Steps and tips: Monitoring, assessment and certification

The implementation of assessment requires the collaboration of various stakeholders, such as quality assurance bodies, employers’ and workers’ organizations, enterprises and TVET providers. The steps listed below illustrate the roles of the different actors in monitoring and assessing apprentices’ learning progress.

  • Employers’ organizations can play a leading role in raising awareness about the importance and benefits of an effective monitoring and assessment system for apprenticeships. They can also provide support for enterprises to strengthen their monitoring and assessment capacity.
  • Quality assurance bodies and the entities responsible for assessment should develop a mechanism for monitoring and assessment with the involvement of all stakeholders. Apart from clearly defined learning outcomes and assessment criteria, they should also specify the roles and responsibilities of relevant stakeholders.
  • Enterprises can develop a performance appraisal sheet for evaluating apprentices’ performance based on a set of criteria (refer to Tool "A guide for monitoring and assessing apprentices’ performance"). The evaluation criteria should cover both occupation-specific technical skills and generic, transferable skills that support occupational mobility and career development.
  • In-CTs, supervisors or mentors should conduct regular monitoring interviews with apprentices to review their learning progress and achieved outcomes after each in-company training sequence and introduce supporting measures if necessary. Apprentices can also carry out self-evaluation of their performance, which is later discussed with their in-CTs or mentors to agree on a joint evaluation.
  • In-CTs and teachers of TVET providers should keep track of what apprentices have learned and the activities that they have carried out on a daily basis during their on- and off-the-job training in an apprentice training logbook (see box 5.4). This information allows TVET teachers to offer teaching that supports apprentices’ practical activities at the enterprise, while also enabling in-CTs to build on the theoretical knowledge that apprentices have acquired at TVET providers when assigning work tasks to complement apprentices’ off-the-job learning content. A well-maintained logbook can also constitute a requirement for the final assessment.

Box 5.4 Apprentices’ logbooks

Many apprenticeship schemes involve logbooks, maintained by the apprentices, in which they note down the tasks they have performed and reference relevant documents, photographs of finished products, etc.

Logbooks are used in various ways:

  • to direct apprentices’ attention towards what they need to achieve
  • to encourage them to reflect on their performance
  • to record key stages of achievement for assessments of progress, or to count towards formal qualifications.

Source: ILO, 2018.

  • The quality assurance body or entity responsible for assessment should set up an examination committee to design and implement summative assessments covering both practical and theoretical aspects of on- and off-the-job training according to the occupational profile and the learning outcomes of the programmes. The committee should be composed of representatives from employers’ and workers’ organizations and TVET providers, and it might act on behalf of a credible and well-respected institution, such as an employers’ organization, chamber or TVET agency.

Box 5.5 Use of transparency in assessment

In South Korea, resources and documents related to external evaluation are open to the public on the apprenticeship website ( Companies and apprentices can refer to the website to prepare for the evaluation.

Source: Kang, Jeon and Lee, 2017.

  • It is usually the responsibility of the quality assurance body to award the qualification to apprentices who successfully completed the assessment.


  • Giving a leading role to employers in the assessment process and involving industry experts as examiners can help to ensure the credibility of the certification.
  • A clear distribution of responsibilities, effective communication and close cooperation between the enterprise and the TVET institution, as well as a detailed feedback and evaluation mechanism for monitoring apprentices’ progress are all essential features for the successful delivery of apprenticeships.