Publications on digital labour platforms


  1. ILO Working paper 38

    Freelance platform work in the Russian Federation: 2009–2019

    26 July 2021

    This paper traces the development of freelance platform work in the Russian Federation based on unique data from four online surveys conducted over the period 2009 and 2019 via the leading platform for creative and knowledge-based work and analyses the working conditions and well-being of the workers.

  2. Publication

    Digital platforms and the world of work in G20 countries: Status and Policy Action

    15 July 2021

    Innovations in digital technologies and the ability to quickly and cheaply exchange large amounts of data and information between individuals, businesses and devices have laid the foundation for the rise of the digital economy. These transformations extend to the world of work, in particular through the fast growth of digital labour platforms. This report was prepared for the Employment Working Group under Italian G20 Presidency (2021)

  3. Publication

    Employment Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean (Number 24): Decent work for platform workers in Latin America

    14 June 2021

    This edition of the Employment Situation in Latin America and the Caribbean report, jointly prepared twice-yearly by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) analyses the labour market trends in Latin America and the Caribbean amid the COVID-19 health crisis.

  4. Publication

    Digitally empowering young people in refugee and host communities What is possible? - A mapping study in Kenya

    02 June 2021

    The mapping study conducted by the ILO aims to inform practitioners in the field, including the programme staff and development partners, in the design and implementation of activities. The study seeks to identify good practices, capture lessons learned, and take note of potential areas of innovation by employers, training and young people themselves with a view to enhancing decent work in the digital economy in Kenya.

  5. ILO Working paper 32

    Digital Work in Eastern Europe: Overview of Trends, Outcomes, and Policy Responses

    25 May 2021

    This paper presents the emergence and growth of digital labour markets in Eastern Europe over the period 1999-2019. It presents the profiles of digital workers, their working conditions and discusses how these are shaped by the business models of digital labour platforms.

  6. Publication

    Digital refugee livelihoods and decent work - Towards inclusion in a fairer digital economy [Full report]

    29 April 2021

    The digitization of the world of work is fundamentally transforming how refugees can make a livelihood and obtain employment. A rapidly expanding global digital economy harbours countless new opportunities but it also poses a range of challenges and risks. A new report by the International Labour Organization (ILO) now explores the growing role of digital economies for refugees, including case studies from Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe.

  7. Publication

    Digital refugee livelihoods and decent work - Towards inclusion in a fairer digital economy [Summary]

    13 April 2021

    This report offers the first comparative global assessment of the emerging field of digital livelihoods and digital work among refugees. The insights are based on eight unique case studies that are authored by leading experts in their respective fields and study locations.

  8. Brief

    From potential to practice: Preliminary findings on the numbers of workers working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic

    31 March 2021

  9. ILO Working paper 27

    Platform work and the employment relationship

    31 March 2021

    This working paper analyses national and supranational case law and legislation about the employment status of platform workers. It does so by referring to the ILO Employment Relationship Recommendation, 2006 (No. 198). It finds that this Recommendation provides for a valuable compass to navigate the issues that emerge from the analysis of the existing case law and legislation about platform work.

  10. ILO Working paper 25

    Homeworking in the Philippines: Bad job ? Good job ?

    09 March 2021

    This report focuses on two categories of homeworkers in the Philippines: industrial homeworkers, who assemble or fabricate goods for factories, retailers or their agents under subcontracting arrangements; and online workers, who render services to their clients or employers via telecommunications technologies and digital platforms.