Publications on informal economy
The evaluation of policies promoting the transition to formality
31 August 2022
ILO Working paper 75
Using Online Vacancy and Job Applicants’ Data to Study Skills Dynamics
18 August 2022
This paper finds that big data on vacancies and applications to an online job board can be a promising data source for studying skills dynamics, especially in countries where alternative sources are scarce. To show this, we develop a skills taxonomy, assess the characteristics of such online data, and employ natural language processing and machine-learning techniques. The empirical implementation uses data from the Uruguayan job board BuscoJobs, but can be replicated with similar data from other countries.
ILO Working paper 72
Why should we integrate income and employment support? A conceptual and empirical investigation
18 July 2022
This paper conceptualizes, for the first time, the implementation of policy approaches that integrate active labour market policies within income support schemes, focusing on low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We develop a conceptual framework to understand how integrated policies can address labour market challenges, exploring the theoretical effects they exert on selected labour market and social dimensions. We compare this to the empirical literature, which does not always find that policies are effective. To reconcile this discrepancy, we investigate the design and implementation of integrated approaches across LMIC and identify factors which contribute to their effectiveness.
ILO Working Paper 69
Growth, economic structure and informality
18 June 2022
This paper explores the relationship between economic growth and informality and highlights the role of GDP growth and its composition in the level and evolution of informality, using country data from 1991 to 2019.
Vulnerabilities to child labour
16 May 2022
Identifying particularly vulnerable groups of children and their specific needs is essential for the elimination of child labour. This brief brings together the key findings from four studies that each address a key area of vulnerability to child labour: climate change, situations of crisis, indigenous peoples and informality. For each of the thematic areas, the brief presents evidence of the linkages with child labour and implications for policy.
Cooperatives and the World of Work No. 15 - Partnerships between trade unions and the social and solidarity economy to support informal economy workers
13 May 2022
This brief documents partnerships between trade unions and the social and the solidarity economy in support of informal economy workers. It is based on a research study that involved a literature review, and an examination of selected partnerships through the development of country case studies in Brazil, Colombia, Kenya and South Africa, and validation of findings with organizations of informal economy workers.
Labour Overview series for Latin America and the Caribbean 2021
2021 Labour Overview of Latin America and the Caribbean
28 April 2022
Nearly two years after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, in the third quarter of 2021, the employment rate and economic participation rate were still lower than the 2019 records, while the unemployment rate was higher than in that year. The 2021 Labour Overview describes a mixed bag scenario for employment and suggests that prepandemic levels will be reached by 2023 or even 2024.
Understanding patterns of structural discrimination of migrant and other workers in some countries of South and West Asia
19 April 2022
This background paper reviews the literature that sheds light on the structural patterns of discrimination against migrant workers in some countries of South and West Asia. It also articulates recommendations that would help officials in UN agencies, international organizations, constituents and other civil society individuals and groups, while referring to the existing evidence of structural discrimination to support the application of international labour standards.
E-formalization: Country case study
E-formalization: The Colombian experience
30 March 2022
Background paper for the Global Employment Policy Review (GEPR), Second edition (forthcoming).
A review of country data
Impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on informality: Has informal employment increased or decreased?
21 March 2022