s effort to strengthen institutions for the prevention and resolution of labour disputes. It provides advice on the steps to be taken to either revitalize an existing system, or establish an independent institution, ensuring that they operate efficiently and provide effective dispute resolution services.

  4. Working Paper No. 48, "Resolving workplace disputes in Ireland: The role of the Labour Relations Commission"

    10 April 2013

    This paper is one in a series of national studies that examine how certain high-performing dispute resolution institutions have responded to the changing nature of workplace disputes with a view to informing future developments in dispute resolution policy. Undertaken on behalf of the ILO by leading regional experts, each paper in the series looks at the evolution of a national dispute resolution institution. Highlighting the key challenges the institution has faced and the ways in which it has responded, the papers offer a nuanced understanding of the achievements and continued weaknesses of the system in question.

  5. Working Paper No. 47, "Assessing South Africa's Commission for Conciliation, Mediation and Arbitration (CCMA)"

    09 April 2013

    This paper is one in a series of national studies that examine how certain highperforming dispute resolution institutions have responded to the changing nature of workplace disputes with a view to informing future developments in dispute resolution policy. Undertaken on behalf of the ILO by leading regional experts, each paper in the series looks at the evolution of a national dispute resolution institution. Highlighting the key challenges the institution has faced and the ways in which it has responded, the papers offer a critical insight into the achievements and continued weaknesses of the system in question.

  6. Regulating the employment relationship in Europe: A guide to Recommendation No. 198

    02 April 2013

    Over the recent years, there have been increasing developments at the European level regarding the employment relationship in legislation, case law, collective agreements and soft law. In this context, the ILO, and in particular the then Industrial and Employment Relations Department (DIALOGUE) undertook a strategic partnership with the European Labour Law Network (ELLN), a network of independent legal experts from all European Union Member States and European Economic Area countries, in order to produce an updated version of the 2007 annotated Guide with a specific focus on European countries.

    The Russian version of the Guide is complemented by examples on law in practice on employment relationship in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

January 2013

  1. DIALOGUE Working Paper No. 46, "Emerging trends in employee participation in Sri Lanka"

    30 January 2013

    This paper is part of a series of national studies on employee participation practices in Asia undertaken within the research programme in the field of industrial relations in the region. The paper examines various forms of employee participation, including those involving trade unions (e.g. collective bargaining, tripartite social dialogue) as well as others (e.g. employee councils) which have developed in Sri Lanka as a result of statutory obligations, informal mechanisms that emerged out of HR practices, and a shared view between workers and employers on the need to cooperate.

  2. EPlex in Brief No. 1 - "Employment protection legislation (EPL) of Georgia: A review based on ILO standards, OECD indicators and comparative labour law"

    18 January 2013

    The objective of this note is to review the Labour Code of Georgia with specific focus on employment protection legislation (EPL) from international and comparative perspectives. The main references used are ILO standards, EPL indicators of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the labour law of selected jurisdictions.

December 2012

  1. Recovering from the crisis through social dialogue in the new EU Member States: the case of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia

    20 December 2012

    This publication provides an analysis on the role social dialogue and tripartite institutions played in response to the recent global economic crisis in four Central and Eastern European countries, namely Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Poland.

  2. DIALOGUE Working Paper No. 43, "Non-standard work, social dialogue and collective bargaining in Indonesia"

    14 December 2012

    The paper provides an overview of the situations facing informal, contract and outsourced workers, and how labour law regulates their terms and conditions of work. It analyses both legal and practical constraints in organizing such workers and the challenges to promoting effective social dialogue and collective bargaining. It also examines how the financial crisis has affected these workers negatively. Interestingly, the number of collective agreements increased in Indonesia during the early years of the crisis, but the trade unions’ priority was to secure the jobs of permanent workers.

November 2012

  1. Working Paper No. 42: "Employee participation in Vietnam"

    27 November 2012

    This paper is part of a series of national studies on employee participation practices in Asia undertaken within the research programme in the field of industrial relations in the region. This is linked to the ILO Global Product on supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial and employment relations, involving close collaboration between the Industrial and Employment Relations Department (DIALOGUE) at ILO headquarters, the ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, and the ILO Decent Work Team for South Asia. The national studies aim at analysing the degree of employee participation within the enterprise, the forms such participation has taken, the issues that have been its focus, and its impact on workers’ rights, employment conditions and the economic efficiency of the enterprise.

  2. Working Paper No. 41: "Industrial relations and collective bargaining in the Philippines"

    27 November 2012

    This paper is part of a series of national studies on collective bargaining and effective responses to the crisis conducted under the ILO Global Product on Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial and employment relations. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the industrial relations trends and developments in the Philippines. It highlights the limited roles that industrial relations played in dealing with the global crisis. Both trade union density and collective bargaining coverage are low.

August 2012

  1. Working Paper No. 40: "Employee participation in India"

    23 August 2012

    This paper is one of a series of national studies on employee participation practices in Asia undertaken within the research programme in the field of industrial relations in the region. This is linked to the ILO Global Product on Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial and employment relations, involving close collaboration between the Industrial and Employment Relations Department (DIALOGUE) at ILO headquarters and the ILO Decent Work Team for South Asia. The national studies aim at analysing the degree of employee participation within the enterprise, the forms such participation has taken, the issues that have been its focus, and its impact on workers’ rights, employment conditions, and the economic efficiency of the enterprise.

  2. Working Paper No. 15: "Social dialogue and gender equality in Uruguay"

    23 August 2012

    This paper is a part of a comparative research project whose objective is to demonstrate that gender equality and social dialogue are mutually beneficial and their promotion should go hand-in-hand. Despite several studies on each topic separately, there is a knowledge gap worldwide on how gender equality at work is advanced through social dialogue.

May 2012

  1. Working Paper No. 39: "ILO survey on social dialogue and pension reform in times of crisis and beyond: Slovenia"

    11 May 2012

    This paper examines the political economy of pension reforms in times of economic crisis and its impact on social dialogue and tripartite institutions in Slovenia. The Slovenian economy was badly hit by the global economic and financial crisis of 2008-2009, which was the worst crisis experienced by the country since the break-up of the former Yugoslavia. This crisis, combined with the pressure of financial markets and international institutions forced the government to initiate several reforms, including changes to the pension system.

April 2012

  1. Working Paper No. 36: "Non-standard workers: Good practices of social dialogue and collective bargaining"

    26 April 2012

    This paper provides a comparative synthesis analysis of a series of national studies on non-standard work, collective bargaining and social dialogue in selected countries (Argentina,Colombia, India, Indonesia, Hungary, Japan and South Africa), which the Industrial and Employment Relations Department (DIALOGUE) of the ILO has conducted as a pilot project under the ILO’s Global Product on “Supporting collective bargaining and sound industrial relations”. The national studies aimed at identifying current and emerging non-standard forms of work arrangements within which workers are in need of protection; examining good practices in which people in non-standard forms of work are organized; analysing the role that collective bargaining and other forms of social dialogue play in improving the terms and conditions as well as the status of non-standard workers; and identifying good practices in this regard.