|Name:||Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran.|
|Country:||Iran (Islamic Republic of)|
|Type of legislation:||Constitution|
|Entry into force:|
|Bibliography:||Constitutions of the Countries of the World, 2010-03, Gisbert H. Flanz, Oceana Publications, Dobbs Ferry, USA, ISBN: 978-0-379-00467-0, 144 p.
Constitution (in English) The Embassy of The Islamic Republic of Iran, Canada (consulted on 2005-12-20)
Constitution (in English) Alavi and Associates, Legal Counsels, Islamic Republic of Iran, 45 p. (consulted on 2008-10-15)
|Abstract/Citation:||Ratified 24 October 1979 and amended to 28 July 1989. The Preamble describes the history of the Islamic Revolution and the ideological principles of the Constitution. Chapter I contains general principles, including: the role of divine revelation in setting forth laws (Art. 2(2)); the Twelver Ja'fari school of Islam as the official religion of Iran (Art. 12); and the respect of human rights of non-Muslims who refrain from activities against Islam and Iran (Art. 14). Chapter III defines the rights of the people, including: the equality of men and women before law, in conformity with Islamic criteria (Art. 20); freedom of the press (Art. 24); freedom of assembly (Arts. 26-27); the right to social security, old-age, disability, unemployment and retirement benefits (Art. 29); and education (Art. 30). Article 38 prohibits torture. Chapter IV outlines the Economy and Financial Affairs. Large industries such as banking, mining, and insurance are part of the state sector. Enterprises concerned with production and distribution form part of the cooperative sector. Agriculture and lesser trades and services form the private sector (Art. 44). Article 47 assures private ownership. Chapter VI establishes the legislative power: the Islamic Consultative Assembly and the Guardian Council. The latter is composed of twelve members versed in Islamic law who are to insure the conformity of national laws with Islam (Art. 91). Chapter VII establishes local councils. Chapter VIII provides for the Leader or Leadership Council. An Assembly of Experts shall declare one of its members as Leader, who assumes the powers of the "wilayat al-amr". The Leader may, inter alia, appoint and dismiss members of the Guardian Council. He also exercises the power of the supreme judicial authority of the nation and assumes the supreme command of the armed forces and the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (Art. 110). Chapter IX outlines the duties of the President and Council of Ministers. Chapter XI establishes the Judiciary and Supreme Court.|