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Printing, photography and photocopying industry - 330 entries found

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CIS 11-0824 Gerardo Ribeiro M., dos Reis Pedeira Filho W., Riederer E.E.
Qualitative evaluation of chemical hazards - Basic guidance for controlling the exposure to chemicals in the printing sector
Avalição qualitativa de riscos químicos - Orientações básicas para o controle da exposição a productos químicos em gráficas [in Portuguese]
The objective of this publication is to help enterprises in the printing sector improve their practices with respect to the storage, handling and identification of chemicals. It proposes a qualitative approach for assessing chemical risks, determining and implementing control measures, and evaluating proposed improvements.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2011. 123p. Illus. 18 ref.
Avalição_qualitativa.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 11-0581 Calvet B., Charlebois C.
Workplace layout taking into account work activities - A positive experience
Aménagement versus activités de travail - Un projet prometteur [in French]
In the printing industry, it is estimated that 43% of accidents are caused by postures and efforts and 23% by the layout of premises. This article presents a participatory ergonomic approach that resulted in improvements in the layout of a unit of a newspaper printing plant in Quebec, Canada.
Travail et santé, June 2011, Vol. 27, No.2, p.22-25. Illus. 4 ref.


CIS 09-1136 Sutton P., Wolf K., Quint J.
Implementing safer alternatives to lithographic cleanup solvents to protect the health of workers and the environment
This survey evaluated the good work practices in the use of volatile organic compounds in cleanup operations in the lithographic printing sector in the United States. Data were collected by means of site visits, focus groups, interviews, workshops and pilot projects. Overall, it was found that inhalation exposure to hazardous cleanup solvents was prevalent and that printers were generally not aware of safer alternatives. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2009, Vol.6, No.3, p.174-187. 40 ref.


CIS 10-0248 Ducos P., Berode M., Francin J.M., Arnoux C., Lefèvre C.
Biological monitoring of exposure to solvents using the chemical itself in urine: Application to toluene
Biomonitoring of solvents using the unchanged substance in urine as exposure indicator is still relatively scarce due to some discrepancies between the results reported in the literature. Based on the assessment of toluene exposure, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of some steps likely to bias the results and to measure urinary toluene in six volunteers experimentally exposed and in 29 rotogravure printing workers. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that provided certain experimental precautions are adopted, urinary toluene can be recommended as a biomarker of choice for toluene exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.273-284. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 10-0247 Kawai T., Ukai H., Inoue O., Maejima Y., Fukui Y., Ohashi F., Okamoto S., Takada S., Sakurai H., Ikeda M.
Evaluation of biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene at low levels
The purpose of this study was to compare various biomarkers of occupational exposure to toluene (Tol) at low levels. The focus was placed on the comparison of un-metabolized toluene in urine (Tol-U) and peripheral blood (Tol-B) with hippuric acid in urine (HA-U). The study was conducted at 16 workplaces with the participation of male solvent-exposed workers. Urine and peripheral blood samples were collected at the end of the shifts. Time-weighted average exposures were monitored by diffusive sampling for toluene and other four solvents. Blood samples were subjected to the analyses for Tol-B, whereas urine samples were analyzed for HA-U and Tol-U. Solvent exposures were low. The correlation analyses of the biomarkers in urine and blood with Tol exposure showed that Tol-U and Tol-B were more closely related than HA-U. Results of receiver operator characteristic analyses were in agreement with the correlation analysis results. Tol in the end-of-shift spot urine sample appears to be the marker of choice for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to Tol at low levels.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.81, No.3, p.253-262. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 09-1338 Schäper M., Seeber A., van Thriel C.
The effects of toluene plus noise on hearing thresholds: An evaluation based on repeated measurements in the German printing industry
The ototoxicity of occupational exposure to toluene plus noise was investigated in a longitudinal study in rotogravure printing and existing findings in the literature were evaluated. The study comprised four repeated examinations during five years. Workers' lifetime weighted average exposures to toluene and noise were determined from individual work histories and historic recordings. Recent individual exposures were measured 10 times during the study. Auditory thresholds were measured with pure tone audiometry. Noise intensity was significant for auditory thresholds. However, no relationships were found between auditory thresholds and toluene concentrations, toluene exposure duration and interactions between toluene and noise. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2008, Vol.21, No.3, p.191-200. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-640 Loh C.H., Liou S.H., Jiau S.S., Cheng W.T., Shih T.S., Chen H.I.
Hepatic effects among workers exposed to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate
The objective of this case-control study was to determine whether ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA) was a hepatotoxin in exposed workers. A total of 29 workers from a silk-screening shop, using EGEEA as the major cleaning solvent, were recruited as high exposure group, while a group of 57 workers with indirect and low exposure to EGEEA were selected as the comparison group. Air concentrations of EGEEA were measured by 8-h personal sampling. The mean of air EGEEA concentration in the high and low exposure groups was 7.41-16.5 ppm and 0.07-3.62 ppm respectively. Liver function profiles in both male and female EGEEA-exposed workers were not significantly different from those in the comparison group. Furthermore, no significant change in hepatic function was noted after a two-year follow-up study of these EGEEA-exposed workers. These findings suggest that EGEEA is not a hepatotoxin in this workplace.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.463-469. 33 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1340 Ravallec C.
The printing unit of Le Monde - Reducing the risks makes good news
Le Monde Imprimerie - La réduction des risques a bonne presse [in French]
Printing sector workers are subjected to many constraints and high levels of strenuousness. This article presents the steps taken towards improving working conditions in the printing department of a large French daily newspaper. Topics addressed: dust caused by the use of recycled newsprint and dust removal; strenuousness; ambient temperatures; work organization.
Travail et sécurité, June 2008, No.685, p.2-11. Illus.$File/TS685page2.pdf?OpenElement [in French]


CIS 08-1134 Roff M.
Health and Safety Executive
Use of chemical protective gloves to control dermal exposures in the UV lithographic printing sub-sector
This project was designed to identify the most appropriate chemical protective glove for each work activity in the printing sector. Typical solvents, chemicals and protective glove materials used in lithographic printing were identified. Site visits showed how the gloves were used. It was observed that printers generally maintained a high standard of cleanliness with the inks; however they did not appear to regard the solvents as skin hazards. There were no current cases of dermatitis. Nitrile gloves of 0.4mm thickness were found to resist permeation by the greatest number of solvents. These gloves are therefore recommended as the default choice for general use in lithographic printing. Particularly aggressive chemicals may however require thicker or different types of gloves.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 55p. Illus. 26 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-407 Lecler M.T., Subra I., Nicot T., Hecht G.
Evaluation of VOC emission flows - Application to an industrial sector
Evaluation des débits d'émission de COV - Application à un secteur industriel [in French]
This study was aimed at characterizing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in the sheet-fed offset printing sector. Following a literature survey on emission flow evaluation methods, the most suited methods were applied in a laboratory test bench and in a printing shop. This study enabled to estimate emission flows in a printing shop and to install systems for their limitation. It showed that it was possible to reduce VOC emissions at the source by means of machinery design, optimal machine settings and the installation of a specific workstation devoted to the task of cleaning.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2007, No.208, p.41-59. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 07-1320 Brown T.P., Rushton L., Williams H.C., English J.S.C.
Intervention implementation research: An exploratory study of reduction strategies for occupational contact dermatitis in the printing industry
The objective of this study was to evaluate four risk reduction strategies for occupationally caused dermatitis in the printing sector: the provision of skin checks plus treatment advice; provision of gloves of the correct type and size plus use of an after-work cream; information highlighting the problem of occupational dermatitis; development of a best practice skin care policy. The strategies were evaluated over three months in two printing shops. While all interventions were found to be acceptable to some extent, no single intervention was completely effective. The most practical prevention measure was the regular use of gloves of the correct type and size.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2007, Vol.56, No.1, p.16-20. 18 ref.


CIS 08-32 Cadieux J., Roy M., Desmarais L.
A preliminary validation of a new measure of occupational health and safety
This article describes the validation of a questionnaire-based instrument designed to conduct an occupational health and safety (OHS) self-diagnosis using workers observations of tangible facts and actions in the workplace. The instrument places the emphasis on observable factors that make it possible to act proactively before accidents actually occur. The instrument was tested in three printing companies in Québec, selected on the basis of their OHS performance (low, medium, and high), their interest in the project and their availability. Altogether, 269 persons participated. Findings are discussed. The results suggest that the instrument is relatively robust and appropriate to diagnose OHS leading measures, although further improvements will be necessary to reach a fully satisfying level of validity.
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.4, p.413-419. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 08-221 Cole D.C., Hogg-Johnson S., Manno M., Ibrahim S., Wells R.P., Ferrier S.E.
Reducing musculoskeletal burden through ergonomic program implementation in a large newspaper
The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a workplace ergonomic programme to reduce musculoskeletal burden among employees of a large Canadian newspaper. It involved 1003 employees from all major departments who were surveyed in 1996 and 813 who were surveyed in 2001. Data were collected by means of questionnaires. Elements of the ergonomic program included employee repetitive strain injury training, proactive assessment of workstations and early treatment of injuries through on-site physiotherapy. Through the implementation of the programme, it was possible to bring about significant improvements in a number of physical and psychosocial risk factors. The frequency and duration of musculoskeletal pain episodes were reduced. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2006, Vol.80, No.2, p.98-108. Illus. 51 ref.


CIS 07-1334 Brown T., Rushton L.
Health and Safety Executive
Derivation of baseline data for incidence of skin disease amongst printers
An objective of the Health and Safety Executive is to reduce the incidence of work-related skin disease by 2010, measured against an incidence rate for the year 2000. A previous study on the prevalence of dermatitis in the printing sector showed that current reporting schemes largely underestimate the true burden of the disease. The aim of the current study was to re-examine the data collected by this previous study using a questionnaire and to provide a new estimate of the incidence of occupational dermatitis among printers. This analysis resulted in an estimated incidence of 420 cases for 100,000 workers during 2000.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. iv, 19p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 06-1403 Ligor T., Gorczyca P., Buszewski B.
Using gas chromatography for indoor-air quality control in conservation and renovation studios
The air concentration of solvent vapours was measured in an art conservation studio and a screen printing studio for a period of 5 to 7 years. Air samples were analysed using gas chromatography. Volatile solvents (aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters and ketones) were detected. These compounds have a wide range of applications in the cleaning and removing of old varnishes, lacquers and paints and inhalation is the main route of exposure. Results indicated that typical exposure was limited to 2-4 hours a day and there was a decrease in the concentration of air pollutants over a 6 year period.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.251-261. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 06-1138 Ozkan-Rabret. E
The offset machine operator
Le conducteur offset [in French]
Contents of this occupational information sheet on offset printing machine operators: characteristics of the work; description of activities; hazards and constraints associated with lighting, noise, specific tasks and contact with harmful substances; health effects and causes of accidents; collective and individual preventive measures; legal aspects.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2005, Vol.45, No.2. Insert.

CIS 06-616 Vouriot A., Hannhart B., Gauchard G.C., Barot A., Ledin T., Mur J.M., Perrin P.P.
Long-term exposure to solvents impairs vigilance and postural control in serigraphy workers
This study examined the effects of aromatic hydrocarbon solvent exposure on the regulation of vigilance and postural control among 22 workers occupationally exposed to solvents for an average of approximately six years. The study comprised a questionnaire survey on state of vigilance and quality of sleep and measurements of postural control under six different sensorimotor conditions. Exposed workers reported reduced alertness but no loss of sleep quality compared with controls. They also had the worst postural performance in all sensory conditions and demonstrated a reduced ability to resolve sensory conflict situations. The depressive effect of aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on cortical and subcortical structures controlling vigilance and postural stability could lead to increased risk of occupational accidents, especially falls.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2005, Vol.78, No.6, p.510-515. 35 ref.

CIS 05-641 Marsteau S.
Treatment of volatile organic compounds in the graphic arts sector
Traitement des composés organiques volatils dans le secteur des industries graphiques [in French]
This article describes the various processes used in the printing and graphic arts industries, provides an overview of the economic importance of the sector and considers the problem of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions with reference to both occupational health and environmental issues. Environmental regulations are examined and methods for reducing emissions during each printing process are described.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.199, p.55-64. Illus. 17 ref.$FILE/nd2229.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-592 Evaluation of occupational hazards - Guide for the graphic arts industry (typesetting, offset printing)
Evaluation des risques professionnels - Guide pour les industries graphiques (prépresse, imprimerie, offset) [in French]
This guide is aimed at the graphic arts industries (typesetting and offset printing). A structured approach is proposed for assisting heads of enterprises and persons responsible for hazard evaluation to compile and update the single document on hazard evaluation as specified by French regulations. Check lists are provided for the various steps of the process: preparing the evaluation, hazard identification, hazard classification, compilation of the single document, implementation of the action plan, updating the single document and following-up the action plan.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2005. 72p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: EUR 8.00. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed938.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-340 Kvam B.M.N., Romundstad P.R., Boffetta P., Andersen A.
Cancer in the Norwegian printing industry
The aim of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Norwegian workers in the printing industry, particularly lung and bladder cancer. Cancer incidence was investigated from 1953 through 1998 in a cohort of 10,549 male members of a trade union in the printing industry in Oslo and surrounding regions. Smoking data from a sample of the cohort were used for evaluating the risk of smoking-related cancers. Among the skilled workers, significantly elevated risks of cancer of the urinary bladder (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 1.47), liver (SIR 1.92), pancreas (SIR 1.46) and colon (SIR 1.27) were observed, whereas an increased risk of lung cancer in this group was confined to those born before 1910. Among the unskilled workers, there were significantly increased risks of cancer of the mouth, oesophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and all sites. However, no specific agent could be identified as an occupational carcinogen. The results did not support the hypothesis of a generally increased risk of lung cancer. The risk pattern for unskilled workers may reflect confounding by non-occupational factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.31, No.1, p.36-43. 62 ref.


CIS 05-366 Juárez-Pérez C.A., Aguilar-Madrid G., Smith D.R., Lacasaña-Navarro M., Téllez-Rojo M.M., Piacitteli G., Hu H., Hernández-Avila M.
Predictors of plasma lead among lithographic print shop workers in Mexico City
Plasma lead is a biological marker that reflects the fraction of lead in blood that is toxicologically available. This study examined the relationship between plasma lead and other biomarkers of lead exposure in 69 lithographic print shop workers. Lead was measured in plasma and whole blood, in bone, in occupational air samples and in hand wipes. Personal hygiene habits at work were also surveyed. Subjects had a mean age of 47 years and 86% were men. The mean lead levels were 0.3µg/L in plasma, 11.9µg/L in blood, 46.7µg/L in patella, and 27.6µg/L in tibia. Taken together, two multivariate linear models explained 57% of variability in plasma lead levels. Predictors for the first model were lead in patella, blood, and personal hygiene habits. Predictors for the second model were lead in tibia, blood, and personal hygiene habits.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.245-252. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 04-655 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 03-1631 Yu I.T.S., Lee N.L., Zhang X.H., Chen W.Q., Lam Y.T., Wong T.W.
Occupational exposure to mixtures of organic solvents increases the risk of neurological symptoms among printing workers in Hong Kong
The health effects of low-dose occupational exposure to organic solvents remains unclear. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 762 male printing workers to assess the effects of exposure to mixtures of n-hexane, toluene, isopropyl alcohol and benzene on neurological and other symptoms. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, past exposure history, working hours and shift work, it was found that exposure to solvent mixtures was significantly associated with the total number of neurological symptoms and with the prevalence of specific symptoms of the nervous system and mucous membrane irritation. The adjusted odds ratio of neurovegetative lability (1.7-5.9), abnormal or reduced smell (1.6-4.1), memory loss (1.8) and mucous membrane irritation symptoms (1.5-4.6) significantly increased in the exposed group, especially when the summation index of exposure exceeded unity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.323-330. 29 ref.


CIS 06-111 Boeckelmann I., Pfister E.A.
Influence of occupational exposure to organic solvent mixtures on contrast sensitivity in printers
This study of visual contrast sensitivity using the Vistech VCTS 6500 chart was carried out among 42 printers with low, medium or high exposure to organic solvents and among 28 control subjects. Abnormal contrast sensitivity results were recorded for the right eye in 38% of the printers and 11% of the controls and for the left eye in 38% of the printers and 7% of the controls. Reduced contrast sensitivity was observed for both eyes in all three groups exposed to solvents. It is concluded that contrast sensitivity is abnormal in workers exposed to organic solvents. The reduced contrast sensitivity in printers seems to be an indicator of visual defects induced in response to exposures to organic solvents.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.25-33. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 03-1699 Brown T., Rushton L.
Health and Safety Executive
The development of risk reduction strategies for the prevention of dermatitis in the UK printing industry
The primary objectives of this study were: to identify a range of low cost, practicable and acceptable interventions to reduce the incidence of occupational dermatitis in the UK printing industry; to carry out preliminary testing of the acceptability and efficacy of these interventions on a small scale; to use these preliminary tests to provide information on the variability of the outcomes, which would aid sample size calculations for a future large scale intervention trial; to develop appropriate methodologies for the identification of intervention strategies for use in other occupational and non-occupational situations. This involved a review of the literature of preventative interventions studies in the workplace and the identification of risk reduction interventions specific to the industry through qualitative research, using a series of observational studies and focus groups.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. iv, 76p. Illus. 90 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1779 Korinth G., Göen T., Lakemeyer M., Broding H.C., Drexler H.
Skin strain and its influence on systemic exposure to a glycol ether in offset printing workers
The aim of this study was to show whether systemic exposure to glycol ether is higher among printing workers with skin lesions. 28 male printers exposed to 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethanol (BEE) were interviewed on their workplace exposure by means of a standardized questionnaire. The systemic exposure was determined by biological monitoring of the main metabolite of BEE (butoxyethoxyacetic acid, BEAA) in urine. Furthermore, a clinical examination of the skin was also carried out, together with measurements of transepidermal water loss, capacitance and skin surface pH. Erythema and scaliness were the most important factors showing an effect on dermal absorption. The mean urinary BEAA excretions for printers with skin lesions on the hands were higher (20.62mg/L for scaliness and 14.40mg/L for erythema) compared to levels for printers without detectable skin lesions (12.08mg/L for scaliness and 13.03mg/L for erythema).
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2003, Vol.49, No.5, p.248-254. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 03-784 Piltingsrud H.V., Zimmer A.T., Rourke A.B.
The development of substitute inks and controls for reducing workplace concentrations of organic solvent vapors in a vinyl shower curtain printing plant
In order to comply with US regulations with respect to the discharge of volatile organic compounds, a PVC shower curtain printing company had installed a catalytic oxidizer. However, the low flow rates of the equipment resulted in high solvent concentrations within the workplace environment, causing worker discomfort. On investigation, solvent vapour concentrations were found to exceed NIOSH, OSHA and ACGIH acceptable exposure levels. The workers were required to wear organic vapour removing respirators full-time while printing. The company requested NIOSH assistance in finding methods to reduce solvent vapour concentrations. NIOSH recommendations included technical controls for the emissions and the use of substitute inks. The new ink system and controls allowed the removal of the requirement for the treatment of discharged air, and the substantial increases in dilution ventilation thus achievable reduced worker exposures and waived the requirements for respirator usage.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2003, Vol.18, No.8, p.597-619. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 03-675 Abecassis P., Andéol B., Auburtin G., Beaumont N., Bediot G., Brault A., Carlier H, Daubigney L., Ducrot-Henry L., Fernandez N., Ferry P., Gendre J.C., Incorvaïa A.M., Jacquet F., Juhel A., Lafon D., Lecinq C., Lecompte D., Le Trionnaire C., Malonga E.A., Metin P., Nicolas A., Raymond F., Renin O., Saulnier M., Smolik H.J., Tortellier L., Verger C.
Evaluation and prevention of hazards in small offset printing shops
Evaluation et prévention des risques dans les petites imprimeries offset [in French]
Contents of this feature article on the evaluation and prevention of occupational hazards in small offset printing shops: description of the activity in terms of premises, persons employed and production processes; hazards, modes of exposure and risks (mechanical hazards, hazards from inks, additives, cleaning agents and solvents); tests of exposures to solvents, ozone and noise; guidance on the prevention of hazards due to chemicals, mechanical equipment, work postures and noise; guidance on various topics (lighting, electrical equipment, work organization). Appendices include a check list for hazards encountered during the various production steps, as well as an evaluation questionnaire on the guidance presented in this article aimed at occupational safety and health professionals.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2003, No.94, p.109-150. Illus. 48 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-754 Page E.H., Cook C.K., Hater M.A., Mueller C.A., Grote A.A., Mortimer V.D.
Visual and ocular changes associated with exposure to two tertiary amines
To determine if exposure to dimethylisopropanolamine (DMIPA) and dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) in a label-printing plant was associated with visual disturbances or ocular changes, questionnaire surveys, eye examinations (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, slit lamp biomicroscopy and pachymetry) and measurements of workplace airborne concentrations of DMIPA and DMAE were performed over a two-week period. 89% of line (high-speed printing) workers reported having experienced blurry vision while at work in the past 12 months, compared to 12.5% of prime (lower-speed printing) workers. The mean time weighted average concentrations of DMIPA, DMAE and total amines were significantly higher in the line division than in the prime division. Higher levels of total amines were associated with increased risk of reporting blurry vision, halo vision, and blue-gray vision. The prevalence of corneal opacity increased with increasing duration of exposure to total amines and with increasing concentration of total amines. There was a statistically significant relation between total amine concentration and increased risk of reduced bilateral visual acuity and 2.5% contrast sensitivity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.60, No.1, p.69-75. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 03-1326 Laudet-Hesbert A., Lefevre B., Mahieu C., Triolet J., Dornier G.
Glycol ethers
Les éthers de glycol [in French]
Despite being present in numerous industrial environments, certain glycol ethers are nonetheless hazardous. By proving an overview of the physical and chemical properties of glycol ethers, their risks to health and the existing regulatory measures for managing these risks, the objective of this information sheet is to present the knowledge required for good risk management in a concise form. Contents: chemical structures, properties and uses of glycol ethers; animal experiments; risks to humans (routes of exposure, toxicology, results of epidemiological studies); protective measures. The classification of the main glycol ethers according to Directive 67/548/EEC (see CIS 92-23) as well as the average exposure limit values are presented in tabular form. Boxes include a glossary of the common abbreviations of the main glycol ethers, as well as research and publications of the INRS.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Feb. 2002. 4p. Illus. 10 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-552
Health and Safety Commission
Skin problems in the printing industry
Dermatitis is a serious problem in the printing industry. In a recent study involving 1189 workers, 41% had suffered from a skin complaint at a given time and 10% had a current problem. In 58% of the cases, the skin problems were diagnosed as being work-related. This booklet provides practical advice on how to prevent skin problems, in particular dermatitis, in the printing industry. Contents: how dermatitis develops; symptoms; substances that can aggravate a skin condition; processes with a high occurrence of dermatitis; legislation; responsibilities of management; prevention; protective gloves; protective creams; skin inspection; health records; monitoring of skin problems.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., Mar. 2002. 11p. lllus. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-818 Seeber A., Blaszkewicz M., Demes P., Kiesswetter E., Schäper M., Sietmann B., von Thriel C., Zupanic M
Toluene in rotogravure printing shops
Toluol in Tiefdruckereien [in German]
This report presents the results of a long term study on the health effects of toluene exposure among 192 workers in 14 rotogravure printing shops. The workers were examined four times over a period of five years to collect data on past and present diseases, kidney and liver functions, the haemopoietic, peripheral nervous and cardiovascular systems, hearing, colour discrimination, attention, memory, fine motor performance, postural balance, physical and mental complaints and current symptoms. Over the five years of the study period, the workers near the printing machine had been exposed to an average toluene concentration of 25ppm and those working in remote places to 3ppm. No significant impact on health due to long-term or current exposure could be established.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Aug. 2002. 373p. Illus. 215 ref. [in German]

CIS 03-202 Livesley E.J., Rushton L., English J.S., Williams H.C.
The prevalence of occupational dermatitis in the UK printing industry
In this study on occupational dermatitis in the printing industry, a questionnaire was addressed to members of the Graphical, Paper and Media Union living in Nottinghamshire. 1189 respondents were directly involved in the printing industry and categorized according to work in pre-press (25%), printing itself (46%) or finishing (42%) processes. 490 respondents (41%) reported having a skin complaint at some time. Prevalence was highest in males (43%) and those working in printing (49%), in particular those who cleaned rollers and cylinders or who came into daily contact with isocyanates. The most commonly affected areas reported were the fingers and webs between the fingers. 26% reported a current problem on the hand. Reported symptoms included itching (61%), rash (58%), and dry skin (56%). Reported use of protective equipment and cleansing products was generally high. Selected respondents were invited for a short dermatological examination, which confirmed the high self reported prevalence and also identified a substantial proportion of mild cases which were not reported.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.59, No.7, p.487-492. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1667 Liu Y.H., Du C.L., Lin C.T., Chan C.C., Chen C.J., Wang J.D.
Increased morbidity from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and chronic pharyngitis or sinusitis among workers at a newspaper printing company
To determine the association between printing work and nasopharyngeal carcinoma as well as other diseases, demographic and hospital admission data were obtained for all workers at a newspaper who had worked since its establishment in 1950. Of the 1564 workers identified, 579 were admitted to hospital at least once. Of these, five out of 144 printing workers were diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared with none of the 435 non-printing workers. The morbidity odds ratios (OR) among printing workers was 57.0 for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 28.0 for benign skin tumours and 29.4 for chronic pharyngitis or sinusitis. In conclusion, printing work is associated with an increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, benign skin tumours, chronic pharyngitis or sinusitis, chronic liver diseases and mechanical injuries.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.59, No.1, p.18-22. 30 ref.

CIS 02-1736 Chouanière D., Delaquèze C., Fontana J.M., Boisnard C., De Dreuzy C., Outin C., Pangaud B., Preux M.C., Wild P.
Evaluation of conditions of work in the printing and publishing industries
Evaluation des conditions de travail dans le secteur du livre et des industries graphiques [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of stress-related problems among workers in the printing and publishing industries in order to propose remedial actions. The study population consisted of workers supervised at two medical centres affiliated to this industry, subject to certain eligibility criteria based on the type of employment contract and years of service. The objective of the study was presented by the occupational physician to the workers during their annual check-up. Workers who volunteered to participate were asked to respond to a questionnaire on their conditions of work and symptoms. 652 persons participated in the study, which enabled the highlighting of two priority areas of focus for preventive actions: reducing the quantitative requirements of the job and improving social support at work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.147-155. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 02-1161
Health and Safety Commission
The printer's guide to health and safety
This publication consists of a reference guide for all occupational safety and health issues in the printing industry. It replaces an earlier edition analysed under CIS 98-527. Contents: managing safety and health; training; in-plant transport safety; health hazards; process safety; electrical hazards; fire and explosion hazards; maintenance. Appendices include a glossary of safeguarding terms, a sample risk assessment form; plan showing of the layout of a typical printing shop, highlighting the hazards to be assessed in each area.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Mar. 2002. viii, 192p. lllus. 169 ref. Index. Price: GBP 12.50.

CIS 02-824 Chouanière D., Wild P., Fontana J.M., Héry M., Fournier M., Baudin V., Subra I., Rousselle D., Toamain J.P., Saurin S., Ardiot M.R.
Neurobehavioral disturbances arising from occupational exposure to toluene
The current eight-hour time-weighted threshold limit value for toluene in France is 100ppm. However, neurotoxicity resulting from long-term exposure to levels below 50ppm is suspected. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two printing plants on 129 blue collar workers to explore the effects of low levels of toluene exposure. With 231 samples of ambient air, toluene concentration was estimated from 0 to 18ppm in Plant A (offset) and from 2 to 27ppm in Plant B (heliogravure). The workers also answered a self-administered questionnaire on neurotoxic symptoms, and performed psychometric tests on a computer-assisted version of the Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (NES) battery. Significant relationships were found only between present exposure and Digit Span Forwards performance and Digit Span Backwards performance. No other association was found between estimated cumulative exposure and either psychometric performances or neurotoxic symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.77-88. 39 ref.


CIS 02-333 Görner B., Karl M.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Technical ventilation measures for protection against solvent vapours in the silk-screen printing industry
Lufttechnische Massnahmen zum Schutz vor Lösemitteldämpfen in Siebdruckereien [in German]
Silk-screen printing processes involve solvents which are present in printing inks, cleaning products and additives. In order to limit the exposure of workers to these harmful substances, appropriate technical measures need to be taken to improve ventilation. A study was conducted on this subject in eight printing shops, where the diffusion of solvent vapours and ventilation parameters were determined for the purpose of developing guidelines. On the basis of the results obtained as well as on the measures already implemented for preventing solvent emissions, a number of recommendations are made for applying these ventilation measures in practice.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 65p. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 02-239 Swift M.B., Cole D.C., Beaton D.E., Manno M.
Health care utilization and workplace interventions for neck and upper limb problems among newspaper workers
Data on the use of various therapeutic interventions among working populations at risk for musculoskeletal disorders are rare, despite the need for such information in assessing adherence to best practices. Using the results of a cross-sectional survey of newspaper workers who reported neck and upper limb pain or discomfort (n = 309), a wide range of clinical and workplace interventions are described. Information, education, exercises, and physical treatments were the most common interventions, and work changes were less prevalent. Those with more frequent, longer-duration, and/or more severe symptoms more commonly reported visits to physiotherapists and health practitioners at work and use of physical treatments, medications, and orthopaedic devices.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.43, No.3, p.265-275. Illus. 34 ref.


CIS 02-1164
Health and Safety Commission
Control of chemicals in printing: COSHH essentials for printers
Aimed at employers in the printing industry, this document contains advice and guidance for the assessment of their activities under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (COSHH, see CIS 00-620). The regulations require employers to limit the exposure to hazardous substances to protect the health of their employees. The guidance proposes a step-by-step approach for each chemical used in the printing shop: allocating a hazard group; identifying the quantity being used; identifying the volatility; finding the appropriate control guidance sheet; implementing and reviewing preventive actions. 35 information sheets offering guidance on the implementation of engineering control measures are included, grouped under the headings of general ventilation, engineering control, containment, special situations and general advice.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2000. iv, 16p. lllus. 6 ref. + 35 safety data sheets. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 02-241 Boulanger G., Juhen M., Roux F., Bergaut F.
Occupations in the field of photography
Les métiers de la photographie [in French]
Review article on conditions of work and occupational safety and health in the field of photography. Today, the chemical hazards are under control as a result of automation of the various phases of the process and of the use of ready-to-use pre-mixed formulations. Automatic developing units and "minilabs" limit the exposure of workers to dangerous substances and have greatly reduced occupational diseases. However, there are still some risks involved in the preparation and filling of baths, as well as in maintenance operations. Occupational safety and health prevention measures need to take into account the conditions of work in industrial labs or photo-shops that mostly belong to chain stores, and to concentrate on compliance with procedures and training of personnel. Digital photography presents risks related to postural and constraints from working at screens. The main data are summarized on an occupational data sheet: (as insert): characteristics of the occupation; description of activities: risks and stresses of the job; occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards; regulations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.2, p.171-179. + 2p. Insert. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 01-1706 Livesley E., Rushton L.
Health and Safety Executive
The prevalence of occupational dermatitis amongst printers in the Midlands
The objectives of this project were to quantify the extent of dermatitis in the printing industry, identify links between dermatitis and particular processes and activities, and to formulate proposals for reducing occupational dermatitis in this industry. Questionnaires were addressed to 2,600 workers in the graphics, paper and media sector, with a response rate of 62%, 41% of whom reported a skin complaint at some time and 26% a current skin problem on the hand. Prevalence was highest among persons involved in printing (49%). 45 subjects with self-reported current dermatitis and 60 controls were subjected to medical examination. It was estimated that for 26 (68%) cases, irritant contact dermatitis was caused by occupational factors. It was also found that many existing guidelines were not being properly implemented within the printing industry.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. vi, 74p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 01-1008 Graphic arts
Artes gráficas [in Spanish]
This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in the graphic arts sector and corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment (entanglement, cuts and sectioning, falls of objects or flying objects, falls from heights or on the level); electrical hazards; physical hazards (noise, burns, exposure to radiation); dangerous chemicals; fires and explosions; design of workplaces; work organization; list of relevant laws and regulations in Spain; hazard evaluation methods.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 49p. Illus. 46 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 01-838 Svendsen K., Rognes K.S.
Exposure to organic solvents in the offset printing industry in Norway
The purpose of this study was to document current conditions regarding solvent exposure in offset printing shops in Norway at present and to study the variation of exposure between print shop technologies. The measurements consisted of 5 to 10 whole-day personal exposure measurements over a period of 2 months. Variables that may influence the level of exposure were registered by the occupational hygienist using a check list. The main contributor to the "additive factor" was isopropanol. Its concentration sometimes exceeded the Norwegian TLV. The exposure increased when the machine had automatic cleaning; it decreased when an exhaust ventilation was used. The "automatic cleaning" and "separate exhaust ventilation" variables explained 59% of the variation in the "additive factor". The results indicate that the most important source of solvent exposure in printing shops at present is the moisturizer used in the printing machines.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2000, Vol.44, No.2, p.119-124. 8 ref.

CIS 01-575
Health and Safety Executive
Safe systems of work for cleaning flexographic, rotary letterpress and gravure printing presses
This information sheet was produced by the Printing Industry Advisory Committee in response to concerns about the large number of accidents occurring during operation and maintenance of flexographic, rotary letterpress and gravure printing presses. It provides guidance for employees and supervisors on safe working methods. Main topics covered: accident trends, 1991/1992 to 1995/96; causes of accidents; examples of incidents involving flexographic, rotary letterpress and gravure printing presses; description of a step-by-step approach to the choice of an appropriate method of work (assessing safeguarding standards; deciding on the appropriate safe system for cleaning; training and instruction of employees; monitoring and review by managers). A safeguard checklist is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. 4p.

CIS 01-574
Health and Safety Executive
Safe systems of work for cleaning web-fed offset lithographic printing presses
This information sheet was produced by the Printing Industry Advisory Committee in response to concerns about the large number of accidents occurring during operation and maintenance of web-fed printing presses. It provides guidance for employees and supervisors on safe working methods. Main topics covered: accident trends, 1991/1992 to 1995/96; causes of accidents; examples of incidents involving web-fed offset presses; description of a step-by-step approach to the choice of an appropriate method of work (assessing safeguarding standards; deciding on the appropriate safe system for cleaning; training and instruction of employees; monitoring and review by managers). A safeguard checklist is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. 4p.

CIS 01-573
Health and Safety Executive
Safe systems of work for cleaning sheet-fed offset lithographic printing presses
This information sheet was produced by the Printing Industry Advisory Committee in response to concerns about the large number of accidents occurring during operation and maintenance of sheet-fed printing presses. It provides guidance for employees and supervisors on safe working methods. Main topics covered: accident trends, 1991/1992 to 1995/96; causes of accidents; examples of incidents involving shed-fed offset presses; step-by-step approach to the choice of an appropriate method of work (assessing safeguarding standards; deciding on the appropriate safe system for cleaning; training and instruction of employees; monitoring and review by managers). A safeguard checklist is included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2000. 4p.


CIS 04-139 Punzet M., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Konarska M., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in printing and bookbinding workshops - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach poligraficznych i introligatorskich - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in printing and bookbinding workshops is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 23+48p. 52+8 ref.

CIS 01-1643 Internal audit - Book printing
Autodiagnostic - Imprimerie de labeur [in French]
Through an internal auditing of hazards, one can develop a safety and health plan adapted to the company. A check-list for conducting such an audit in book printing shops is proposed, consisting of the following parts: periodical checks of installations and equipment; storage; waste management; prevention against hazards due to the various types of press and other equipment used (guillotine, folder, assembler, puncher, inserter and assembler, film laminator); temporary workers; action plan.
CRAM des Pays de la Loire, 7 rue de Président E. Hériot, BP 93405, 44034 Nantes, France, May 1999. 24p. Illus.

CIS 01-245
Health and Safety Commission
The guide to safe use of power-operated paper-cutting guillotines
Power-operated paper-cutting guillotines are widely used in the paper and printing industries. They have caused serious accidents, including amputation, bruising and crushing. This safety guide contains practical advice on safe working with of guillotines. Topics covered: machine and safeguard types, hazards and accidents; advice for users; guidance on competencies; technical standards; advice for the manufacturers and suppliers of new machines. Replaces CIS 91-317.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Nov. 1999. vi, 74p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 01-135 Tumerelle E.
Occupational allergic diseases caused by polyfunctional aziridines: A case report
Allergies professionnelles liées aux aziridines polyfonctionnelles - Revue de la littérature, à propos d'un cas [in French]
Polyfunctional aziridines (PFA) are a new class of occupational allergens, causing rare conditions. A case of occupational dermatosis induced by a PFA hardener of an acrylic resin used as glue in a textile screen-printing firm is reported. Skin tests were unable to identify the responsible allergen positively. PFAs are likely to provoke allergic contact dermatitis, occupational asthma and even a combination of both. One case of urticaria with a positive prick test has been reported. The responsible allergens are the PFAs themselves, and in some cases, the polyfunctional acrylates used in their production and other hardening constituents. There remains a degree of uncertainty about the immunological or irritative nature of these affections. Because of the growing use of water-based acrylics, polyurethanes and polyvinyl acetates requiring the use of PFA hardeners, users must be rigorously protected. PFA-induced eczema, rhinitis and asthma should also be added to the list of occupational diseases in France.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Mar. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.36-41. 14 ref.

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