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Metal reclamation and scrap metal industries - 25 entries found

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CIS 11-0191 Dounias G., Rachiotis G., Hadjichristodoulou C.
Acute lead intoxication in a female battery worker: Diagnosis and management
This article presents a case of acute lead intoxication in a 33 year female having worked three months as a cleaner in a battery manufacturing plant. She complained of malaise that had developed in the previous two weeks. Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign found in physical examination. The blood test on admission revealed normochromic anaemia. Endoscopic investigation of the gastrointestinal system was negative for bleeding. The bone marrow biopsy was unrevealing. At baseline, no attention had been paid to patient's occupational history. The patient's occupational history was later re-evaluated, and she was screened for lead intoxication. The increased levels of the lead related biomarkers of exposure and effect confirmed the diagnosis. The patient received an oral chelating agent, resulting in an improvement in clinical picture. No side effects and no rebound effect were observed. This case report emphasizes the importance of the occupational history in the context of the differential diagnosis. Moreover, this report indicates that lead remains a significant occupational hazard especially in the small scale battery industry.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:19, 4p. 15 ref.
Acute_lead_intoxication.pdf [in English]


CIS 08-1105 Guidance for the identification and control of safety and health hazards in metal scrap recycling
In the recycled metals sector, the most common occupational diseases are those caused by the toxic properties of lead and cadmium, injuries associated with repeated movements, skin diseases and respiratory conditions due to the inhalation of toxic agents. The most common types of injuries are sprains, burns, cuts, lacerations and punctures. This guide is aimed at all persons working in the metal scrap recycling sector, including employers, employees, safety professionals and industrial hygienists. It can help identify and manage the hazards associated with exposure to various metals and chemicals, and with processes and equipment used in this sector. Contents: commonly recycled metals and their sources; common recycling processes; recognizing and controlling hazards. An appendix lists exposure limits for selected metals.
Publications U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2008. 44p. Approx. 150 ref. [in English]


CIS 06-9
Health and Safety Executive
Is it explosive? Dangers of explosives in metal recycling
This leaflet is aimed at persons who handle or process metals intended for recycling and which may contain explosive products. It explains how to determine if explosives are still present and provides guidance on the precautions that need to be taken to prevent explosives entering the metal recycling process and to avoid injury should any suspicious items be encountered. Includes a poster summarizing the general precautions to be taken if suspicious items are found.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 6p. Illus. 6 ref. [in English]


CIS 98-1352 Menzel H.M., Bolm-Audorff U., Turcer E., Bienfait H.G., Albracht G., Walter D., Emmel C., Knecht U., Päpke O.
Occupational exposure to dioxins by thermal oxygen cutting, welding, and soldering of metals
Topics: chlorinated dibenzodioxins; chlorinated dibenzofurans; demolition; determination in air; determination in blood; dioxins; exposure evaluation; gas cutting; Germany; job-exposure relation; personal sampling; scrap metal processing; soldering and brazing; threshold limit values; welding and cutting.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Apr. 1998, Vol.106, Suppl.2, p.715-722. Illus. 23 ref.


CIS 98-1360 Seldén A.I., Westberg H.B., Axelson O.
Cancer morbidity in workers at aluminium foundries and secondary aluminium smelters
Topics: aluminium industry; bladder tumour; cancer; hexachloroethane; cohort study; foundries; length of exposure; liver cancer; lung cancer; morbidity; nasal cancer; rectal cancer; scrap metal processing; sex-linked differences; smelting plants; Sweden.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1997, Vol.32, No.5, p.467-477. 57 ref.


CIS 97-1253 Lühmann D., Strubelt O., Kirchner H.
Effects on the human immune system of occupational exposure to metallic mercury
Einfluss gewerblicher Exposition gegenüber metallischem Quecksilber auf das menschliche Immunsystem [in German]
Mercury (Hg) concentration in blood samples taken from 12 male workers in a mercury recovery plant were compared with that from two groups of controls. The mean Hg concentration in the mercury workers' blood (9.84µg/L) was almost 6 times higher than that in the control groups. The Hg concentration in the urine of exposed workers (9 to 340µg/L) was also considerably higher than that in the control groups (around 1µg/L). However, no correlation between Hg concentration in the blood and immunological parameters could be found. The somewhat higher concentration of leucocytes and neutrophilic granulocytes in the blood of exposed workers was due to the higher percentage of smokers among the workers than among the controls (70% versus 30% and 20%). Smoking is also seen as the cause of the slightly lower percentage of T-lymphocytes in the blood of exposed workers. The somewhat lower serum IgM concentration in the exposed workers than in control group 2 is explained by the presence of women in that control group. No differences among the 3 groups were found with regard to other immunological parameters. No evidence of an effect of mercury exposure on the immune system was found.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Feb. 1996, Vol.46, No.2, p.49-57. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 97-237 Kieper H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Exposure to polybrominated dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins in copper smelting plants and in the production of flameproofed plastics
Belastung durch polybromierte Dibenzofurane und -dioxine in Sekundärkupferhütten und bei der Herstellung flammgeschützter Kunststoffe [in German]
Exposure to polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDD) and dibenzofurans (PBDF) was determined at selected workplaces in two scrap metal smelting plants and three plants producing flameproofed plastics in Germany. The smelting plants were chosen because they also process copper-containing scrap with small amounts of plastics. In the plants producing flameproofed plastics, samples of flame retardants applied in flameproofing as well as samples of flameproofed plastics were analyzed for the presence of PBDD and PBDF in addition to air samples. In the air samples the concentrations of mono- to hexabromodibenzofurans ranged from 258 to 77,414pg/m3. Most of the air samples contained PBDD and PBDF with bromine at positions 2, 3, 7 and 8. None or very low concentrations of these compounds were detected in the flame retardants and in the flameproofed plastics samples as well as in all samples that were analyzed in the scrap metal smelting plants.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996, 115p. Illus. 23 ref. Index. Price: DEM 25.50.


CIS 92-1591 Ho S.F., Wong P.H., Kwok S.F.
Study on the health hazards of scrap metal cutters
The 54 scrap metal cutters employed by a shipbreaking and foundry plant in Singapore were matched with controls (construction workers), interviewed and given medical examinations. Most were contract workers paid on a piece-work basis. No respirators were provided or worn. The workers were unaware of the potential hazards of metal fumes. Cough, rhinitis and skin burns were more prevalent among the cutters than among controls. Blood lead levels exceeded the biological threshold limit value of 70µg/100L in 10 of them. The 10 were transferred temporarily to other work and advised in respirator use. Personal sampling for airborne lead in the workplace gave levels of 0.01-0.57mg/m3 (ACGIH TLV: 0.15mg/m3); the values were correlated with the lead content of paint on the metal being cut. Plant management was advised of the need for protective equipment and periodic medical examinations.
Singapore Medical Journal, 1989, Vol.30, p.535-538. 15 ref.


CIS 88-1978 Inatome K., Iga T., Seo S.
Symptoms of exposure to o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile
o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile no bakuro ni yoru shōjō ni tsuite [in Japanese]
o-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (OCMB) is a riot-control agent. Containers contaminated with the compound can be included in metal scrap. Industrial injury patients showed abnormality in smelling, nasal respiratory resistance, or other symptoms believed to be caused by exposure during work with OCMB. In 1 case (2 episodes), the subject was exposed and continued to work for more than 2 hours in spite of obvious and strong symptoms in the eyes, nose, throat and chest. Slight reddening of the nasal and laryngeal mucosae, and elevation of nasal respiratory resistance and lower airway resistance were observed. Taste was normal but olfactory sensitivity was reduced and a slight reddening of the trachea and bronchial mucosa were noted by bronchoscope. In about six months, recovery was essentially complete. In 1 case (1 episode), the subject was exposed, and stopped working immediately when symptoms appeared. In this patient, all findings were almost normal. Scrap metal workers and others who may be exposed to OCMB should always wear protective gear.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.35, No.9, p.625-631. Illus. 3 ref.


CIS 86-233 Safety in scrapyards
La sécurité au parc à ferrailles [in French]
Contents: general aspects of the function, layout, characteristics, installations and activities of scrapyards; nuisances and hazards due to the transportation, machinery and installations, noise, dust and climate; ergonomic aspects; general recommendations for improving working conditions and reducing safety and health risks; influence of the activities of scrapyard workers on the safety and health in steelworks personnel; inspection of equipment and repair.
Information Bulletin of the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission - Bulletin d'information de la Commission générale de la sécurité et de la salubrité dans la sidérurgie, 1985, No.6-7, p.7-28. 38 ref.


CIS 85-1070 Hughes E.G.
Biological monitoring of cadmium workers
This letter to the editor suggests that, when monitoring for cadmium exposure, both blood and urine cadmium levels should be measured. A long-term study of cadmium levels in the blood and urine of 2 men working with molten metal in a scrap-metal processing plant shows that sudden increases in cadmium exposure levels might only result in increases in blood cadmium concentration.
Lancet, 22/29 Dec. 1984, Vol.2, No.8417/8, p.1467-1468.


CIS 83-550 Levin M.I., Hesin Ju.I.
Occupational safety in scrap-metal baling yards
Bezopasnost' truda na učastke paketirovanija metalloloma [in Russian]
Sections cover: conditions prevailing in scrap baling yards (particularities of modern baling presses and scrap handling equipment, preparation of scrap for baling, baling-press loading equipment, mechanical handling of tailings, scrap-bale transfer device, annealing furnaces for swarf and scrap); hazardous situations in scrap baling yards (analysis of accident causes and preventive measures, harmful and toxic substances contained in scrap); organisation of safe working procedures (tasks of the scrap baling team - press operator, crane driver, slingers, etc.); shortcomings of certain baling presses and remedial measures.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per.14, 110934 Moskva G-34, USSR, 1982. 47p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.20.

CIS 82-1516 Storage, handling and processing of magnesium
This standard, adopted as an American National Standard 2 Dec. 1981, covers: definitions, magnesium mill and foundry operations (melting and casting; rough finishing of castings; heat treating); machining and fabrication (grinding, buffing, wire brushing, drawing, spinning, stamping); handling and disposal of scrap (disposal of sludge from separators, chips, turnings, swarf, clippings, castings); storage of pigs, ingots, billets, castings, chips, solid scrap and finished products; storage in mills, warehouses, rocks, bins; fire protection (general precautions, extinguishing powders, foundry flux, water, automatic sprinklers, heat-treating furnaces). Appendices: commentary, supplementary information on magnesium.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, 1982. 34p. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 83-254 Efanov P.D., Karnauh N.N.
Occupational safety in the iron and steel industry - Code of practice
Bezopasnost' truda v osnovnyh proizvodstvah černoj metallurgii - Spravočnik [in Russian]
Sections deal with: general safety requirements (trends, layout of premises, equipment safety, planning and design); underground and opencast ore mining (USSR legislation, mine ventilation, shotfiring, machinery); ore sintering; blast furnace operations; steel making (open-hearth and electric furnaces, converters, teeming, continuous casting); rolling mill operations; tube making; coking plant operations; manufacture of refractories; safety in ferro-alloy plants; wire drawing and hardware manufacture; scrap processing.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per.14, 119034 Moskva, USSR, 1981. 245p. 63 ref. Price: Rbl.1.60.

CIS 82-1622
Health and Safety Executive
Metal recovery works
This "best practicable means" guidance note covers control of workplace and environmental air pollution in plants where metal is recovered from scrap cable by burning the insulation. Aspects covered: owner's duty regarding sampling and measurement of harmful emissions (concentration of particulates, and of hydrogen chloride, in final discharges to air not to exceed 0.46g/m3); chimney heights; maintenance and proper use of equipment; adequate supervision of the process; housekeeping.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Apr. 1981. 3p.

CIS 81-1762 Pietruszynski M., Bossut T.
Regulations on safety and health notices, instructions, warnings, announcements and placards
Affiches, consignes, avis et pancartes réglementaires dans le domaine de l'hygiène et de la sécurité [in French]
List of French laws and regulations concerning safety and health notices, instructions, warnings, announcements, placards and the like which must be posted up or circulated in establishments covered by the French Labour Code: 1. general provisions concerning all establishments; 2. special regulations concerning special operations, tasks, installations and products (bulk storage bins, compressed air, asbestos, lifting equipment, arsenic, building construction, benzene poisoning, methyl bromide, shipyards, demolition work and destruction of unexploded ammunition, occupational anthrax, vinyl chloride monomer, sewers, electricity, ether, carbon disulfide, explosives, furnaces, vegetable oil industry, highly flammable liquids, machines, flammable substances, maturing and ripening of fruit and vegetables, ships and boats, paints and varnishes, ionising radiation, scrap metal processing, lead poisoning, aerial ropeways, belt conveyors, glass industry, railways. The complete texts of some regulations are appended.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1981, No.103, Note No.1320-103-81, p.259-290.


CIS 79-664
Central Co-ordinating Committee, National Health Insurance Fund (Comité central de coordination, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie), Paris, 28 June 1978.
Balers and scrap-metal presses
Presses à balles et à déchets métalliques. [in French]
This recommendation cancels and replaces the recommendation abstracted as CIS 2292-1972, Hpad(609). Contents: general safety precautions for mechanical hazards, falls, machine control and the choice of signal lamp colour; specific safety engineering measures for various types of press (hand operated and powered baling presses of various types and stationary scrap-metal baling presses); model safety rules for workers. The recommendation is illustrated by 15 photographs.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1979, No.94, Note No.1169-94-79 (Recommendation No.146), p.139-150.


CIS 78-917
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, 1 Apr. 1978.
Explosive devices and hollow objects found in scrap metal
Sprengkörper und Hohlkörper im Schrott [in German]
These safety regulations which apply to the handling and especially to the transport, storage, processing and sorting of ferrous and non-ferrous scrap metal, contain provisions concerning: handling scrap; certificate to be produced by supplier of scrap; worker information and training. Other provisions concern: action to be taken when explosive devices or hollow objects are found in scrap. Annex: more detailed rules for application of the regulations, and comments.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 4 + 4p. Price: DM.0.80.


CIS 78-1128 Efanov P.D., Berg I.A.
Occupational safety and health in steel production
Ohrana truda i tehnika bezopasnosti v staleplavil'nom proizvodstve [in Russian]
Contents of this handbook: harmful agents (radiant heat; convection heat; toxic dust, gases and vapours; noise) and protection measures; scrap processing; occupational accidents and diseases (calculation of costs, incidence and severity); occupational hygiene (welfare facilities, ventilation, lighting, drinks, etc.); occupational safety in open-hearth, electric and converter steelworks; relining of furnaces and converters; electrical safety; overhead travelling cranes and lifting equipment; pressure vessels and gas distribution; safety organisation in steelworks.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per. 14, 119034 Moskva G-34, USSR, 1977. 232p. Illus. Price: Rbl.0.67.


CIS 77-523 Health and safety guide - Automotive parts recyclers.
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet describes safe practices in agreement with the U.S. Health and safety regulations. Contents: health and safety guidelines (health and safety programme; employee training; machine guarding; housekeeping; safety rules for operating power tools; inventory and environmental control; the industry and its hazards; yard wreckers; hydraulic lifts); walking and working surfaces; exits and markings; noise; personal protective equipment; respirators; medical and first aid; fire protection; compressed air equipment; materials handling and storage; welding, cutting and brazing; electrical safety; record keeping; check lists; information sources (serial publications and their publishers in the USA, and addresses of OSHA Regional Offices).
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-164, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 89p. Illus.

CIS 77-567 Health and safety guide for scrap processors.
Illustrated by humorous drawings and instructive sketches, this booklet aims to assist in providing a safe and healthy workplace by describing safe practices and encouraging compliance with the U.S. health and safety regulations. Chief contents: health and safety guidelines (reducing unsafe acts, industry and its hazards, storage yards, machine guarding, housekeeping, power tools); frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, ladders, railings, exits, environmental control (air contaminants, metal fumes and dust, noise), hazardous materials, personal protective equipment, medical and first aid, fire protection, compressed air equipment, materials handling and storage, welding, cutting and brazing, electrical regulations); recordkeeping; check lists; information sources; hand signals for crane operations.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-125, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1976. 86p. Illus.


CIS 76-1804 Accident prevention in the metallic scrap plant.
This compilation of Safety in Process bulletins of the Institute of Scrap Iron and Steel, Inc. contains sections on: cranes and equipment (checklists); burners; toxic metals; controls for exposure to lead; respirators and ventilation; asbestos; compressed gas cylinders; closed containers; hard hats; eye protection; work clothes and footwear; lifting; hand traps; alligator shear guards; conveyors; fork lift trucks; professional driving; Department of Transportation regulations; ladders; grinding wheels; fire extinguishers; basic safety; first aid; heart attack; visitors; Occupational Safety and Health Administration inspection priorities, violations and citations, electrical code violations, state plans, and recordkeeping; ANSI safety standard; safety training film; safety leaflets. The various sections are profusely illustrated with humorous sketches and technical drawings.
Institute of Scrap Iron and Steel, Inc., 1729 H Street, N.W. Suite 200, Washington, D.C. 20006, USA, 1975. 27p. Illus. Price: US-$5.00.


CIS 75-1628 Gajdos A., Zittoun R., Pousset M.
Collective occupational lead poisoning
Une intoxication professionnelle collective par le plomb. [in French]
A survey of 27 workers employed in a plant engaged in the recovery of lead revealed 12 cases of lead poisoning. The results of the biochemical examinations are commented on, and their value and limitations assessed. Stipple cell count would appear to be inadequate as a test, whereas determination of urinary δ-aminolaevulinic acid (7mg/l or higher) and urinary coproporphyrins (300µg/l or more) are considered positive tests. Attention is drawn to the inadequacy of French legislation with respect to the prevention of lead poisoning, and measures are recommended for improved supervision of exposed workers, taking into account long-term hazards.
Le concours médical, 1974, Vol.96, No.8, p.1228-1233. 9 ref.

CIS 74-1445 Tichopádová E.
Scrap metal and occupational safety
Kovový odpad a bezpečnost práce [in Czech]
Hazards and safety rules to be observed during various phases of scrap metal recovery in the iron and steel industry: collection, handling and sorting, use (cutting and foggoting), transport. Main topics covered: possible presence of explosive materials, cuts from contact with scrap metal, scrap metal falling from cranes. Much space is devoted to the hazards associated with oxygen cutting and shearing.
Bezpečná práca, 1974, Vol.5, No.1, p.21-24.


CIS 73-727
Ministère de la santé publique et de la sécurité sociale
Order of 26 April 1972 relating to the prevention of industrial accidents and occupational diseases (Scrap-metal recovery) [France]
Arrêté du 26 avril 1972 relatif aux mesures de prévention contre les accidents du travail et les maladies professionnelles (récupération des vieux métaux) [France] [in French]
The general provisions set out as a schedule to this Order replace those of the Orders of 20 September 1954 and 11 April 1956. They emphasise the statutory obligation, when sorting scrap metal and before compacting or cutting, to stockpile separately in a place designated for this purpose all war ordinance, ammunition or any easily identifiable part thereof; to mark with an identity letter any suspicious or hollow objects which are not easily identifiable (also hollow objects which cannot be opened up manually, and to open and probe these objects). All such objects shall be handled with extreme care and sent in appropriate cases to the bomb-disposal or other similar service. In selling scrap, the fact that the above statutory obligation has been complied with shall be mentioned on the invoice or delivery voucher. After sorting is completed, the material shall be inspected by a qualified person before compacting or cutting-up. A commentary on some of the above provisions is appended.
Journal officiel de la République française, 11 May 1972, Vol.104, No.111, p.4839-4840.