Publications on informal economy
Challenges related to informality and formalization in Turkana County, Kenya
08 December 2022
The ILO conducted a study to identify barriers related to informality and formalization of enterprises and jobs in the informal economy in Turkana County.
ILO Working paper 85
Ride-hailing versus traditional taxi services: The experiences of taxi drivers in Lebanon
05 December 2022
This paper provides insights into the working conditions of platform-based taxi drivers, and engages critically with the development of taxi platforms in Lebanon and shows its dependence on venture capital funds, the “non‑uberized” economy, the State and the non-market society in Lebanon, which is experiencing a structural transformation of its economy and labour market.
ILO Working paper 84
Engendering informality statistics: gaps and opportunities
21 November 2022
Informality is a dynamic and multidimensional concern that demands gender-sensitive data. In 2018, globally, more than 60% of employment was informal. However, global averages hide that in more countries the share of women in informal employment exceeds that of men. Also, women in the informal economy are often in the most unprotected situations – as domestic workers, home-based workers and contributing family workers – where a lack of visibility can increase their vulnerability.
Assessment of social security coverage of workers in diverse forms of employment and in platform employment in China
12 October 2022
ILO Working paper 80
Realizing the opportunities of the platform economy through freedom of association and collective bargaining
30 September 2022
This study provides empirical evidence from different regions of the world to identify avenues for platform economy workers to access freedom of association and collective bargaining.
Joint report - Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, ILO and IDOS
A majority working in the shadows: A six-country opinion survey on informal labour in sub-Saharan Africa
15 September 2022
Most workers in sub-Saharan Africa are informally employed, which often leaves them without access to health care and social protection.
Future of Work, Emerging Sectors and the Potential for Transition to Formality
12 September 2022
Labour Overview Series 2022
Weak growth and the global crisis are holding back the recovery of the employment in Latin America and the Caribbean
01 September 2022
In a context of partial recovery of labour indicators, the Russian aggression against Ukraine has made the outlook for labour markets in the region more complex. Slowdown in economic growth makes full employment recovery more difficult and increases the risk of informalisation, while accelerating inflation negatively impacts real labour and household incomes. This adds to the enduring distributional effects of the pandemic in a region characterised by very high levels of inequality.
The evaluation of policies promoting the transition to formality
31 August 2022
ILO Working paper 75
Using Online Vacancy and Job Applicants’ Data to Study Skills Dynamics
18 August 2022
This paper finds that big data on vacancies and applications to an online job board can be a promising data source for studying skills dynamics, especially in countries where alternative sources are scarce. To show this, we develop a skills taxonomy, assess the characteristics of such online data, and employ natural language processing and machine-learning techniques. The empirical implementation uses data from the Uruguayan job board BuscoJobs, but can be replicated with similar data from other countries.