Cement and concrete - 213 entries found
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Zeleke Z.K., Moen B.E., Bråtveit M.
Excessive exposure to dust among cleaners in the Ethiopian cement industry
This study characterizes personal exposure to total and respirable dust among production workers in two cement factories in Ethiopia, with particular focus on cleaners. In Ethiopian cement plants, flow lines are partly open, and cleaning workers use brooms and shovels to remove dust that has settled on floors and machines. Personal full-shift samples of total and respirable dust were taken in the breathing zones of 105 workers in two cement plants. Samples of total and respirable dust were collected on 37-mm cellulose acetate filters of closed-face cassettes and in plastic respirable cyclones, respectively. In both factories, cleaners had significantly higher exposures to total and respirable dust than other production workers. Among cleaners, the geometric means for total and respirable dust exposure were 549 and 6.8 mg/m3 in one of the plants, and 153 and 2.8 mg/m3 in the other. Only 7% of the production workers used respiratory protective devices. Preventive measures are needed to reduce dust exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2011, Vol.8, No.9, p.544-550. Illus. 21 ref.
Excessive_exposure_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Fell A.K., Notø H., Skogstad M., Nordby K.C., Eduard W., Svendsen M.V., Ovstebø R., Trøseid A.M., Kongerud J.
A cross-shift study of lung function, exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers in blood in Norwegian cement production workers
The objective of this study was to evaluate possible effects of aerosol exposure on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and inflammatory markers in blood from Norwegian cement production workers across one work shift (0 to 8 h) and again 32 h after the non-exposed baseline registration. It involved 95 workers from two cement plants in Norway. Assessment of lung function included spirometry and gas diffusion pre- and post-shift. FeNO concentrations were measured and blood samples collected at 0, 8 and 32 h. Blood analysis included cell counts of leucocytes and mediators of inflammation. Findings are discussed. Overall, small cross-shift changes were observed in lung function and inflammatory markers among cement production workers, indicating that inflammatory effects may occur at exposure levels well below 1 mg/m3. However, the associations between these acute changes and personal exposure measurements were weak.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2011, Vol.68, No.11, p.799-805. Illus. 36 ref.
A_cross-shift_study_of_lung_function_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Dab W., Rossignol M., Luce D., Bénichou J., Marconi A., Clément P., Aubier M., Zmirou-Navier D., Abenhaim L.
Cancer mortality study among French cement production workers
The objective of this study was to analyze the mortality and its causes, especially cancer, among French cement production workers. A cohort of all workers employed at least one year in one of the main four cement companies in France was assembled (9,118 workers, 122,124 person-years of follow-up between 1990 and 2005). Job titles classification were used to analyze occupational risk factors. A standardized mortality ratio analysis was conducted based on age, gender and calendar-period-specific national mortality rates and explored the combined effect of job titles and duration through an internal Cox regression analysis. Findings are discussed. Overall, the study does not support previous reports that cement workers are at higher risk of cancer mortality than the general population.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.167-173. 31 ref.
Caustic ulcers caused by cement aqua: Report of a case
Chromium is widely used in various industries including the construction sector. Skin contact with cement has been associated with allergic or irritant contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis is one of the most frequently reported health problems among construction workers. Cement burns are rarely reported and are considered a severe form of acute irritant contact dermatitis. This article reports the case of cement burn on the feet of a worker, which appeared after he spilled cement aqua over his boots and continued to wear them for five hours until the end of the work day.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.48, No.2, p.215-216. Illus. 11 ref.
Caustic_ulcers.pdf [in English]
Hess J.A., Kincl L., Amasay T., Wolfe P.
Ergonomic evaluation of masons laying concrete masonry units and autoclaved aerated concrete
Masons working with concrete masonry unit (CMU) blocks have high rates of work-related musculoskeletal disorders to the low back and shoulders associated with repetitively lifting and buttering heavy blocks. Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) may reduce the risk of shoulder and back injury. This study evaluated shoulder exposure parameters, low back stress and worker perceptions in two groups of masons, one using CMU and the other using AAC blocks. Results indicate that for the left arm, AAC masons spent significantly more time than CMU masons in static (38.2% versus 31.1%, respectively), and less time in slow motions (48.2% versus 52.2%, respectively) and faster motions (13.6% versus 16.7%, respectively). CMU masons had significantly greater shoulder and low back pain and they held blocks significantly longer than AAC masons. Low back compressive forces were high for both materials. Masons handling AAC demonstrated less left upper extremity stress but both materials were estimated to be hazardous to the low back.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2010, Vol.41, No.4, p.477-483. Illus. 26 ref.
Refresher training on asbestos and occupational
Fortbildung Asbest Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
Formation continue sur le thème de l'amiante et de la médecine du travail [in French]
Review of the communications presented at a refresher training seminar on asbestos and occupational medicine. Main topics addressed: occupational diseases due to asbestos; statistical trends of mesothelioma over the past 20 years in Switzerland and forecasts; cost of occupational diseases due to asbestos; types of asbestos and their hazards; early screening; histological, immunohistochemical and radiological diagnosis; awareness and preventive measures; addressing the issue of asbestos in vocational training.
IZA - Sicherheit und Gesundheit, 2010, No.4, p.6-8. Illus.
Musti M., Pollice A., Cavone D., Dragonieri S., Bilancia M.
The relationship between malignant mesothelioma and an asbestos cement plant environmental risk: A spatial case-control study in the city of Bari (Italy)
To estimate the mesothelioma risk and environmental asbestos exposure due to an Italian asbestos-cement plant, 48 incident cases of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in the period 1993-2003 were selected from the regional mesothelioma register, together with 273 controls randomly-selected among residents of the region having died from other causes. The mesothelioma risk was estimated by means of a logistic-regression model, in which the probability of mesothelioma occurrence was expressed as a function of distances from the plant. A significant MM odds ratio of 5.29 was found for persons living within a range up to 500m of the plant.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.489-497. Illus. 45 ref.
Moshammer H., Neuberger M.
Lung function predicts survival in a cohort of asbestos cement workers
To study the predictive power of respiratory screening examinations, a cohort of 309 asbestos workers of an asbestos cement plant was followed until death or the end of 2006. A decrease in lung function was found to predict the risk of premature death better than exposure history and regular spirometry should therefore be offered as primary screening to all former asbestos workers. Among workers with a history of high cumulative exposure, rapid lung function decrease or radiological signs (diffuse pleural thickening or small irregular opacities), more sensitive techniques (high resolution computer tomography) need to be applied. All smokers with a history of asbestos exposure should be given free smoking cessation therapy to prevent premature death, from lung cancer in particular.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.199-207. 29 ref.
Carmody M., Winder C.
Use of personal protective equipment in the wet cement trades in the NSW construction industry
This article presents observational data regarding the personal protective equipment (PPE) worn by 612 workers observed across 84 residential construction sites throughout the Greater Sydney, Australia, area during the 18 months leading up to the Sydney Olympic Games. Bricklayers, floorlayers, renderers and concreters demonstrated a greater than 60% level of compliance in the wearing of PPE. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.197-208. Illus. 23 ref.
National Code of Practice for precast, tilt-up and concrete elements in building construction
The National Code provides practical guidance for employers and employees on ways to effectively manage the risks associated with using tilt-up and precast concrete elements in building construction. Contents: introduction; duty holder responsibilities; risk management; design considerations; fabrication and casting; handling, storage and transport; erection process.
Safe Work Australia, GPO Box 641, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 2008. 89p. Illus.
http://safeworkaustralia.gov.au/AboutSafeWorkAustralia/WhatWeDo/Publications/Documents/245/CodeOfPractice_PrecastTiltUpandConcreteElementsBuildingConstruction_2008_PDF.pdf [in English]
Gerdes A., Oehmischen D., Süssmuth J., Raunitschke D.
New strategies for the development of preventive surface protection measures
Neue Strategien für die Entwicklung präventiver Oberflächeschutzmassnahmen [in German]
Following a historical review of protective coatings in construction from ancient times until today, new systems, based on nanotechnology, which create a hydrophobic barrier on concrete are presented. Such coatings, mainly based on silanes, prevent pollutants from penetrating the concrete and attacking its surface.
Tiefbau, Oct. 2008, Vol.120, No.10, p.621-630. Illus. 22 ref.
Magnani C., Ferrante D., Barone-Adesi F., Bertolotti M., Todesco A., Mirabelli D., Terracini B.
Cancer risk after cessation of asbestos exposure: A cohort study of Italian asbestos cement workers
This study examines the mortality for asbestos-related diseases and the incidence of mesothelioma in a cohort of Italian asbestos cement workers after cessation of asbestos exposure. The factory operated from 1907 to 1986. The cohort included 3,434 subjects active in 1950 or hired in 1950-86. Local reference rates were used for both mortality and mesothelioma incidence. Mortality was increased in both sexes for all causes, pleural and peritoneal malignancies and lung cancer. In women, ovarian and uterine malignancies were also in excess. No statistically significant increase was found for laryngeal cancer. This study of a cohort of asbestos exposed workers with very long follow-up confirmed the reduction in risk of death from lung cancer after the end of exposure. It also showed a different risk pattern for pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma: a reduction in risk for pleural mesothelioma with over 40 years of latency, while risk for peritoneal mesothelioma showed a continuing increase.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2008, Vol.65, No.3, p.164-170. 36 ref.
Meo S.A., Rasheed S., Khan M.M., Shujauddin S., Al-Tuwaijri A.S.
Effect of cement dust exposure on phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in cement mill workers
The aim of this case-control study was to measure the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in cement plant workers by assessing their chemiluminescence (CL) response. A total of 50 volunteer males, aged 25-60 years, apparently healthy and nonsmoking, were randomly selected among cement plant workers in Saudi Arabia. These workers were further classified into subgroups based on exposure duration of less than 10, 10-20, and more than 20 years. The controls were 50 healthy, nonsmoking, males who matched the study group with respect to age, height, weight and socioeconomic status. A significant decrease in phagocytic activity of PMNs was found in cement mill workers compared to controls.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd Quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.2, p.133-139. 23 ref.
Chou T.C., Chang H.Y., Chen C.J., Yu H.S., Wu J.D., Sheu S.C., Shih T.S.
Effect of hand dermatitis on the total body burden of chromium after ferrous sulfate application in cement among cement workers
Ferrous sulfate has been added to cement to reduce the prevalence of dermatitis in workers. The objective of this study was to compare the urinary chromium levels before and after ferrous sulfate addition among cement workers with or without hand dermatitis. Thirty-five male workers were recruited in this study for two consecutive years: 2003 without using ferrous sulfate and 2004 after adding ferrous sulfate. Urinary chromium was used as a biomarker to estimate the total body burden of chromium. Urinary chromium concentration showed significant decreases after ferrous sulfate addition. Furthermore, a larger decrease of urinary chromium was observed among workers with hand dermatitis. It is concluded that ferrous sulfate decreases the total body burden of chromium, especially among workers with severe hand dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2008, Vol.59, No.3, p.151-156. 25 ref.
Somma G., Pietroiusti A., Magrini A., Coppeta L., Ancona C., Gardi S., Messina M., Bergamaschi A.
Extended high-frequency audiometry and noise induced hearing loss in cement workers
It has been suggested that extended high-frequency audiometry (EHFA) might be more sensitive than conventional audiometry in detecting early signs of hearing impairment. The usefulness of this method was investigated in noise-exposed workers from two Italian cement plants. Conventional frequency audiometry (0.25-8kHz) and EHFA (9-18kHz) were compared in 184 noise-exposed and 98 non-noise-exposed workers. Both methods showed significantly higher hearing threshold levels in noise exposed workers for most of the tested frequencies; however, the differences were more marked for EHFA, especially in young exposed workers. Significant differences in the extended high-frequency range were detected also in the subgroup of noise-exposed workers with normal findings at conventional audiometry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2008, Vol.51, No.6, p.452-462. Illus. 21 ref.
Cement: guidance for improved protection
Ciment: des consignes pour une meilleure protection [in French]
Fresh cement is an irritant that can cause rash, skin erosion, crevasses and burns. It is also an allergen, giving rise to skin diseases known as cement dermatitis, mainly due to impurities containing hexavalent chromium. Overall, cement is believed to be responsible for 10% of occupational skin diseases. This article reviews the precautions to be taken for avoiding these diseases, essentially consisting of hygiene measures and the use of suitable work clothing and personal protective equipment. A box mentions relevant French regulations.
Prévention BTP, Apr. 2007, No.95, p.48-50. Illus.
Akkurt İ., Önal B., Demir A.U., Tüzün D., Sabır H., Ulusoy L., Karadağ K.Ö., Ersoy N., Çöplü L.
Respiratory health in Turkish asbestos cement workers: The role of environmental exposure
A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the respiratory health effects of occupational asbestos exposure and the contribution of environmental asbestos exposure. Investigations included asbestos dust measurements in the workplace and application of an interviewer-administered questionnaire, a chest X-ray and spirometry. Information on birthplace of the workers was obtained in 406 workers and used to identify environmental exposure to asbestos, through a map of geographic locations with known asbestos levels. Asbestos dust concentration in the ambient air of the work sites (fibre/mL) ranged between 0.2 and 0.76. Environmental exposure to asbestos was determined in 24.4% of the workers. After adjustment for age, smoking, occupational asbestos exposure and potential risk factors, environmental asbestos exposure was associated with small irregular opacities grade ≥1/0 and decreased pulmonary function. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.609-616.27 ref.
Mwaiselage J., Moen B., Bråtveit M.
Acute respiratory health effects among cement factory workers in Tanzania: An evaluation of a simple health surveillance tool
The effects of cement dust exposure on acute respiratory health were assessed among 51 male workers of a cement plant in Tanzania with high exposure and 33 with low exposure. Data on respiratory symptoms were collected during interviews using a structured questionnaire. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured pre-shift and post-shift for each worker. Exposures to respirable and total dust levels were determined from personal sampling. Compared to low exposed workers, high exposed workers had more acute cough, shortness of breath and stuffy nose, and their mean percentage cross-shift decrease in PEF was significantly more pronounced. An exposure-response relationship was found between respirable dust and percentage cross-shift decrease in PEF. Respirable dust exposure ≥2.0mg/m3 versus <2.0mg/m3 was associated with increased prevalence ratio for cough (7.9) and shortness of breath (4.2).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2006, Vol.79, No.1, p.49-56. 31 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/ur01w15333667n83/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Ezeonu F.C., Ezeonu J.N., Edeogu O.C.
Occupational health in the Nigerian cement industry - Workers' awareness and perceptions
A cross-sectional survey of workers at cement plants, sales depots and construction sites in Nigeria was carried out to examine workers' awareness and perception of risks at the workplace, their demographic characteristics, duration of exposure and incidence rates of work-related injuries. The survey involved visits to workplaces and interviewer-administered questionnaires of workers. Findings are discussed and possible reasons for the observed low level of compliance with safety and health legislation are proposed.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2005, Vol.15, No.3, p.73-75. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/39784837-0345-4122-974D-822B6CEC29CA/0/african_newsletter305.pdf [in English]
Mutetwa B., Chikonyora M., Dozva R., Mazibuko D.
The evaluation of chrysotile asbestos fibre levels in major chrysotile cement manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe mines chrysotile asbestos and manufactures asbestos cement pipes and sheets, brake linings and gaskets. The objective of this study was to assess exposure levels in the chrysotile manufacturing industries. A total of 40 personal and environmental samples were collected at two manufacturing sites. Only one area was found to have fibre levels above the acceptable limit of 0.2 fibres/ml set voluntarily by the Zimbabwean industry and all samples were below the proposed threshold limit value of 0.5 fibres/ml.
On Guard, Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.7-11. 8 ref.
Mwaiselage J., Bråveit M., Moen B.E., Mashalla Y.
Respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among cement factory workers
This case-control study assessed chronic respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among workers exposed to cement dust at a Tanzanian cement factory. Subjects included 120 exposed workers and 107 controls. Information on demographics, occupational history, chronic respiratory symptoms, smoking habits and use of respiratory protection equipment was collected by questionnaire. Ventilatory function testing and measurement of personal total dust exposure were also carried out. Exposed workers had more chronic cough, chronic sputum production, dyspnoea, shortness of breath and chronic bronchitis than the controls. These symptoms were significantly related to cumulative dust exposure. The prevalence of COPD was higher for the exposed group (18.8%) than for the controls (4.8%). The odds ratio for COPD was significantly related to cumulative dust exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2005, Vol.31, No.4, p.316-323. 37 ref.
Ballal S.G., Ahmed H.O., Ali B.A., Albar A.A., Alhasan A.Y.
Pulmonary effects of occupational exposure to Portland cement: A study from eastern Saudi Arabia
A cross-sectional study was conducted among employees in a randomly-selected factory producing Portland cement in eastern Saudi Arabia to determine the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases and chest x-ray changes consistent with pneumoconiosis. A sample of 150 exposed and 355 unexposed employees was selected. A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was completed during an interview and chest X-rays were read according to the ILO criteria for pneumoconiosis. Dust level was determined by the gravimetric method. Concentrations of personal respirable dust ranged from 2.13mg/m3 in the kilns to 59.52mg/m3 in the quarry area. Cough and phlegm were found to be related to cigarette smoking, while wheezing, shortness of breath and bronchial asthma were related to dust levels. It is recommended that engineering measures be adopted to reduce the dust level in this company, together with health monitoring of exposed employees.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.10, No.3, p.272-277. 18 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1003_Ballal.pdf [in English]
Benzaazoua M., Fall M., Ouellet S.
Multidisciplinary study to develop a decision support tool for predicting the behaviour of paste backfills
Etude pluridisciplinaire visant à mettre au point un outil expert pour la prédiction du comportement des remblais en pâte [in French]
Paste backfill is used to stabilize underground excavations but is complex to produce and presents various safety issues. There is currently no satisfactory method for establishing the correct composition of cemented paste backfill. Based on experimental data, mathematical models were developed that predict the mechanical strength, consistency, percent solids and the production cost of cemented paste mining backfill. Results have allowed fill properties to be optimized by taking into account important criteria, including worker safety and the technique's feasibility and usefulness. Validated experimentally, the models have resulted in a preliminary version of a decision support tool for the determination of paste fill composition. The work is being pursued to improve the tool and extend its areas of use.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. v, 21p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: CAD 10.00. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-390.pdf [in French]
Smailyte G., Kurtinaitis J., Andersen A.
Mortality and cancer incidence among Lithuanian cement producing workers
2498 cement workers employed in the production units of a Lithuanian cement plant from 1956 to 2000 were followed up from January 1978 to December 2000. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated based on mortality and incidence rates for the overall Lithuanian population. Among male workers, significantly increased SMRs were found for all malignant neoplasms (SMR 1.3) and for lung cancer (SMR 1.4). The SIR for all cancers was 1.2. Excess risk was found for lung cancer (SIR 1.5) and bladder cancer (SIR 1.8). Also, there were indications of an increasing risk of lung and stomach cancers as a function of cumulated exposure to cement dust. Among female workers, the overall cancer incidence was not increased (SIR 0.8). This study supports the hypothesis that exposure to cement dust may increase the lung and bladder cancer risk.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2004, Vol.61, No.6, p.529-534. 21 ref.
Hartwig S., Rupp A., Puls E., Kim J.H., Binder F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Cleaning and maintenance of industrial installations: Exposure to substances
Reinigung und Instandhaltung von Industrieanlagen: Stoffbelastungen [in German]
A total of 175 job observations were carried out in 12 companies during cleaning, maintenance and repair work. The average time needed for the tasks was recorded, and the organization workflow related to the tasks was noted. Moreover, respiratory and dermal exposures were assessed for the distinct tasks during non-normal production modes. The provision conditions and the type and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were noted. It was found that in approximately 25% of the cases investigated, hazardous substances were present in concentrations considerably exceeding the recommended threshold values. The PPEs were wrongly used more than 75% of the cases, and were wrongly dimensioned or not correctly provided in 50% of the cases.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. xvii, 168p. Illus. 57 ref. Price: EUR 16.50.
Baldwin N.J.R., King E.S.
Health and Safety Executive
Field studies of the effectiveness of concrete repairs - Phase 1 Report: Desk study and literature review; Phase 3 Report: Inspection of sites, sampling and testing at selected repair sites; Phase 3a Report: An investigation of the performance of repairs and cathodic protection (CP) systems at the Dartford West Tunnel; Phase 4 Report: Analysis of the effectiveness of concrete repairs and project findings
This series of four reports present the results of various phases of a project aimed at studying the effectiveness of concrete repairs. In phase 1, a literature search was carried out to identify the state of the art with regard to repair materials, methods for selecting and specifying repairs and measurement of effectiveness of repairs. (The report for phase 2 of the project, which involved selecting the locations and procedures for the investigations of carried out in subsequent phases is not published in this series). In phase 3, 65 locations were visited including coastal, river and inland locations. Elements examined included beams, columns, slabs and walls from structures including bridges, tunnels, power stations and other reinforced concrete frame buildings. Investigations involved the collection of samples, visual inspection and non-destructive testing. Phase 3a involved recovery of core samples and their analysis using several specialist techniques. Finally, phase 4 of the project involved site investigations of repairs, and showed that ineffective repairs occurred primarily where the original causes of deterioration had not been addressed, particularly the continued exposure to water, often containing salt.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. Ph. 1: viii, 42p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. Ph. 3: viii, 234p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. Ph. 3a: viii, 27p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. Ph. 4: vii, 80p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr175.pdf (Ph. 1) [in English]
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr184.pdf (Ph. 3) [in English]
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr186.pdf (Ph. 4) [in English]
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr185.pdf (Ph. 3a) [in English]
Health and Safety Executive
This data sheet provides advice on the safe use of cement. Contents: health effects (allergic and/or irritant dermatitis, skin burns, dust inhalation, risks of manual handing); preventive measures (substitution; personal hygiene, gloves and protective clothing); medical surveillance; preventing dust exposure; limiting manual handling; legal provisions. Revision of CIS 97-254.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2002. 3p. 13 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/cis26.pdf [in English]
Meo S.A., Azeem M.A., Ghori M.G., Subhan M.M.F.
Lung function and surface electromyography of intercostal muscles in cement mill workers
This study of cement industry workers used spirometry and surface electromyography (SEMG) of intercostal muscles for measuring pulmonary impairment. A group of 50 healthy male cement mill workers aged 20-60 years with exposure of 13 years on average, were randomly selected, together with 50 controls matched by age, height, weight and socioeconomic status. The results demonstrated statistically significant reductions in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV), peak expiratory flow (PEF), and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) in cement workers compared with controls. Also, the FEV1/FVC ratio was higher in cement workers, while the values of the parameters obtained from SEMG of intercostal muscles were lower. It is concluded that exposure to cement dust not only impairs lung function but also affects intercostal muscle performance.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.3, p.279-287. 48 ref.
Velasco Ortega J., Martín Egurza M.
Evaluation of hygiene risks in quarries and cement plants: General aspects (II)
Evaluación del riesgo higiénico en canteras y cementeras: aspectos generales (II) [in Spanish]
This sequel to the article analysed under CIS 02-1730, covers methods used in industrial hygiene to identify, evaluate and control the main health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical and physical agents during the various operations of open-air quarrying and cement manufacture. Contents: limiting the exposure to physical agents (noise, lighting, heat, ionizing radiation); legislation; medical supervision.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2002, No.162, p.8-21. Illus. 7 ref.
Velasco Ortega J., Martín Egurza M.
Evaluation of hygiene risks in quarries and cement plants: General aspects (I)
Evaluación del riesgo higiénico en canteras y cementeras: aspectos generales (I) [in Spanish]
This article in two parts (see also CIS 02-1731) reviews the current industrial hygiene methods used to identify, evaluate and control the main hazards resulting from exposure to chemical and physical agents during the various operations of open-air quarries and cement manufacturing plants. Contents: description of quarrying and cement manufacturing operations; types of cement (natural, artificial); chemical contaminants (silica, hexavalent chromium, nickel, cobalt) and physical agents (noise, lighting, thermal stress, ionizing radiation); effects of dust exposure on health (deposition in the lungs, silicosis); skin hazards; limiting the exposure to chemicals (monitoring inhalable and breathable dust fractions, hexavalent chromium, other metals); practical example of the evaluation of exposure to dust in two quarries.
Prevención, July-Sep. 2002, No.161, p.8-22. Illus. 8 ref.
Croteau G.A., Guffey S.E., Flanagan M.E., Seixas N.S.
The effect of local exhaust ventilation controls on dust exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities
This study assessed the effectiveness of commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities using various tools. Three ventilation rates were tested for each tool. With the exception of the hand-held saw, the use of LEV resulted in a significant reduction in respirable dust exposure. Although exposure reduction was significant, personal respirable quartz exposures remained very high: 1.4-2.8 times the permissible exposure limit (PEL) at the low ventilation rate and 0.9-1.7 times the PEL at the high ventilation rate. Exposure levels found under actual field conditions would likely be lower due to the intermittent nature of most job tasks. Despite incomplete control, LEV reduces the risk of workers developing disease, allows workers to use a lower level of respiratory protection, protects workers during short duration work episodes, reduces exposure to nearby workers, and reduces clean-up associated dust exposures.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.458-467. Illus. 25 ref.
Courtois B., Lafon D., Moineau J.P., Dornier G.
What we know about cement today
Le point des connaissances sur les ciments [in French]
Although statistics have shown a decline during the last 40 years, cement remains the prime cause of occupational contact dermatitis among workers in the building and construction industry. Contents of this information sheet: cement manufacturing processes; risks for humans (skin damage, eye damage, other diseases); preventive measures (gloves, protective creams, reduction by ferrous sulfate of the chromium VI contained in cement and primarily responsible for contact dermatitis); legal aspects.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2002. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.
De Raeve H., Van Cleemput J., Nemery B.
Airborne polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and cellulose fibre levels in fibre-cement factories in seven European countries
In order to investigate the tendency of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibres to release airborne particles with critical fibrous dimensions (WHO fibres), static and/or personal samples were taken in eight fibre-cement factories at locations where potential exposures to PVA fibres were expected to be the highest. At each factory, a control sample was taken in open air. Sampling, sample preparation and sample analysis by scanning electron microscopy were performed according to standard German procedures. Only very low concentrations of organic WHO fibres, ranging from below the detection limit to 0.006f/mL, were found. These levels are lower than the typical levels of organic fibres commonly found in the normal personal environment (0.009-0.02f/mL), stemming from the release of particles by a person's activities and from clothing and other household textiles. The handling of PVA fibres as well as the machining of PVA and cellulose fibre containing cement products in the fibre-cement factories surveyed have a low potential to release fibres with critical fibrous (WHO) dimensions.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Nov. 2001, Vol.45, No.8, p.625-630. Illus. 27 ref.
Occupational skin diseases due to cement (calcium aluminosilicates)
Dermatoses professionnelles au ciment (alumino-silicates de calcium) [in French]
The construction industry is a sector with a high risk of occupational skin diseases. These are mainly due to exposure to cement, which can give rise to severe burns as well as to allergic contact eczemas. The "Sumer 94" survey (see CIS 95-161) showed that approximately 310,000 workers are exposed to cement in France. The most common allergen contained in cement is chromium VI. In certain countries, decreases in the incidence of skin diseases have been observed among persons exposed to cement following the adoption of legislation limiting the chromium content of cement. Contents of this article on occupational skin diseases due to cement: cement composition; skin toxicity; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention; compensation.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.88, p.419-429. Illus. 60 ref.
Occupational skin diseases: Cement still causes victims
Dermatoses professionnelles: le ciment fait toujours des victimes [in French]
According to the SUMER 94 survey (see CIS 95-161), more than 300,000 workers are exposed to cement in France. Cement is both corrosive and allergenic, the allergic effects being in particular due to the presence of chromium. Several countries are committed to reducing the chromium content of cement. As a result, skin diseases caused by cement have decreased from 3.1% of compensated occupational diseases in France in 1994 to 1.37% in 1998. Topics covered in this special feature on skin diseases caused by cement: corrosive and allergic effects of cement; allergic effects of chromium VI compounds; chromate chemistry; packaging of cement (in bulk or bags); importance of personal protection; trends over the last 30 years highlighting a 90% decrease in skin diseases caused by cement.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2001, No.609, p.22-28. Illus. 6 réf.
Algranti E., Mendonça E.M.C., DeCapitani E.M., Freitas J.B.P., Silva H.C., Bussacos M.A.
Non-malignant asbestos-related diseases in Brazilian asbestos-cement workers
828 former asbestos-cement workers enrolled in a cross-sectional and cohort study of respiratory morbidity were submitted to a detailed occupational history, respiratory symptoms questionnaire, spirometry, chest x-ray, and high resolution computed chest tomography (HRCT). Asbestosis and pleural thickening were assessed according to HRCT criteria. Asbestosis was present in 74 (8.9%) and pleural thickening in 246 (29.7%) cases. Latency time from first exposure was the best predictor for both asbestosis and pleural thickening. Subjects in the higher exposure groups presented lower levels of lung function. Obstructive defects were significantly related to smoking, shortness of breath, body mass index, and age, whereas restrictive defects were related to asbestosis, shortness of breath, and latency time. Chronic bronchitis increased with latency time in the three smoking groups and was significantly related to pleural thickening (OR 1.56). Shortness of breath was significantly associated with body mass index and pleural thickening (OR 1.30).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.240-254. Illus. 69 ref.
Spoo J., Elsner P.
Cement burns: A review 1960-2000
The literature on cement burns of the skin published during the last 4 decades is reviewed. 51 case reports were analysed with special regard to common modes of injury, localization of cement exposure, preventive measures taken and treatment. Cement burns are occupational injuries, but they also involve consumers during do-it-yourself work. In 49% of the cases, no attempt to protect the skin had been made. The majority of injuries were located on the lower legs and knees. Full-thickness burns were reported in 66% of cases. Surgery had to be performed in 34% of the cases. Cement burns can be avoided by adequate skin protection (boots, work trousers, gloves). Although acute cement injuries may seem rare, prospective studies should be carried out for correct estimation of prevalence. The need for information on the harmful properties of cement in the occupational as well as domestic environment is emphasized.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2001, Vol.45, No.2, p.68-71. Illus. 29 ref.
Guidelines on the handling of asbestos materials
These guidelines prepared by the Department of Industrial Health are aimed at those who undertake work with asbestos or asbestos containing materials. Contents: relevant legislation; health risks; identification of asbestos containing materials and notification of work involving asbestos; procedures for the handling of asbestos-based materials in the building and civil engineering industries; removal of asbestos-based insulating lagging; removal of asbestos-based materials from buildings; protective clothing and equipment; personal hygiene; dust monitoring; medical examinations. Appendices include: notification form of processes involving asbestos; list of asbestos-analysing laboratories and of companies supplying industrial vacuum cleaners and dust extracting systems; threshold limit values; sampling strategies for in-plant environmental surveillance programmes; hygiene monitoring report form and example of report; proposed environmental management courses; list of organization conducting air monitoring and/or sample analysis; application form for permission to dispose of asbestos waste.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Safety and Health Division, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, June 2000. 30p.
http://www.mom.gov.sg/MOM/OHD/Publications/586_HandAsbestos.pdf [in English]
Rühl R., Hadrich D.
Fighting against skin diseases due to exposure to cement
Gegen Hautschäden durch Zement [in German]
Cement-induced skin diseases (cement dermatitis) constitute an important occupational issue in a number of countries. The high alkalinity of cement and the abrasion of hands when working with cement are the causes of cement-induced chemical and irritating dermatitis. These two factors are also the precursors of allergies to chromates which result from chromate compounds included in cement. Leather gloves do not ensure protection from alkalinity. The most efficient measure to reduce skin diseases due to cement is to lower the proportion of chromate compounds in cement. Statistics from Denmark and Finland show a decline of cement-induced chromate sensitivity after the proportion of chromate compounds in cement was lowered as a result of new regulations.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, 2000, No.2, p.18-21. Illus. 7 ref.
Robaina Aguirre C, León Palenzuela I.M.
Epidemiological study of work incapacitation from musculoskeletal disorders
Análisis epidemiológico de la incapacidad laboral por trastornos del sistema osteomioarticular [in Spanish]
This study analyses work incapacitation as a result of musculoskeletal disorders in a cement factory in Spain. The study involved all 743 workers (596 men and 147 women) employed in the enterprise in 1996 and was based on the analysis of work incapacitation certificates. During that year, 81 workers suffered from an osteoarticular disease involving loss of work time, the most frequent being lumbosacral pain (46.9%). No relationship was found between the incidence of these disorders and other occupational factors observed at the place of work. However, there was a significant relationship with previous occurrences of the disorder.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1999, Vol.XLVI, No.183, p.65-72. Illus. 21 ref.
Struppek K., Ludwig S.
Prevention of chromate eczema in the construction industry
Prävention des Chromat-Ekzems im Baugewerbe [in German]
Chromate eczema is still one of the most important occupational skin diseases in the German construction industry. Primary prevention can be improved by partially substituting chromates by ferrous sulfate, a solution which is already being practiced. Moreover, nitrile-coated rubber gloves are suitable for protecting the skin when working with cement products. A survey also indicates that 60% of the persons questioned found that nitrile-coated rubber gloves are more comfortable, longer lasting and ensure better protection against humidity than traditional leather gloves.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Jan.-Feb. 1999, Vol.47, No.1, p.13-15. Illus. 13 ref.
Alvear-Galindo M.G., Mendez-Ramirez I., Villegas-Rodriguez J.A., Chapela-Mendoza R., Eslava-Campos C.A., Laurell A.C.
Risk indicator of dust exposure and health effects in cement plant workers
A frequent problem in developing countries is the lack of reliable records on occupational hazards. This article proposes and evaluates a two-phase method for estimating particle exposure. The first phase uses the focal group technique to reconstruct the production process and estimate the level of dust exposure. The second phase applies the technique of individual history of exposure to hazards at work, an index that accumulates current and previous exposure. This method was introduced in a cement plant to assess the dust-exposure levels of workers and to evaluate its usefulness in the association between estimated exposure levels and the frequency of health effects. Results obtained showed that it is possible to reconstruct the history of exposure to cement dust during each worker's occupational history. The results also showed that estimated exposure is related to respiratory damage; higher exposure resulted in more serious diseases. This supports the usefulness of the suggested methodology.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.41, No.8, p.654-661. Illus. 26 ref.
Jalbert R., Vallières E., Fauchon R.
Dampening contact noise
Amortir le bruit par contact [in French]
Vibrating tables used for the compacting of concrete represent a frequently-encountered source of noise in companies involved in the manufacture of prefabricated concrete elements. The use of a damping material in such a vibratory system may allow the attenuation of the noise intensity, thereby reducing the exposure of workers to noise. This article describes the use of a noise damping coating material (nitrile rubber) applied to the surface of metallic supports fixed onto the vibrating table, which enabled the reduction of workers' exposure to 91dB instead of 100dB without the coating.
Travail et santé, Dec. 1999, Vol.15, No.4, p.17-19. Illus. 3 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Working with asbestos cement
Topics: asbestos cement; asbestos; construction work; demolition; disposal of harmful waste; dust control; hazard evaluation; limitation of exposure; notification of dangerous substances; protective clothing; respirators; United Kingdom; uses.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Feb. 1999. iv, 44p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.
Iscovich J., Fischbein A., Witt-Kushner J., Ginsberg G., Richter E., Tulchinsky T.
Malignant mesothelioma in Israel, 1961-1992
The incidence and distribution of malignant mesothelioma in Israel from 1961 to 1992 were analysed. The study concentrated on 223 patients who developed mesothelioma during this period and a cohort of 3,057 male asbestos-cement workers. The annual incidence rates of malignant mesothelioma in Jewish men ranged between 2.5 per million between 1961 and 1982 and 4.6 per million in 1985-92. Women accounted for 37.6% of all cases, after exclusion of the cohort of asbestos workers. Of the 223 cases, 202 had no indication of direct occupational exposure to asbestos. In Jewish women, the incidence of malignant mesothelioma did not increase after 1961. The mean age at diagnosis in all cases was lowest in the Israeli-born. High levels of asbestos exposure in the 1970s and the relatively early age of onset of the disease indicate that exposure began at a younger age in Israel than in European countries. Asbestos manufacture and use peaked in Israel during the mid-1970s, so that the maximum impact of these trends has yet to be seen.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.157-163. Illus. 21 ref.
Guo Y.L., Wang B., Yeh K.C., Wang J.C., Kao H.H., Wang M.T., Shih H.C., Chen C.J.
Dermatoses in cement workers in southern Taiwan
A total of 1,147 current regular cement workers were telephone-interviewed about skin problems during the past 12 months, work exposure, and personal protection. Among those interviewed, 166 were examined and patch tested with common contact allergens. A high percentage of cement workers reported skin problems in the past 12 months. More men (13.9%) reported skin problems possibly related to work than women (5.4%). Prevalence was associated with lower use of gloves, duration of work as a cement worker, and more time in jobs involving direct manual handling of cement, especially tiling. On patch testing, construction workers had a high frequency of sensitivity to chromate. It is concluded that cement workers in southern Taiwan had a high prevalence of skin problems related to cement use. Topics: building industry; cobalt; cement; chromates; eczema; irritants; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; occupation disease relation; questionnaire survey; sensitization dermatitis; sex-linked differences; skin diseases; skin tests; Taiwan (China).
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1999, Vol.40, No.1, p.1-7. 22 ref.
Tulchinsky T.H., Ginsberg G.M., Iscovich J., Shihab S., Fischbein A., Richter E.D.
Cancer in ex-asbestos cement workers in Israel, 1953-1992
A cohort of 3,057 workers employed in an asbestos-cement plant located in Northern Israel was followed from 1953-1992 for incidence and mortality from cancer. In the years 1978-1992, the cohort had an elevated risk for all malignant neoplasms combined, lung cancer, mesothelioma, unspecified pleural cancer, and liver cancer. Risks for colo-rectal, bladder and renal cancers were less than expected. Risk for mesothelioma showed a sharp risk gradient with duration of exposure, increasing from 1 per 625 for those employed less than 2 years to 1 per 4.5 workers employed over 30 years. The ratio of mesothelioma to excess lung cancer cases was 2.9 to 1, or 3.6 to 1 if pleural cases of unspecified origin were included; the pleura to peritoneum ratio of verified mesothelioma cases was 20 to 1. It is suggested that this atypically high ratio of mesothelioma to excess lung cancer cases is the combined result of high past asbestos exposures in the workers and their low prior risk for lung cancer, and possibly, relatively early smoking cessation in relation to asbestos exposure. Topics: asbestos cement industry; asbestos; cancer; cohort study; Israel; liver cancer; long-term exposure; lung cancer; mesothelioma; morbidity; smoking.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.35, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 36 ref.
Asselineau M., Lovat G., Danière P., Arbey H.S.
Vibrating tables in the concrete industry: Analysis of noise generation mechanisms for noise reduction at the source
Tables vibrantes utilisées dans l'industrie du béton: analyse des mécanismes de génération du bruit pour une réduction à la source [in French]
European directives require manufacturers of industrial machinery to reduce the noise emitted by their machines to the lowest possible levels, in particular by acting at the noise source level. This requires a proper understanding of the mechanisms responsible for noise in each component of the machine. This understanding makes it possible to act directly at the noise source level, and to estimate improvements likely to be achieved. Vibrating tables which are widely used in the cement industry constitute a major source of noise both for the operator and for the surrounding environment. Means of considerably reducing noise emissions at the source are presented in this paper, including reducing workload, limiting shocks, eliminating resonance, and damping the walls from which noise is radiated. The improvements in acoustic performance that can be expected form these different methods are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1998, No.170, Note No.2071-170-98, p.21-32. Illus. 25 ref.
Working on buried asbestos cement pipes
Travaux sur canalisations enterrées en amiante-ciment [in French]
Topics: asbestos cement; asbestos; construction industry; directive; disposal of harmful waste; France; legal aspects; legislation; particulate removing respirators; piping; protective clothing; responsibilities of employers; shearing and cutting; standard; underground work.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 1998, No.579, p.46-51. Illus.
Vezencev A.I., Nejman S.M., Naumova L.N.
Chrysotile asbestos emission from asbestos cement
Emissija hrizotil-asbesta iz asbestocementnyh izdelij [in Russian]
The release of chrysotile fibres from fresh and weathered (up to 36 years) asbestos cement building elements was investigated by electron microscopy. The emission of respirable fibres drops off with age at element surfaces that exhibit aggregation and chemical transformation (leaching, change in electrokinetic potential). Fibre emission is heavier from freshly fractured surfaces. It is suggested that stopping production is not warranted in view of a lower biological activity of the aged mineral, and it is recommended that the medical-biological properties of weathered chrysotile asbestos (cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity) be determined.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, 1998, No.1, p.40-44. Illus.
Dodic-Fikfak M., Kristancic Z., Rahotina L., Vidic R.
Case study: Slovenia - Asbestos valley
Events at the Salonit Anhovo asbestos cement factory in Slovenia that led to the banning of asbestos in Slovenia in 1996 are described. Two different perspectives are presented: the story of the company management which realized the risks of using asbestos and proposed its ban in Slovenia; and the story of the local non-governmental organization that first discovered the dangers of asbestos and began a long struggle to protect workers, community and the environment. Topics: asbestos cement industry; asbestos; breast cancer; cancer; case study; gastrointestinal cancer; industrial organization; lung cancer; mesothelioma; prohibition of use; rectal cancer; role of government; role of private bodies; role of workers organizations; Slovenia.
New Solutions, 1998, Vol.8, No.4, p.469-478. Illus.
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