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Electronics industry - 262 entries found

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CIS 11-0617
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Occupational accident and occupational hazard coverage statistics in the province of Buenos Aires
Estadísticas de accidentabilidad laboral y cobertura en riesgos del trabajo de la provincia de Buenos Aires [in Spanish]
This document analyzes the occupational accident statistics in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, for the year 2009, together with the financing by enterprises of occupational hazard insurance coverage. The contributions paid by employers as a percentage of payroll costs vary according to the size of the enterprise. A significant correlation is observed between the contribution rate and informality, with small enterprises employing 1-5 workers paying more than 7% and having a 69-85% rate of informality.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2010. 14p. Illus. pdf document.

CIS 11-0611 Bin W.S., Richardson S., Yeow P.H.
An ergonomics study of a semiconductors factory in an IDC for improvement in occupational safety and health
The study aimed to conduct an ergonomic intervention on a conventional line (CL) in a semiconductor factory in Malaysia, an industrially developing country (IDC), to improve workers' occupational safety and health (OSH). Low-cost and simple (LCS) ergonomics methods were used (suitable for IDCs), e.g., subjective assessment, direct observation, use of archival data and assessment of noise. It was found that workers were facing noise irritation, neck and back pains and headache in the various processes in the CL. LCS ergonomic interventions to rectify the problems included installing noise insulating covers, providing earplugs, installing elevated platforms, slanting visual display terminals and installing extra exhaust fans. The interventions cost less than 3 000 USD but they significantly improved workers' OSH, which directly correlated with an improvement in working conditions and job satisfaction. The findings are useful in solving OSH problems in electronics industries in IDCs as they share similar manufacturing processes, problems and limitations.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.3, p.345-356. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 10-0698 Vincent R., Catani J., Créau Y., Frocaut A.M., Good A., Goutet P., Hou A., Leray F., André-Lesage M.A., Soyez A.
Occupational exposure to beryllium in French enterprises. Evaluation of the level of atmospheric exposure and surface contamination
Exposition professionnelle au béryllium dans les entreprises françaises. Evaluation des niveaux d'exposition atmosphérique et de contamination surfacique [in French]
A beryllium occupational exposure evaluation survey was conducted in France from 2004 to 2006. Air and surface samples were collected from 95 enterprises involved in 37 different sectors. Findings show that atmospheric concentrations of beryllium often exceed the French recommended limit of 2μ/m3. Activities and sectors with the highest exposures are the metalworking and electronic component manufacturing industries. Surface contamination levels are also important and frequently exceed the threshold limits proposed by various bodies. In view of these findings, preventive measures including the substitution of beryllium, sound process management, surface decontamination and appropriate medical supervision should be implemented.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd quarter 2010, No.220, p.53-62. Illus. 30 ref.
PR_45-220.pdf [in French]


CIS 10-0823 Lin C.C., Wang J.D., Hsieh G.Y., Chang Y.Y., Chen P.C.
Increased risk of death with congenital anomalies in the offspring of male semiconductor workers
This study aimed to investigate whether the offspring of male workers employed in the semiconductor manufacturing industry had an increased risk of death with congenital anomalies. The 6,834 male workers had been employed in the eight semiconductor companies in Taiwan between 1980 and 1994. Live born children of the workers with or without congenital anomalies were identified using the National Birth and Death Registries from the Department of Health, Taiwan. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of birth outcomes and deaths, controlling for infant sex, maternal age, and paternal education. A total of 5,702 children were born to male workers during the study period. There were increased risks of deaths with congenital anomalies (adjusted OR 3.26) and heart anomalies (OR 4.15) in the offspring of male workers who were employed during the two months before conception. The possible etiological basis needs to be corroborated in further research.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2008, Vol. 14, No.2, p.112-116. 41 ref.

CIS 09-1085 Lu J.L.
Occupational hazards and illnesses of Filipino women workers in export processing zones
In this study on occupational exposure and health problems among women workers in export processing zones in the Philippines, hazards were evaluated through workplace monitoring, survey questionnaires and interviews with 500 respondents (88.8% women) in 24 companies. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. The top five hazards were ergonomic hazards (of relevance to 72.2% of the workers), heat (66.6%), overwork (66.6%), poor ventilation (54.8%) and chemical exposure (50.8%). The most common illnesses were gastrointestinal problems (57.4%), backache (56%), headache (53.2%), and fatigue/weakness (53.2%).
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.333-342. 22 ref.

CIS 09-302 Preller L., Balder H.F., Tielemans E., van den Brandt P.A., Goldbohm R.A.
Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands
The objective of this study was to assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands. Associations were studied in a cohort of 58,279 men aged 55-69 years. Data on 1920 incident lung cancer cases were available after 11.3 years of follow-up. Using Cox proportional models, risks were estimated for blue collar workers in 26 industrial sectors. Adjusted for confounders, an increased risk of lung cancer was observed for employment for ≥15 years in blue collar jobs in the "electronics and optical instruments" industry (relative risk RR 1.99), "construction and homebuilding business" (RR 1.64) and "railway company" (RR 2.40). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.65, No.4, p.249-254. 32 ref.

CIS 09-47 Grégoire D.
Work-related cancers: Seeing through the smokescreen
Cancers professionnels: vos luttes ne partent pas en fumée [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on occupational cancers: prevention efforts in a greater Paris locality; interview of a French lawyer defending the interests of asbestos workers; use of a geographic information computer programme by occupational physicians to visualise the work environment of their patients; cancers in a region of Scotland with a high concentration of electronics industries; description of a cancer surveillance programme in Italy.
HESA Newsletter, June 2008, No.34, p.13-26. Illus. 7 ref. [in English] [in French]

CIS 09-31 Dhillon A.S., Tarbutton G.L., Levin J.L., Plotkin G.M., Lowry L.K., Nalbone J.T., Shepherd S.
Pesticide/environmental exposures and Parkinson's disease in East Texas
Epidemiological evidence suggests that pesticides and other environmental exposures may have a role in the etiology of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, there is little human data on risk associated with specific pesticide products with PD. Using a case-control design, this study examined self-reports of exposure to pesticide products, organic pesticides such as rotenone, and other occupational and environmental exposures on the risk of PD in an East Texas population. The findings demonstrated significantly increased risk of PD with use of organic pesticides such as rotenone in the past year in gardening (OR = 10.9) and any rotenone use in the past (OR = 10.0), the use of chlorpyrifos products (OR = 2.0), past work in an electronics plant (OR = 5.1), and exposure to fluorides (OR = 3.3). Cigarette smoking, alcohol use and fish intake were associated with reduced risk. In summary, this study demonstrates an increased risk of PD associated with organic pesticides such as rotenone and certain other pesticides and environmental exposures in this population.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.1, p.37-48. 62 ref.

CIS 08-1421 Tsukada T., Sakakibara H.
A trail [sic] of individual education for hearing protection with an instrument that measures the noise attenuation effect of wearing earplugs
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individual training of workers, using an instrument to quantitatively evaluate the noise attenuation gained with the use of earplugs, on the use of hearing protection devices. The subjects were 68 male workers exposed to noise of above 80dB(A) at an electronic parts manufacturer in Japan. They received group instruction on the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss, and individual education on the proper use of earplugs. Two months after the training, the prevalence of the regular use of hearing protectors among workers in loud working environments increased from 46% to 66%. The results suggest that individual training is an effective means to increase both the usage rate and the proper use of hearing protection devices.
Industrial Health, July 2008, Vol.46, No.4, p.393-396. 11 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-567 Wilson R.T., Donahue M., Gridley G., Adami J., El ghormli L., Dosemeci M.
Shared occupational risks for transitional cell cancer of the bladder and renal pelvis among men and women in Sweden
Using the Swedish national census and cancer registry data for 1971-1989, transitional cell cancers of the renal pelvis (N=1374) and bladder (N=21,591) were identified. Both cancer sites were significantly elevated among women and men employed in the machinery and electronics industries, sedentary work and indoor work; the highest proportion of the bladder (12%) and renal pelvis (14%) cancers occurred among men in the metal industry. Cancers of the renal pelvis were elevated in several occupational and industry groups for which there was no elevated bladder cancer risk. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, No.2, p.83-99. Approx 130 ref.


CIS 08-1389 Kalahasthi R.B., Rajmohan H.R., Rajan B.K., Karuna Kumar M.
Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating
This case-control study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzymes A and B among cadmium plating workers. It involved 100 workers of a telephone manufacturing plant in India, including 50 cadmium plating workers and an equal number of age and sex matched unexposed administrative staff. A significant increase of urinary total NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were noted in exposed group compared to controls. The levels of urinary NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that urinary NAG could be used as a biomarker for exposure to cadmium.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, July 2007, Vol.2, No.5, 7p. 28 ref.

CIS 07-1354 The production of electronic components for the IT industries: Changing labour force requirements in a global economy
La production des composants électroniques pour les industries des technologies de l'information: évolution des besoins de main-d'œuvre dans une économie mondialisée [in French]
La fabricación de componentes electrónicos para las industrias de las tecnologías de la información: El cambio de las necesidades con respecto a la mano de obra en una economía mundializada [in Spanish]
This report was prepared as a basis for discussion at a tripartite meeting on emerging labour and social issues in the electronic components manufacturing sector held in Geneva, Switzerland, 16-18 April 2007. Spectacular growth and investment in the electronic components industry, which manufactures the worlds chips, semi-conductors, cell phones, music players and computers, has generated millions of jobs and spawned billions of dollars in investment, much of it developing and emerging economics, especially in Asia. However, the report argues that this growth has also spawned a considerable number of social and labour challenges, including concerns over working conditions, wage levels, gender issues and management-labour relations.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. xii, 119p. Illus. Price: CHF 15.00. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]


CIS 07-1126 Liao Y.H., Hwang L.C., Kao J.S., Yiin S.J., Lin S.F., Lin C.H., Lin Y.C., Aw T.C.
Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to aluminium, gallium, indium, arsenic, and antimony in the optoelectronic industry
The objective of this study was to investigate whether exposure to aluminium, gallium, indium, arsenic, and antimony induces lipid peroxidation in humans. Blood and urine levels of 103 exposed electronic industry workers and 67 referents were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean plasma MDA level of the exposed workers was significantly higher than that of the referents. The levels of MDA in the exposed workers were correlated significantly with the levels of urinary gallium and arsenic.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.48, No.8, p.789-793. 35 ref.

CIS 07-636 Kim K.R., Lee S.W., Paik N.W.
Cross-sectional analysis of blood lead level of entire Korean lead workers
This study analysed blood lead (PbB) levels from the 2003 health surveillance results of 13,043 lead workers from 1217 lead industries to evaluate the importance of low level lead intoxication in Korea. The geometric mean PbB was 6.08µg/dl. 56.6% and 7.9% of total lead workers had PbB level over than 5µg/dl and 25µg/dl, respectively. Male workers showed relatively higher PbB levels compared to women, but in the electronics industries, more women than men were at risk of low level lead exposure. While conventional industries such as battery manufacturing and metallurgy remained in the high-risk group for lead exposure, there were high risks in other industries such as plastics, chemicals and parts manufacturing. Non-production tasks such as fork-lift truck driving, maintenance, laboratory testing and various supporting functions also showed risks of high blood lead levels.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.318-327. Illus. 24 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-503
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Cobalt in hard metals and cobalt sulfate, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide and vanadium pentoxide
Most of the compounds whose carcinogenicity is evaluated in this volume are poorly soluble solid materials. They are deposited in particulate form in the lung where they may be retained for a long period of time while exerting their toxic properties. Workers in the hard-metal industry may be exposed to cobalt in hard metals (with or without tungsten carbide); gallium arsenide and indium phosphide are used in the semi-conductor industry and vanadium pentoxide is mainly used in the production of metal alloys. Conclusions of this monograph: cobalt metal without tungsten carbide, cobalt sulfate and other soluble cobalt(II) salts are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B); gallium arsenide is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1); indium phosphide is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A); vanadium pentoxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2006. xiv, 330p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 40.00.


CIS 06-1395 Bailar J.C., Greenberg M., Harrison R., LaDou J., Richter E., Watterson A.
Cancer risk in the semiconductor industry: A call for action
While many known carcinogens are used in the manufacture of semiconductors, no broad epidemiological study has been conducted to define possible risks. This paper outlines the health hazards associated with exposure to carcinogens in the semiconductor industry and calls for a large and definitive study of cancer in semiconductor workers across a range of countries and manufacturing processes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2002, Vol.8, No.2, p.163-168. 19 ref.

CIS 06-1103 Beall C., Bender T.J., Cheng H., Herrick R., Kahn A., Matthews R., Sathiakumar N., Schymura M., Stewart J., Delzell E.
Mortality among semiconductor and storage device-manufacturing workers
Mortality among 126,836 workers at two semiconductor facilities and one storage device facility was evaluated between 1965 and 1999. Cause-specific mortality rates were compared with general population rates. Employees had lower-than-expected mortality overall (6579 observed deaths, standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=65), for all cancers combined (2159 observed, SMR=78) and for other major diseases. However, central nervous system cancer was associated with maintenance personnel at one of the semiconductor facilities (10 observed, SMR=247). Prostate cancer was associated with facilities and laboratories at the storage device facility (18 observed, SMR=198). Further evaluation of workplace exposures or independent investigations of similar occupational groups may clarify the interpretation of associations observed in this study.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2005, Vol.47, No.10, p.996-1014. 45 ref.

CIS 06-499 Lu J.L.
Perceived job stress of women workers in diverse manufacturing industries
An investigation of the impact of organizational factors on perceived job stress among women workers in the garment and electronics industries in the Philippines was undertaken. The sample included 23 establishments with 630 women respondents. Questionnaires, walkthrough surveys of the industries, and interviews were carried out. Workplace factors studied included job content, the nature of tasks, job autonomy, hazard exposure and management and supervisory styles. Statistical analysis highlighted the interactions among the organizational factors. It was found that workers experienced job stress when they were subjected to low job autonomy, poor work quality, close monitoring and high workload.
Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Summer 2005, Vol.15, No.3, p.275-291. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 06-380 Kiec-Swierczynska M., Krecisz B., Swierczyska-Machura D., Zaremba J.
An epidemic of occupational contact dermatitis from an acrylic glue
Dermatological examinations were performed in 81 workers involved in the manufacture of electric coils for television displays. They had worked for four years in contact with a UV-curing glue containing various acrylates. Acrylate-specific dermal lesions were detected in 21 of these workers. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 12 of the workers and occupational allergic contact dermatitis in the other nine. Twelve reacted to acrylates. Cross-reactions with methacrylates were not observed. The highest number of positive tests was obtained with triethyleneglycol diacrylate (10) and diethyleneglycol diacrylate (9).
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2005, Vol.52, No.3, p.121-125. 18 ref.

CIS 06-376 Ichihara G.
Neuro-reproductive toxicities of 1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane
2-Bromopropane (2-BP), used as an alternative to chlorofluorocarbons in a Korean electronics factory, caused reproductive and haematopoietic disorders in male and female workers. After identification of 2-BP toxicity, 1-bromopropane (1-BP) was introduced as an alternative. 1-BP was considered less mutagenic than 2-BP, but subsequent animal experiments revealed 1-BP to be a potent neurotoxic substance. It was also revealed that 1-BP has reproductive toxicity, but with target cells that are different from those of 2-BP. After the first animal study describing the neurotoxicity of 1-BP, human cases were reported showing decreased vibration perception, paraesthesia in the lower extremities, decreased sensation in the thighs, ventral and gluteal regions, stumbling and headache, as well as mucosal irritation. More work is necessary on the dose-response of bromopropanes in humans and on the mechanisms underlying the differences in toxic effects between the two bromopropanes.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.79-96. 94 ref.

CIS 05-293 Rischitelli G.
Dermatitis in a printed-circuit board manufacturing facility
Dermatitis complaints are frequently encountered among workers in the microelectronics industry and have been associated with a variety of physical, chemical and psychosocial causes. Employees working in the silk-screening and kiln-drying areas of a printed-circuit board manufacturer complained of recurrent itching and rashes. This report describes those symptoms and the results of a brief survey of the affected employees, which provided useful data regarding the likely aetiology. A brief epidemiological survey instrument was used to gain information regarding the pattern, duration and frequency of employee symptoms. Data from the survey were used to identify seasonal variations in symptoms that correlated with specific environmental factors in the plant. This brief epidemiological investigation using a self-reported symptom survey was an efficient tool for cataloguing the character, pattern, duration and frequency of complaints that correlated with specific environmental factors in the plant (temperature and low humidity), which were likely causes of the outbreak.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2005, Vol.52, No.2, p.78-81. 9 ref.


CIS 06-1080 Perman S., Duvillier L., David N., Eden J., Grumiau S.
Behind the brand names - Working conditions and labour rights in export processing zones
Export Processing Zones (EPZs) are spreading rapidly in developing countries. This report covers the theory and practice of EPZs with regard to working conditions and workers' rights, with first hand accounts and case studies from Bangladesh, China, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Honduras, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mexico and Sri Lanka. A section on health and safety highlights the weak enforcement of labour laws and the lack of labour inspections.
ICFTU, 5 Boulevard du Roi Albert II, Box 1, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004. Internet document (pdf format), 53p. Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 05-477 Yeow P. H. P., Sen R. N.
Ergonomics improvements of the visual inspection process in a printed circuit assembly factory
An ergonomic evaluation was conducted on the visual inspection process of a printed circuit assembly factory. The process was studied through subjective assessment and direct observation. Three problems were identified: operators' eye problems; insufficient time for inspection; ineffective visual inspection. These problems caused a yearly rejection cost of USD 298,240, poor quality, customer dissatisfaction and poor occupational health and safety. Several ergonomic recommendations were made to rectify the problems. These recommendations produced savings in rejection costs, reduced operators' eye strain, headaches and watery eyes, lowered the defect percentage at customers' sites and increased the factory's productivity.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.369-385. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 05-73 Ali R., Yu C.L., Wu M.T., Ho C.K., Pan B.J., Smith T., Christiani D.C.
A case-control study of parental occupation, leukemia, and brain tumors in an industrial city in Taiwan
A case-control study was conducted in an industrial city in Taiwan to determine whether parents of newly-diagnosed patients who were younger than 30 years old with leukaemia or brain tumours or the patients themselves were more likely to have been employed in certain occupations or industries. Job histories were collected for parents (and for subjects if they worked) in 103 newly-diagnosed cases of leukaemia, 74 newly diagnosed cases of brain tumours, and 417 controls matched for age and sex. All jobs since the age of 16 that the subjects held for more than six months were coded for occupation and industry according the standard four-digit system used in Taiwan. Certain codes were significantly associated with increased odds ratios of childhood tumours. Leukaemia was more common in children of fathers who had worked as wood treaters (OR 16.03) and as building finishers and related trades workers (OR 4.08). Brain tumours were more common in children of mothers who had worked in electronic parts and components manufacturing (OR 13.78), as textile and garment workers (OR 7.25), as well as in subjects who had worked with certain electronic parts and components (OR 28.67). Separate analyses also were performed for parental jobs held during the preconception, perinatal, and postnatal periods.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.9, p.985-992. 40 ref.

CIS 04-655 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 04-557 Guével E., Madani R., Conso F., Causse E., Choudat D.
Thyroidal dysfunction and occupational overexposure to iodine
Dysfonctionnement thyroïdien et surcharge iodée professionnelle [in French]
Two cases of work-related thyroid dysfunction are presented. Two workers involved in the machining and polishing of sodium and caesium iodide crystals employed at the same enterprise showed thyroid function disorders and high levels of 24h urinary iodine excretion. Following the report of these two cases of thyroid dysfunction and the elevated urinary excretion of iodine found among other exposed workers in the course of a biological monitoring programme implemented within the enterprise, preventive measures and medical surveillance based on action levels of this biological exposure index were proposed. The prevention of iodine exposure is primarily based on collective measures (process confinement and local exhaust), personal protective equipment and strict adherence to hygienic measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2004, Vol.65, No.5, p.438-441. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 04-343 Nichols L., Sorahan T.
Health and Safety Executive
Further update of cancer incidence and cancer mortality in a cohort of semiconductor workers
This study investigated cancer mortality and morbidity of a cohort of 1807 employees from a semiconductor factory in the United Kingdom. The cohort comprised workers in employment in 1970, and workers commencing employment in the period 1970-1979. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized registration ratios (SRRs) were used to assess mortality and morbidity respectively in the total cohort compared to the general population. Overall mortality was close to expectation among men (SMR 99) and below expectation among women (SMR 74). Cancer mortality (all sites) was above expectation among men (SMR 112) and below expectation in women (SMR 69). Incidence of all sites of cancer were close to expectations for both men and women. However, certain sites had significantly high incidence (rectum among men, SRR 284, pancreas and malignant mesothelioma among women, SRR 226 and 221 respectively). Follow-up to the study analysed under CIS 86-154.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. vi, 27p. 7 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-379 Chee H.L., Rampal K.G.
Work-related musculoskeletal problems among women workers in the semiconductor industry in Peninsular Malaysia
A cross-sectional study to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems and work-related risk factors was conducted among 906 women semiconductor workers. Data on working conditions, work postures and body pains were collected by means of questionnaires. Logistic regression showed that lower-limb pain was significantly associated with standing, neck and shoulder pain with sitting and lifting, upper-back pain with climbing steps, low back pain with hand and wrist movements, and hand and wrist pain with lifting. Neck and shoulder pain was significantly higher for workers with shorter working durations, while lower-limb pain was significantly higher for workers with longer working durations. End-of-line assembly workers had significantly higher odds ratios for pain at all sites, while middle-of-line workers had higher odds ratios for pain in neck and shoulders and upper back. Finally, wafer-fabrication workers had higher odds ratios for low back pain and pain in the lower limbs.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2004, Vol.10, No.1, p.63-71. 28 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-332 Azaroff L.S., Levenstein C., Wegman D.H.
The occupational health of Southeast Asians in Lowell: A descriptive study
To assess the occupational health of a group of vulnerable immigrant workers, 160 residents of Cambodian or Lao origin in Lowell in the U.S. State of Massachusetts were interviewed regarding working conditions, health problems and use of medical services. Over 40% reported working in electronics and computer assembly. A fourth of those currently employed held temporary jobs. Workplace hazards included soldering fumes, inadequate ventilation, prolonged sitting or standing, awkward postures, unguarded machinery, shift work, long hours and pressure to produce quickly. Common work-related health problems included sprains and strains, headache, dizziness and flu-like symptoms. Less than a third of the respondents were aware of workers' compensation.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2004, Vol.10, No.1, p.47-54. 40 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-122 O'Hara R., Wiliamson J., Collins A., Higginson D.
Health and Safety Executive
Health and safety of homeworkers: Good practice case studies
HSE guidance on home working has been in existence since 1996. However, findings from a study conducted by the Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL) indicate that both homeworkers and employers are unaware of the guidance and are not familiar with health and safety legislation relevant to home working. HSE has stated that the existing home working guidance is now due for revision. The aim of this project was to provide case study examples of good practice in addressing health and safety issues for incorporation into the revised HSE guidance on home working. It involved the interviews of 28 homeworkers employed in 12 organizations from various sectors of activity including textiles, packaging, assembly, electronics, business services and computing.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. x, 86p. 27 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 07-964 Sen R.N., Yeow P.H.P.
Ergonomic study on the manual component insertion lines for occupational health and safety improvements
This study was carried out to improve occupational safety and health among manual component insertion operators in a printed circuit board factory. Subjective and objective assessments and direct observations were carried out. Simple and low-cost ergonomic interventions were implemented, namely repairing chairs, reducing high workloads, assigning operators to a maximum of two workstations, confining machines that emitted high levels of smell and noise and providing tools for finger work. The results of the interventions were reductions in operators' chair discomfort, work stress and discomfort due to frequent change of their workstations. Several health hazards were also eliminated, including inhalation of solder fumes, exposure to excessive noise and injuries resulting from the handling of sharp components.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.57-74. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 03-1923 Wirtanen G., Salo S.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
34th R3-Nordic contamination control symposium
Proceedings of a conference on contamination control held in Turku, Finland, 2-4 June 2003. Papers are grouped according to the sessions in which they were presented: plenary session on contamination control; contamination control in food processing and biotechnology; contamination control in pharmaceutical processes; contamination control in microelectronics and clean room technology.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2003. 418p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 85.00 (+ 8% VAT). [in English]

CIS 03-1654 Chee H.L., Rampal K.G.
Relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers in Malaysia
This cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women working in the semiconductor industry. Subjects were women production workers from 18 semiconductor factories. Sick leave and exposure to physical and chemical hazards were determined by self reporting. The effects of age, marital status, work task, work schedule, work section, and duration of work in factory and work section were also explored by logistical regression. Marital status was strongly linked to the taking of sick leave. Chemical and physical exposures, with the exception of poor ventilation and smelling chemicals, showed no significant relation to the taking of sick leave within the past year. Workers in wafer polishing workers and parts assembly operations faced significantly higher odds of taking sick leave.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.60, No.4, p.262-270. 17 ref.

CIS 03-1442 Yeow P.H.P., Sen R.N.
Quality, productivity, occupational health and safety and cost effectiveness of ergonomic improvements in the test workstations of an electronics factory
Results of an ergonomic study of workstations where electrical testing is performed in a plant manufacturing printed electronic circuits. Both workers' subjective assessment and direct observation methods were used on the operators to discover the problems at their workstations. The following problems were observed: poor workstation design; mix-ups of tested and untested boards, missing or incorrect test steps, unclear pass/fail criteria for the projected colour test. Ergonomic interventions implemented were: an improved workstation layout with space for resting arms and the oscilloscope and computer keyboards within easy reach of the operators; clear segregation of tested and untested boards to prevent mix-ups; retraining of operators by more qualified trainers; reference colour samples for more effective recognition of different colours in the projection screen. The interventions implemented were simple and inexpensive; nevertheless, they resulted in improved productivity, quality and working conditions.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 2003, Vol.32, No.3, p.147-163. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 03-1434 Rogers M.
Lessons learned from SARS
This article presents examples of how the Canadian operations of several multinational enterprises with frequent contact with East Asia reacted to the threat of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among their employees. It outlines the main preventive actions that need to be taken in the event of a new outbreak of SARS. These include hazard evaluation, identification of alternatives such as home work and developing a human resource policy response addressing the issues of absenteeism, safety and health, commuting and travel. Guidance aimed at employers and employees on the main control measures of infectious diseases are also provided, in the form of check lists.
Accident Prevention, Sep.-Oct. 2003, Vol.50, No.5, p.12-17, 36-37. Illus.

CIS 03-535 Pillière F.
Sélenium [in French]
Selenium is a non-metallic element that is widespread is nature. The following compounds of selenium are commonly used in industry: selenium dioxide (or selenious anhydride), selenium oxychlorides and sulfides, selenious acid, and sodium selenite and selenate. There are many industrial applications including in the chemical industry (catalysts), metallurgy (alloys), electrical equipment industry and electronics industry. Toxicity depends on the mode of absorption, the specific compound studied and on its solubility. In animal studies, there have been reports of irritation after inhalation exposure, as well as pancreatic and splenic hepatic effects. Several cases of intoxication have been reported during chronic exposures in industrial settings.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 4p. 15 ref.

CIS 03-533 Pillière F.
Germanium [in French]
Germanium is a metal that exists mainly in the form of inorganic compounds for which there are numerous industrial applications, in particular in the electronics and optics industries. Germanium is generally considered to have low toxicity. The target organs in humans and animals appear to be the kidneys and the lungs. During exposures to dusts and fumes of the metal or its oxides in industrial settings, there have been no reports of any major pathologies among workers.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 2p. 12 ref.

CIS 03-532 Pillière F.
Gallium [in French]
Gallium is a widespread metal, mainly present in minerals. Industrial applications are mostly in the electronics industry, where gallium arsenide and phosphide are used. As shown in animal studies, the toxicity of gallium varies among species and gallium compounds. The main target organs are the lungs and the haemopoietic and immune systems. Reproductive effects have been observed with several compounds. There is little data on the toxicity of gallium itself during occupational exposures.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2003, No.138, 2p. 15 ref.


CIS 03-1458 Khalfallah T., Akrout M., Henchi A., Chaari N., Hamdi L., Chadly A.
Ergonomic evaluation of body movements and postures in the industrial sector
Evaluation ergonomique des gestes et postures dans le secteur industriel [in French]
This ergonomic analysis was carried out within an electronic component assembly enterprise employing 85 women, of which one third showed symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the neck and upper extremities at the time of periodical medical examinations. Through job studies, it was possible to observe the strongly repetitive nature of body movements during assembly and welding, as well the wide flexions of the wrist during welding and testing. Ergonomic improvements are proposed for assembly, welding and testing tasks.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Oct. 2002, No.23, p.24-29. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 03-832 Recommendation - Prevention of hazards linked to the production and use of glycol ethers
Recommandation - Prévention des risques liés à la fabrication et à l'utilisation des éthers de glycol [in French]
This special issue reproduces the full text of a recommendation adopted in France in 2001 on the prevention of risks linked to the production and use of glycol ethers. Contents: physical and chemical properties; toxicity (toxicology, animal studies, epidemiological studies); responsibilities of employers (hazard identification, exposure evaluation, establishing priorities, information of workers, workplace monitoring, biological monitoring, medical supervision). Appendices include: list of the most common glycol ethers; listing by CAS number; physical and chemical properties; examples of forms for defining exposure and establishing an inventory of predictable incidents; methods of determination in urine.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2002, No.616, Supplement II. 23p. (whole issue).


CIS 06-1396 Cullen M.R., Checkoway H., Eisen E.A., Kelsey K., Rice C., Wegman D.H., Whitehead L.
Cancer risk among wafer fabrication workers in the semiconductor industry
Executive summary of a literature survey aimed at evaluating possible cancer risk among wafer fabrication workers in the semiconductor industry. It concludes that there is no affirmative evidence to support the contention that workplace exposures to chemicals or other hazards in wafer fabrication, now or historically, measurably increase the risk for cancer in general, or for any particular form or type of cancer. However, it also concludes that there is insufficient evidence to state that exposures to chemicals and other hazards in wafer fabrication have not or could not result in measurably increased risk of one or more cancer types. Further specific epidemiological studies are recommended.
Scientific advisory committee, 181 Metro Drive, Suite 450, San Jose, CA 95110, USA, Oct. 2001. 5p. [in English]

CIS 06-1114 McElvenny D.M., Darnton A.J., Hodgson J.T., Clarke S.D., Elliott R.C., Osman J.
Health and Safety Executive
Cancer among current and former workers at National Semiconductor (UK), Ltd., Greenock: Results of an investigation by the Health and Safety Executive
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) responded in late 1998 to developing concerns about cancer among current and former workers at a semiconductor plant in the United Kingdom. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cancer incidence and mortality of current and former workers at the plant. The mortality analyses included 4388 workers and the average length of follow up was 12.5 years. All-cause mortality for women was slightly below expected levels, while mortality for men was substantially below expected levels. Total cancer incidences were close to expected levels for men and for women. Four specific cancers were higher than expected, but based on a very small number of cases (lung cancer, stomach cancer and breast cancer among women, and brain tumours among men). These findings will require further investigation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. x, 91p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 7.50. [in English]

CIS 03-1239 Kim K.S.
Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
Research into the working hazards involving workers in the electrical and electronic industries and related occupational musculoskeletal disorders
Jeonki, jeonja jejoupche gunroja ei jakup wiheom sung kwa jik up sung gun gol kyeok ke jil whan yeon gu [in Korean]
This report describes research carried out to check the ergonomic hazards that are present in the electrical and electronics industries, and their relationship with occupational musculoskeletal disorders. Validated ergonomic hazard evaluation tools (JSI, OWAS, RULA, OSHA and ANSI 8-365 check lists) were used for comparison and evaluation. The report analyses factors that may affect occupational musculoskeletal disorders occurring in each part of the body, based on data obtained through questionnaires, and introduces a tool that can perform actual ergonomic hazard assessment during workplace surveys.
Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency, 34-4 Gu-san dong, Bupyung gu, Inchon 403-711, Republic of Korea, 2001. 139p. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 03-1483 Nakata A., Haratani T., Takahashi M., Kawakami N., Arito H., Fujioka Y., Shimizu H., Kobayashi F., Araki S.
Job stress, social support at work and insomnia in Japanese shift workers
To study the relationship between psychological job stress and insomnia in shift workers, a self-administered questionnaire concerning job stress, sleep, depressive symptoms and lifestyle factors was submitted to a sample of 530 rotating shift workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company. Perceived job stress was assessed using the Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Overall prevalence of insomnia was 37.8%. Logistic regression analyses showed that lower social support at work was significantly associated with a greater risk of insomnia than the higher social support (odds ratio (OR) 2.5). Higher job strain with lower social support at work increased the risk, compared to lower strain with higher support at work (OR 1.5). The findings suggest the low social support at work is independently associated with insomnia in shift workers.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.203-209. 27 ref.

CIS 02-457 Abbas M.F., Faris R.H., Harber P.I., Mishriky A.M., El-Shahaly H.A., Waheeb Y.H., Kraus J.F.
Worksite and personal factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome in an Egyptian electronics assembly factory
The study objective was to identify personal and work related risk factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in electronics assembly operators relative to clerical workers in the same factory. Of 422 workers in a television assembly factory located in Ismailia, Egypt, 198 (46.9%) participated. The electronics assembly workers were more likely to report CTS (odds ratio = 11.41) than were the clerical workers. The significant risk factors were longer work years (odds ratio = 1.11) and precision-type hand grip (odds ratio = 6.5). The results suggest an association between electronics assembly and CTS. Work years and precision grip are possible risk factors for CTS and should be studied more thoroughly. Tools to reduce the need for precision grip may help reduce CTS.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.31-36. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 02-334 Health hazard evaluations: Issues related to occupational exposure to lead - 1994 to 1999
The Health Hazards and Technical Assistance (HETA) programme responds to requests from employers, employees, employee representatives and governmental agencies for a Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) of the workplace to determine if chemical, physical, biological or other agents are hazardous to workers. This document presents summaries of 31 HHEs related to lead that were completed between 1994 and 1999. The HHE requests originated from a variety of workplaces, including secondary lead smelters, battery manufacturers, structural steel painting sites, shipyards, and firing ranges.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Mar. 2001. vi, 18p. 13 ref.


CIS 02-662 Goon A.T.J., Goh C.L.
Epidemiology of occupational skin disease in Singapore 1989 - 1998
All patients diagnosed with occupational skin diseases in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, between 1989 and 1998 were studied retrospectively. Irritant contact dermatitis was found to be more common than allergic contact dermatitis. The major sources of occupational dermatitis were the metalworking and engineering, building and construction, electrical and electronics, and transport industries. The main irritants were detergents and wet work, solvents, and oils and greases. The main allergens were chromate, rubber chemicals and nickel. That the main sources of occupational skin disease and main allergens were the same as those found in a similar study of occupational skin diseases in 1984-85. Weak irritants are still the predominant causes of occupational irritant contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2000, Vol.43, No.3, p.133-136. 3 ref.


CIS 02-1306 Electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing sector - Prevention manual
Sector do material eléctrico e electrónico - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
CD-ROM version of the manual analysed under CIS 01-1007. Contents: organization of occupational safety and health services; occupational safety in the electrical and electronic manufacturing sectors; occupational hygiene (noise and vibration, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, dangerous substances, thermal environment, ventilation, lighting, order and cleanliness); ergonomic issues; personal protective equipment; safety signs; emergency plans; offices, storage areas and staff rooms; safety and health on construction sites; health surveillance; accident investigation and analysis; training and information of workers; glossary; labelling of dangerous substances; example of emergency plan; relevant legislation and standards in Portugal.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecçaão das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, 1999. CD-ROM for Windows 95/98/NT (requirements: PC Pentium 400Mhz, 32 MB RAM, CD-ROM unit min. 32x, graphic card 800x600).

CIS 01-1007 Cavalleri A., Ivo Gonçalves A., Antunes A.M., Neves J., Coelho L.
Electrical and electronic material manufacturing sector - Prevention manual
Sector do material eléctrico e electrónico - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual, published in collaboration with the Portuguese National Association of Manufacturers of Electrical and Electronics Materials (ANIMEE), provides an overview of occupational safety and health in the industry. Contents: organization of occupational safety and health services; occupational safety in the sector; occupational hygiene (noise and vibration, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, dangerous substances, the thermal environment, ventilation, lighting, order and cleanliness); ergonomic issues; personal protective equipment; safety signs; emergency plans; offices, storage areas and staff rooms; safety and health on construction sites; health surveillance; accident investigation and analysis; training and information of workers. In annex: glossary; labelling of dangerous substances; sample emergency plan; relevant legislation and standards in Portugal.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, May 1999. 373p. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 00-1463 Wirtanen G., Salo S., Mikkola A.
30th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium
Proceedings of the annual symposium of R3-Nordic, the association for microbial contamination control held in Helsinki, Finland, 30 May-2 June 1999. Contents: contamination control in food processing; contamination control in pharmaceutical processes; clean room technology and contamination control in microelectronics.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland, 1999. 503p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-1068 Shih T.S., Liou S.H., Chen C.Y., Chou J.S.
Correlation between urinary 2-methoxy acetic acid and exposure to 2-methoxy ethanol
To examine the correlation between airborne 2-methoxy ethanol (ME) exposures and urinary 2-methoxy acetic acid (MAA), 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) personal breathing zone samples and urine samples before and after the shift were collected from Monday to Saturday for 27 workers exposed to ME and on Friday for 30 control workers. No correlation was found between airborne exposure to ME and urinary MAA for special operation workers due to the use of personal protective equipment. For regular operation workers, a significant correlation was found between urinary MAA (mg/g creatinine) on Friday at the end of the shift and the weekly mean exposures of ME in a 5 day working week. The proposed biological exposure index BEI, which corresponds to exposure for 5 days and 8 hours a day to 5ppm, extrapolated from the regression equation, is 40mg MAA/g creatinine. A significant correlation was also found between the weekly increase of urinary MAA and the weekly mean exposures of ME. The recommended value of the weekly increase of urinary MAA for 5 days repeated exposures of 5ppm ME is 20mg/g creatinine.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.56, No.10, p.674-678. Illus. 21 ref.

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