Surviving liberalization: the cooperative movement in Kenya

Cooperative development in Kenya, like in most African countries, has generally traversed two main eras, namely, the era of state control and that of liberalization. The first era, which saw the origin and substantial growth of cooperatives under state direction, conditioned these organizations to emerge as dependent agents and/or clients of the state and other semi-public agencies. By serving as instruments for implementing government socio-economic policies, cooperatives were engulfed into state politics to the extent that the failures of state policies found expression in the cooperative movement.