Trenching and excavating - 123 entries found
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Ravallec C., Richez J.P., Lemarié J.
Underground work - Hardly visible but nonetheless real hazards
Travaux souterrains - Des risques peu visibles mais bien réels [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on occupational hazards during underground work: specific features of underground construction sites; regulatory aspects; construction site of the extension of a Paris subway line; rendering road tunnels safe; underground work at height; safety lighting; workstation of a tunnel boring machine conductor; pollution control of underground quarry earthmoving machines; renovation of underground wine cellars in the Champagne region of France.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2011, No.716, p.20-34. Illus. 4 ref.
Travaux_souterrains.pdf [in French]
Goffeng L.O., Alvestrand M., Ulvestad B., Sørensen K.A., Skaug V., Kjuus H.
Self-reported symptoms and neuropsychological function among tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide
The aim of this study was to examine possible exposure-related symptoms and neuropsychological changes among 44 tunnel workers exposed 2-10 years earlier to grout containing acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide. The control group consisted of 49 male tunnel workers with no history of acrylamide exposure. Questionnaires were used to assess retrospectively recalled symptoms during work and current symptoms at the time of the examination. The prevalence of paresthesia in hands and legs, and leg cramps during work periods were higher in the exposed than control group. Self-reported prevalence of skin irritation, peeling of skin on the hands, white-finger attacks, headache, and breathlessness was also higher among the exposed workers. The questionnaire on current symptoms indicated higher symptom prevalence among the exposed of impaired memory and concentration, emotional change, sleep disturbances, tiredness, headache and sensory or motor changes. In contrast, no association was found between neuropsychological test results and acrylamide exposure, adjusting for relevant confounders.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.136-146. 33 ref.
Self-reported_symptoms.pdf [in English]
Aneziris O.N., Papazoglou I.A., Kallianiotis D.
Occupational risk of tunneling construction
This article presents the quantification of occupational risk during the construction of a highway tunnel located in Northern Greece. Risk assessment is based on the Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM) project, developed in the Netherlands. This model can assess occupational risk at hazard level, activity level, job level and overall company risk. Seventeen job positions were identified for this construction project, including operators of drilling machines, loaders, excavators and spraying machines, crane operators, blasters, welders, project supervisors, truck drivers and various other workers participating in the major construction phases. All risk profiles of workers were quantified and jobs were ranked according to their risk. Occupational risk was assessed for two major tunnel construction phases, the excavation and primary support and the final lining and support of the tunnel. Findings are discussed.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.964-972. Illus. 14 ref.
Specialized underground engineering in Europe - Analysis of accidents having occurred between 1998 and 2008
Spezialtiefbau in Europa - Analyse des Unfallgeschehens in den Jahren 1998 bis 2008 [in German]
This article analyses approximately 4000 accidents having occurred between 1998 and 2008 in specialized underground engineering work in 13 European countries, on the basis of accident reports. The results are expressed by sector of activity, age group, hour of day, day of the week, shift duration, type of job and accident cause. Data on the location of injury and the severity rate by age group are also presented.
Tiefbau, Apr. 2009, Vol.121, No.4, p.220-224. Illus.
Development of an integrated method for analyzing the stability of backfilled stope
Développement d'une méthode intégrée d'analyse de stabilité des chantiers miniers remblayés [in French]
When mining operations require the use of cemented paste backfill (CPB), a system must be planned that provides the desired structural stability and safe space. Generally, the confined block model combined with a high safety factor is used to estimate the strength of the CPB required, and then formulations of mixtures of paste backfill are optimized in order to choose the best, according to the case. However, since the confined block was planned for a backfill with an internal friction angle of zero, limiting oneself to this single model shows a lack of knowledge about the subject, even while admitting that the friction angle would tend towards zero over the long term. However, the short and medium terms should also be taken into account. This study consisted of numerous experimental tests for the purpose of developing models for predicting and evaluating the distribution of stresses in backfilled sites. These models show the existence and variation in arching, which has direct impacts on costs. This report proposes a method for analyzing the stability of backfilled mining sites that integrates all the components of CPB. The method mainly allows the theoretical value of the required strength to be estimated, which helps meet the objectives due to the targeted optimization of mixture formulations.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2009. x, 49p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: CAD 12.60. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-622.pdf [in French]
Cuéllar Sastoque C.A., Hernández Ramírez A.
Safety during excavation work and work in confined spaces in the construction of road infrastructures in Bogota
Trabajo seguro en excavaciones mecánicas y espacios confinados en obras de infraestructura vial en Bogotá [in Spanish]
This article describes a project aimed at designing and validating a manual of safe procedures for excavation work and work in confined spaces during road work in the city of Bogota, Colombia. Following a literature survey, the study involved a descriptive investigation of the safety characteristics in mechanical excavations and confined spaces of six works by means of observations, check lists and interviews. The resulting manual was submitted for review to a group of experts who proposed several improvements.
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2009, Vol.55, No.323, p.58-68. Illus. 26 ref.
Lehman E.J., Hein M.J., Estill C.F.
Proportionate mortality study of the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry
This study examined causes of deaths among unionized plumbers, pipefitters and allied trades in the United States. Deaths of union members from the years 1971, 1979, 1987, and 1995 were selected as a representative sample from a computer file provided by the union. These years provided 15,411 deaths for proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) analysis. PMRs for lung cancer and asbestosis were significantly elevated compared to white males in the United States. PMRs for chronic disease of the endocardium and cardiomyopathy were also elevated. However, no elevated risks were observed for other diseases. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.51, No.12, p.950-963. 50 ref.
Excavation work in trenches
Les travaux de fouilles en tranchées [in French]
Risks related to open excavation work are diverse, including the collapse of adjacent buildings or the accidental burial of workers. Whenever possible, other techniques such as shaft driving or cutting should be used. If trenching cannot be avoided, risks need to be evaluated and safety measures adopted, as described in this article with respect to earthmoving machines, storage, trench support, underground networks, trench marking, personal protective equipment, construction site demarcation and reinforcement of adjacent buildings.
Prévention BTP, Apr. 2007, No.95, p.32-33. Illus.
Advantages of techniques not requiring trenching
Les avantages des techniques sans tranchée [in French]
This article describes the various techniques of underground work that do not require trench work. They mainly involve the laying or repairing of pipes. By avoiding having to dig up roads, they allow important savings and minimize obstructions to traffic. They are less hazardous than traditional methods, but nonetheless require certain precautions, particularly during work near roads which are kept open to traffic.
Prévention BTP, May 2007, No.96, p.36-47. Illus.
Lance G.A., Anderson J.M.
Health and Safety Executive
The risk to third parties from bored tunnelling in soft ground
This study has looked at the hazards that are associated with soft ground tunnelling in urban areas. It considered all the types of construction methods currently used. Data on tunnel incidents has been taken from the published literature as well as from data compiled by the authors. This has been used to understand and describe the range of possible primary and underlying causes of failures. Methodologies for the mitigation of risks are examined and recommendations are made for the effective management of future urban tunnelling projects.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. viii, 67p. Illus. 72 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr453.pdf [in English]
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo
Safety manual - Cable television
Contents of this guide on safe working methods when laying or repairing television cables: electrical hazards (low and medium voltage); personal protective equipment (safety spectacles, helmets, gloves, shoes, clothing); safety equipment and harnesses; work at height; first aid.
CPL Contacto Profesional, Av. Corrientes 5354 Piso 2 "E" (C1414AJT), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2006. 30p. Illus. 5 ref.
Heavy equipment and truck-related deaths on excavation work sites
This study analyses the causes of heavy equipment and truck-related deaths during excavation work, based on data from the 253 deaths having occurred in the United States between 1992 and 2002. Heavy equipment operators and construction labourers made up 63% of the deaths. Backhoes and trucks were involved in half the deaths. Rollovers were the main cause of death among heavy equipment operators. For workers on foot and maintenance workers, being struck by heavy equipment or trucks and being struck by equipment loads or parts were the major causes of death. Various preventive measures are proposed.
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.5, p.511-517. 16 ref.
Meguellati-Hakkas D., Cyr D., Stücker I., Févotte J., Pilorget C., Luce D., Guénel P.
Lung cancer mortality and occupational exposure to asbestos among telephone linemen: A historical cohort study in France
The objective of this cohort study was to analyse mortality from lung cancer in telephone linemen exposed to low levels of asbestos during the installation of telephone cables. A total of 308 lung cancer deaths were identified in the cohort. Exposure to asbestos and other occupational carcinogens was assessed using a job-exposure matrix. The relative risk for lung cancer death associated with an estimated exposure of approximately 2 fibres/cc-years was 2.1 as compared with workers exposed to less than 0.5 fibres/cc-years. Mean annual exposure or exposure duration were not clearly related to lung cancer. Adjustment for other occupational lung carcinogens did not change this finding. The observed mortality by lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure at low levels is higher than the prediction based on linear extrapolations from data on highly exposed occupational cohorts.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2006, Vol.48, No.11, p.1166-1172. 20 ref.
Finkelstein M.M., Verma D.K.
A cohort study of mortality among Ontario pipe trades workers
A cohort of 25,285 plumbing and pipe fitting workers in the United States and Canada who entered the trade after 1949 was assembled from union records. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using Ontario (Canada) general population mortality rates as the reference. There were significant increases in lung cancer mortality rates (SMR 1.27). Increased lung cancer risk was observed among workers joining the union as late as the 1970s. A meta-analysis of this study and two earlier studies found significant increases in oesophageal (relative risk - RR 1.24), lung (RR 1.31), and haematological and lymphatic malignancies (RR 1.21). The mortality pattern is consistent with the effects of occupational exposure to asbestos. However, increased risk due to other respiratory carcinogens such as welding fumes cannot be excluded.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.61, No.9, p.736-742. 8 ref.
Deatherage J.H., Furches L.K., Radcliffe M., Schriver W.R., Wagner J.P.
Neglecting safety precautions may lead to trenching fatalities
Trench collapses ranked as the seventh leading cause in 29 among OSHA-inspected fatal construction events during the period 1991-2001. This study aims to examine why these fatalities occurred. Forty-four case files from OSHA inspections of fatal trench collapses were reviewed. It was found that improper protection of the excavation site was the leading fatality cause. Several organizational or physical conditions were present at many fatal sites, the most frequent being that no training had been provided for trenching. Presence of a competent, diligent person at the site would have prevented most fatalities.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2004, Vol.45, No.6, p.522-527. Illus. 9 ref.
Trenching and excavation work presents serious hazards to all workers involved. Cave-ins pose the greatest risk and are much more likely than other excavation-related accidents to result in worker fatalities. Other potential hazards include falls, falling loads, hazardous atmospheres and incidents involving mobile equipment. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) excavation and trenching safety standard specifies requirements for excavation and trenching operations. This booklet highlights key elements of the standard, shows ways to protect employees against cave-ins and describes safe work practices for employees. Contents: OSHA's excavation and trenching standard; preplanning; protective systems; additional hazards and protections; OSHA's assistance, services and programmes.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 2002. iv, 37p. Illus.
http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha2226.pdf [in English]
Ferreira da Silva O., Fernandes Vieira M., Custódio D., Balbão Andrade L.R., de Almeida Gusmão F.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Technical recommendation on procedures - Excavations, foundations and rock blasting
Recomendação técnica de procedimentos - Escavações, fundações e desmonte de rochas [in Portuguese]
This technical recommendation describes the risks related to excavation work, work in excavated foundations, pile driving and rock blasting using explosives, and specifies the technical measures to be implemented to ensure the safety of workers. Reference is also made to applicable standards.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2002. 35p. Illus. 15 ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/CTN/rtp03.pdf [in Portuguese]
Suruda A., Whitaker B., Bloswick D., Philips P., Sesek R.
Impact of the OSHA Trench and Excavation Standard on fatal injury in the construction industry
In 1989, the US Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) revised the Trench and Excavation Standard. Fatal injuries from trench cave-ins in the construction industry were examined for five year periods before and after the revision in the 47 US states for which data were available for both periods. There was a two-fold decline in the rate of fatal injury after revision of the standard, which substantially exceeded the decline in other causes of fatal injury in the construction industry during the same period. The decline was somewhat greater in large business firms but was evident in construction firms of all size classes. The fatality rate from trench cave-in in union construction workers was approximately half that of non-union workers, but it was not possible to determine whether this was best explained by union status, employment of union workers at larger construction firms, or both. This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of OSHA regulation in preventing fatal work injury.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.44, No.10, p.902-905. Illus. 18 ref.
Guidelines on trenching for construction safety
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Aras 2, 3 dan 4, Blok D3, Parcel D, Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62502 Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2000. 10p. Illus.
http://dosh.mohr.gov.my/koperat/G-PANDUAN%20PDF/GUIDE-Trench%205-00%20(I).pdf [in English]
Safety during excavation work
Seguridad en trabajos de excavación [in Spanish]
In the construction sector, excavation work is particularly dangerous, with a high risk of collapse in the absence of safety precautions. This booklet outlines some of the safety measures applicable to open excavation work. Contents: stabilization of trench walls; main hazards; types of soil; preventive measures (design of trench dimensions, shoring, reinforcement structures, slope angles); check list for hazard evaluation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 15p. Illus.
Kinn S., Khuder S.A., Bisesi M.S., Wooley S.
Evaluation of safety orientation and training programs for reducing injuries in the plumbing and pipefitting industry
The effectiveness of employee orientation and training in reducing injuries among plumbers and pipe fitters was studied. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration's occupational injury data and safety and training records for six plumbing and pipefitting employers were examined. During the period 1996 to 1998, 133 injuries were recorded during 2,541,432 working hours. The most common types of injuries were cuts, lacerations and abrasions, the majority resulting from workers being struck by objects. The injury rate was significantly higher for small companies and companies working longer hours. 75% of workers received an orientation on injury prevention. Among workers who received a safety orientation, only 3.4% experienced injuries, compared with 11.1% of workers without an orientation. Proper safety orientation and training could significantly reduce the risks for occupational injuries in construction workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.42, No.12, p.1142-1147. Illus. 14 ref.
Hurt K.G., MacAndrew K., Bigby D.N.
Health and Safety Executive
Handbook on ground control at small coal mines
This handbook contains advice on the geotechnical aspects of ground control intended for small coalmine operators. It should be read in conjunction with the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) document Guidance on the design, installation and use of free standing support systems in coal mines (HSE, 2000), which gives specific advice on support systems, including those typically used in small mines. The handbook is the result of a research project funded by HSE to assist small mines to improve support safety and comply with the new ground control regulations which came into force in December 1999. The handbook contains advice derived from the research undertaken. A full report on the research project is available through HSE Mines Inspectorate.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iii, 59p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Avoiding danger from underground services
This guidance updates the previous edition (see CIS 90-1934). Topics covered: dangers arising from work near underground services (electricity and telecommunications, gas pipes, water pipes and sewers and other pipelines); planning of the work; use of cable and pipe locating devices, safe digging and filling practices; safe use of trenchless methods.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Jan. 2000. iv, 48p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety in excavations - Be safe and shore
During work in excavations, many construction workers are killed and injured in the collapse of inadequately-supported excavations. Aimed at all persons involved in the construction process, this booklet provides guidance on precautionary measures to avoid accidents caused by the collapse of ground during excavation work. Contents include: hazards and control measures; planning, design and management, legal requirements in the United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 1999. vi, 58p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.
'Dem bones, 'dem bones - Health and safety in church archaeology
Topics: biological hazards; body tissues; bones; lead; contagion; emotivity; health hazards; personal protective equipment; physical hazards; research; smallpox; trenching and excavating; work in confined spaces.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Nov. 1999, Vol.17, No.11, p.12-15. Illus. 5 ref.
NIOSH Alert - Preventing injuries and deaths from skid-steer loaders
Topics: accident descriptions; comment on standard; data sheet; earthmoving equipment; fatalities; mechanical hazards; preventive maintenance; safe working methods; safety devices; safety guides; trenching and excavating; USA.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226-1998, USA, Feb. 1998, 11p. Illus. 11 ref.
Jakobsson K., Kronholm-Diab K., Rylander L., Hagmar L.
Airway symptoms and lung function in pipelayers exposed to thermal degradation products from MDI-based polyurethane
The prevalence of episodes of irritative eye symptoms, congestion of the nose and soreness or dryness in the throat was much higher among a group of pipelayers exposed to polyurethane (PUR) containing methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) than among unexposed controls. Most of the pipelayers with symptoms reported that these had started and occurred in relation to PUR welding tasks. Pipelayers with recent high PUR exposure showed a significant reduction of forced expiratory volume in one second compared with controls. Exposure to thermal degradation products from MDI-based polyurethane has adverse effects on the mucous membranes and airways. Topics: diphenylmethane diisocyanate; polyurethane; epidemiologic study; irritation; one-second forced expiratory volume; pipelaying; pulmonary function; pyrolysis products; respiratory diseases; smoking; welding and cutting.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1997, Vol.54, No.12, p.873-879. 22 ref.
Travaux de fouilles en tranchées [in French]
Topics: collapse; construction industry; construction sites; France; legislation; sloping of trench sides; soil stability; training manuals; training material; trench shoring; trenching and excavating.
Organisme Professionnel de Prévention du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics (OPPBTP), 204, rond-point du Pont-de Sèvres, Tour Amboise, 92516 Boulogne-Billancourt, France, 1st Quarter, 1997. 23p. Illus. 8 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Safety in excavations
Data sheet on safety in excavations (United Kingdom), 1997. Topics: data sheet; trench shoring; trenching and excavating; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1997. 3p. Illus. 3 ref.
Ministerial Resolution of 1996 laying down minimum safety and health measures applicable to construction companies involved in open-air excavations [Nicaragua]
Resolución ministerial de 1996 referente a las medidas básicas de seguridad e higiene que deben adoptar las empresas y firmas constructoras que realicen excavaciones a cielo abierto [Nicaragua] [in Spanish]
Topics: belts, harnesses and lifelines; cable laying; hazard identification; law; Nicaragua; opencast work; personal protective equipment; pipelaying; trenching and excavating.
Compendio de resoluciones y normativas en materia de higiene y seguridad del trabajo, Ministerio del Trabajo, Managua, Nicaragua, 1996. 3p.
Code of practice for excavation
Topics: Australia; directive; glossary; ground consolidation; hazard evaluation; pile driving; propping; risk factors; safety checks; safety engineering; trench shoring; trenching and excavating; Western Australia.
WorkSafe Western Australia Commission, Westcentre, 1260 Hay Street, West Perth, WA 6005, Australia, Dec. 1996. 64p. Illus. Price: AUD 3.00.
Pits and trenches for pipes and cables
Gruben, Gräben, Künetten [in German]
Replaces Merkblatt M 28 (CIS 89-1011). Topics: Austria; cable laying; data sheet; pipelaying; safety guides; trench shoring; trenching and excavating.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1201 Wien, Austria, 1996. 20p. Illus.
About trench and excavation safety
Training booklet on safety in trenching and excavation. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1995. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###
Holanda M.A., Martins M.P.S., Felismino P.H., Pinheiro V.G.F.
Silicosis in Brazilian pit diggers - Relationship between dust exposure and radiologic findings
A study of 366 pit diggers in northeastern Brazil, including a questionnaire and chest X-ray, revealed 121 (33.306%) silicotics and possible silicotics. Since the study population comprised itinerant workers performing occasional digging activities, a dust exposure index was developed to determine the exact duration of dust exposure; the mean value of the index was 391.4 days. A clear association was revealed between duration of exposure and the incidence of silicosis. The geoclimatic conditions of the area resulted in very high dust concentrations and the silicosis occurred in its accelerated form.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.27, No.3, p.367-378. Illus. 20 ref.
Approved code of practice for safety in excavation and shafts for foundations
Part 1 of this code of practice covers trenches and open excavations: general safety provisions (modes of failure, excavations requiring shoring, angle of slope, protection of the public and employees, surface water and drainage, harmful gases); recommended safe practices for excavations; methods of shoring; open excavations. Part 2 covers shafts and drives for foundations: precautions during construction of drilled large-diameter shafts for piling and other purposes; ventilation, gas hazards, symptoms and effects.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Sep. 1995. 50p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.
Ground Control Seminar, February 18-21, 1992, Haileybury School of Mines, Haileybury, Ontario
Contents of a seminar held in Northern Ontario (Canada) on 18-21 Feb. 1992. Topics covered: structural geology and engineering properties of rocks; rock pressure, signs of potentially hazardous ground control conditions; drilling and blasting controls; mine design and ground control considerations; ground support systems; a case history. Several journal articles on ground control are reproduced. Glossary.
Mines Accident Prevention Association of Ontario, P.O. Box 1468, North Bay, Ont. P1B 8K6, Canada, 1992. Multiple paging. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for prefabricated trench shoring
Sicherheitsregeln für Grabenverbaugeräte [in German]
These safety rules are applicable from 1 Apr. 1992 in combination with other rules of good practice, including 36 laws, ordinances, directives and standards cited in an appendix. They cover the construction, marking, use and inspection of completely prefabricated shoring units and frames designed to be fitted with planking on site.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Germany, Apr. 1992. 18p. Illus. Price: DEM 3.00.
González Borrego A.L.
Trenches: Prevention of earth collapse
Zanjas: prevención del desprendimiento de tierras [in Spanish]
This information note on the prevention of earth collapse in trenches covers general preventive measures and different procedures for trench shoring. Graphics and tables are included.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 8p. Illus. 5 ref.
Code of practice on safety and health in roadworks, excavation, sewer maintenance and renovation works
This code of practice outlines safety and health hazards and precautions during: roadworks (pneumatic tools, noise, vibration, work with asphalt and cement, exposure to carbon monoxide, heat stress, manual lifting, temporary lighting, work with solvents); excavation and trenching (general safety provisions, support of excavation edges, dust, gases and vapours); sewer maintenance (precautions in confined spaces); renovation works (means of access and egress, fire hazards, falling objects, machinery guarding, hand tools and portable power driven tools, welding and flame cutting, electrical hazards, demolition, painting, work with asbestos, wood, adhesives and corrosive chemicals).
Ministry of Labour, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 0105, Republic of Singapore, 1991. viii, 31p.
Safe construction and maintenance of pipelines
Arbeitssicherheit bei Bau und Instandsetzung von Leitungen [in German]
Many water supply, sewage, gas and other underground pipelines in Germany require enlargement and maintenance. Important requirements spelled out in German Ordinances (Safety Regulations for Construction Work - VBG 37 - see CIS 83-1147) and Standards (DIN 4124, see CIS 84-1126) on the safety of personnel engaged in pipelaying or in the maintenance of pipelines are discussed. During underground tunnelling operations, pipes of more than 80cm in diameter may be entered by personnel. For inspections and maintenance the minimum diameter for entry under certain conditions is 60cm and the recommendation is made here that the diameter of pipeline over 100m long be raised to 120cm. All tunnelling, shaft sinking or open-trench work requires prior assessment of soil conditions. All trench work next to roads must be adequately illuminated and marked.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Oct. 1991, Vol.103, No.10, p.684-690. Illus. 11 ref.
Open-air excavation work
Excavaciones a cielo abierto [in Spanish]
Safety recommendations with discussions of excavation techniques, shoring structures, soil stability, and safety standards.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, C/Torrelaguna, 73 - 28027 Madrid, Spain, ca.1990. Videotape (13min).
Standard practices for excavation work
Standards for the sloping or shoring of trenches and excavations and the conduct of excavation work are outlined.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, 6951 Westminster Highway, Richmond, British Columbia V7C 1C6, Canada, 1990. 24p. Illus.
Work in gravel and sand pits [Norway]
Arbeid i grus- og sandtak [in Norwegian]
This directive contains guidance on how to achieve safe working conditions in gravel and sand pits. Coverage: excavation work and prevention of dangerous landslides; measures for the prevention of transportation accidents; machinery; blasting in gravel and sand pits; dust control; lighting; first aid and personal protective equipment; work-rooms and welfare facilities; permits to work; evaluation of different types of soil in gravel and sand pits. A list of relevant Norwegian laws, directives and standards is appended.
Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, 2nd ed., Feb. 1990. 10p. 18 ref.
Avoiding danger from underground services
This guidance incorporates and supercedes that previously contained in Guidance Note GS 33 (Avoiding danger from buried electricity cables). Topics covered: dangers arising from work near underground services; safe systems of work based on obtaining plans of buried services, use of cable and pipe locating devices, and safe digging practices; safe use of trenchless methods; special requirements for underground services in partly completed housing developments; installation of new services near existing services; problems arising at demolition sites. Specific advice is given on matters relating to the 4 main types of underground services: electricity cables, gas pipes, water pipes and sewers and telecommunications cables.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1989. 24p. Illus. Bibl. Price: GBP 2.25.
Balasus W., Titschkowski W., Thalemann H.
Earthmoving and excavation work
Erd- und Tiefbauarbeiten [in German]
The contents of this booklet, which takes full account of the replacement of physically heavy work by complex machinery, include: preparation of a construction project, preliminary work on the site (demolition, pile and sheet driving, water drainage), the earthmoving and excavation work itself (manual and mechanised, shoring of trenches and excavations, prevention of hazards due to buried electrical cables), transport (signalling and work on dumps), site workshops, transportable diesel oil reservoirs. In the appendix: list of relevant legislation in the German Democratic Republic, directive on the prevention of accidents due to explosive devices left over from the war.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28/30, DDR-1139 Berlin, 1st edition, 1988. 93p. Illus. Price: DDM 3.80.
Suruda A., Smith G., Baker S.P.
Deaths from trench cave-in in the construction industry
At least 70 construction workers die each year in trench cave-ins, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards for work in trenches have been criticised as hard to understand and inadequate. This study examined 306 fatal cases, obtained mainly from OSHA investigations, from 1974 to 1986. Most of the deaths occurred in shallow trenches while the victims were digging sewer lines, and were caused by failing to shore or brace the walls of the trench. The risk of cave-in death was higher among young workers and those in small firms; only 12% of the deaths were in unionised companies. OSHA issued citations in 94% of the cases, with fines ranging up to $58,400; the average fine was $1,991 per death. Death due to cave-in is a significant risk for construction workers, and can be prevented by proper protective measures.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1988, Vol.30, No.7, p.552-555. Illus. 20 ref.
Contents of this safety guide: glossary of terms; scope; general and particular safety provisions; recommended safe practices; trench excavations (detailed shoring requirements are presented in a table, with additional illustrations); a safety check list for trenching; open excavations; shafts and drives. In appendices: legislative summary; noise levels produced by various kinds of construction machinery, with associated limitations on length of exposure.
Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, rev. ed., 1988. 40p. Illus.
NIOSH Alert - Reprints: October 1980 - December 1986
Thirteen alerts requesting assistance are reprinted: 2-nitropropane; benzidine-, o-tolidine-, and o-dianisidine-based dyes; controlling carbon monoxide hazard in aircraft refuelling operations; electrocutions of workers in fast food restaurants; injury of workers by robots; electrocutions from contact between cranes and power lines; deaths and injuries from excavation cave-ins; hazards in the use of water spray (fog) streams to prevent or control ignition of flammable atmospheres; occupational facilities in confined spaces; grain auger electrocutions; fatalities due to fires and explosions in oxygen-limiting silos; electrocutions due to damaged receptacles and connectors; fatalities of workers who contact electrical energy.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1987. 105p. Bibl.
Pits and trenches for pipes and cables
Gruben, Gräben, Künetten [in German]
This safety guide deals with the following: general remarks (ground types and stability, general requirements), safety by scarping, timbering methods and equipment, legal provisions.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Str. 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 20p. Illus.
Trencher operator seating position
A comparison of 2 different styles of operator position in a trencher were compared using biomechanical principles and a field survey. A major postural difference between the 2 styles is the amount of time spent by the operators looking to the rear of their seated position. This was confirmed by a simple experiment. The style of position used in the skid steer type of trencher, facing the working tool, was found to be significantly better than the traditional fore-aft tractor style configuration.
Applied Ergonomics, June 1987, Vol.18, No.2, P.95-102. Illus. 22 ref.
Tunnelling handbook 1988
Taschenbuch für den Tunnelbau 1988 [in German]
The 12th edition contains the latest information on construction techniques for tunnels and on other underground construction work (including safety equipment and safety measures). Among the subjects treated: excavation and trenches; construction of various kinds of tunnels; machinery and equipment; materials and construction elements; review of regulations in effect in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Verlag Glückauf GmbH, Sales Department, Franz-Fischer-Weg 61, Postfach 1794, 4300 Essen 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1987. 365p. Illus. Bibl.
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