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Foundries, metalcasting and forging operations - 469 entries found

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CIS 11-0084 Lin M.H., Liou S.H., Chang C.W., Huang I.H., Strickland P.T., Lai C.H.
An engineering intervention resulting in improvement in lung function and change in urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine among foundry workers in Taiwan
The objective of this study was to assess changes in oxidative DNA damage and lung function in a group of foundry workers following an engineering intervention to reduce respirable dust in their working environment. All 22 workers from a typical small Taiwanese iron foundry plant were studied before and three months after improvements to air exhaust control. The effectiveness of the air exhaust intervention in reducing respirable dust and SiO2 was determined by personal breathing-zone air sampling. Initial baseline biomarker measurements were taken of lung function and urinary 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in all of the workers, with follow-up measurements taken three months after the engineering control was put in place. Generalized estimating equations were used to assess the effect of the intervention on lung function and oxidative DNA damage. Findings indicate that reductions in workplace respirable dust and SiO2 concentration can result in improved lung function amongst foundry workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.175-183. Illus. 27 ref.


CIS 11-0708 Aneziris O.N., Papazoglou I.A., Doudakmani O.
Assessment of occupational risks in an aluminium processing industry
The objective of this study was to quantify occupational risks in an aluminium plant located in Northern Greece. Risk assessment was based on the Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM), which can assess occupational risks at hazard level, activity level, job level and overall company level. Twenty six job positions were identified for this plant. All risk profiles of workers were quantified and jobs were ranked according to their risk. Operators at the entrance of the painting unit have the highest fatality risk, followed by the workers at the storage area and the workers performing sandblasting. Occupational risks were also assessed for all plant units and the overall company. Findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.40, p.321-329. Illus. 42 ref.
Assessment.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0223 Dion C., Viau S., Dufresne A., Cloutier Y., Perrault G.
Beryllium exposure of workers in aluminum and magnesium processing - Evaluation of environmental monitoring parameters
Exposition au béryllium des travailleurs de la transformation d'aluminium et du magnésium - Evaluation des paramètres de surveillance environnementale [in French]
Since 1999, there has been an increase in claims for occupational diseases related to beryllium (Be) exposure. The interventions currently being carried out by the health network in target industries, namely foundries and aeronautical companies, will provide a better characterization of this exposure in these environments and an estimate of the number of workers potentially at risk. It is in this context that the present study was carried out with the objective of proposing a Be exposure parameter better related to sensitization to this metal than the currently used measurement. It involved measuring airborne concentrations and evaluating exposures in several aluminium and magnesium alloy foundries enterprises. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. vii, 46p. Illus. 72 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
R-673.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0729 Marchand G., Lavoie J., Cloutier Y., Racine L., Lacombe N., Bélanger E., Lemelin C., Nadeau D., Desroches J.
Reduction of microbial contamination of soluble cutting fluids
Réduction de la contamination bactérienne des fluides de coupe solubles [in French]
A previous exploratory study had demonstrated that water-based metal cutting fluids (MCFs) show very high rates of bacterial contamination. This situation is in part explained by incomplete or improperly performed cleaning and maintenance procedures. This study evaluated the effect of intensive cleaning of machines on the microbial flora present in MCFs. It was noted that intensive cleaning does not by itself reduce the concentration of the bacteria in cutting fluids. However, cleaning does reduce the number of fluid changes necessary. It was also demonstrated that the bacterial flora in cutting fluids can be significantly controlled by the use of biocides. It is believed that since major cleaning is not sufficient and that biocides are known to be responsible for worker health problems, other means of controlling the bacterial flora present in cutting fluids should be evaluated.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. iv, 26p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version free of charge.
Rapport_R-655.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0253 Liu H.H, Yang H.H, Chou C.D, Lin M.H, Chen H.L
Risk assessment of gaseous/particulate phase PAH exposure in foundry industry
Air samplings in several working areas of two foundries in Taiwan were collected to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels. The average PAH level in Foundry A was 19.56μg/m3, which was higher than that in Foundry B (8.26μg/m3), whereas the reverse was observed for the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalent level (38.81ng/m3 and 46.52ng/m3 respectively). PAH levels in the moulding process, painting area and furnace area are described. The gas phase was the major contributor of total PAHs in the manufacturing areas. Moreover, health risk assessment of PAHs exposure showed that lung cancer risks were important in both foundries. It is recommended that workers use appropriate respiratory masks in painting, melting and pouring areas to limit their occupational exposure to PAHs.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2010, Vol.181, No.1-3, p.105-111. Illus. 29 ref.


CIS 11-0685 Cotton R., Underwood R.
Analysis of CTI foundry dataset
This report contains a statistical analysis of an exposure dataset provided by a United Kingdom research and development consultancy specialized in castings technology. The purpose of the analysis was to provide a snapshot of exposure levels to ferrous foundry particulate and other chemicals, across a range of casting and fabrication related jobs. The original dataset consisted of close to 50,000 records including potential exposure level, substance, job type, date of measurement, and the use of respiratory protection equipment and local exhaust ventilation. The dataset was filtered to exclude records which were pre-1995 or that related to jobs or substances that were not of interest. After filtering, 21,885 records of exposures to 30 substances remained, covering the time period 1995-2004, which were then classified according to nine generic job types and stratified by the generic job types and substance, and compared to current workplace exposure limits where appropriate.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 13p. Illus. 4 ref.
RR_677 [in English]

CIS 09-1147 Singh L.P., Bhardwaj A., Deepak K.K., Bedi R.
Occupational noise exposure in small scale hand tools manufacturing (forging) industry (SSI) in Northern India
This study was carried out in five small-scale hand tool forging units in Northern India. Noise levels in the workshops were measured, and were found to be above 90dB(A) in several areas. Additionally, a cross-sectional sample of workers responded to a questionnaire, results of which revealed that 68% of the workers were not wearing ear protective equipment. Among these workers, 50% were not provided with protective equipment by their employers. About 95% of the workers were suffering speech interference, although high noise annoyance was reported by only 20%. Other findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, July 2009, Vol.47, No.4, p.423-430. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-1119 Andersson L., Bryngelsson I.L., Ohlson C.G., Nayström P., Lilja B.G., Westberg H.
Quartz and dust exposure in Swedish iron foundries
Occupational exposure to respirable dust and quartz were determined in 11 Swedish iron foundries. Some 400 breathing atmosphere samples associated with all job titles were analyzed for respirable dust and quartz, and expressed as time-weighted averages. The sampling strategy enabled evaluating use of respirators in certain jobs, thus determining actual exposure. For respirable quartz, 23% of all the measurements exceeded the European occupational exposure limit (EU-OEL), and 56% exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. Estimations of exposure levels for various categories of workers (fettlers, furnace and ladle maintenance and repair workers) are given, together with the effect of using respirators.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2009, Vol.6, No.1, p.9-18. Illus. 39 ref.


CIS 08-153 Mendonça E.M.C., Silva R.C.C., Bussacos M.A., Algranti E.
Respiratory impairment in Brazilian foundry workers exposed to sand
Workers in the foundry industry are at risk of respiratory diseases due to exposures such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pyrolysis degradation products, mineral dust, organic dust, resins and isocyanates. This cross-sectional study evaluated respiratory morbidity among 598 workers of six foundries in Brazil with sand moulding operations. Medical evaluations consisted of a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and occupational history, spirometry and chest X-rays. Additionally, workers exposed to resins and a control group underwent bronchial provocation tests. Their mean length of exposure of the workers was 10.1 years and the overall prevalence of pneumoconiosis 4.5%. Chronic bronchitis (CB) and X-ray profusion were significantly related to the quartiles of length of exposure. There were significant risks of abnormal FVC and FEV1 with the presence of pneumoconiosis (odds ratios of 4.63 and 3.34 respectively).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.50, No.2, p.83-91. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 07-1128 Ribeiro M.G., Filho W.R.P.
Risk assessment of chemicals in foundries: The International Chemical Toolkit pilot-project
A pilot project was launched in 2005 in Brazil to implement the International Chemical Control Toolkit in the foundry industry. During a series of visits to foundries, it was observed that occupational exposures to silica dust and metal fumes continue to occur, due to a lack of awareness of exposures in the work environment. This article discusses improvements obtained so far after introducing the Chemical Toolkit to the foundry industry, and presents the next phases of the project, which will involve quantitative evaluation, training, information of personnel and the development of new tools.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Aug. 2006, Vol.136, No.3, p.432-437. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 07-596 Gangopadhyay S., Das T., Ghoshal G., Ghosh T.
Work organization in sand core manufacturing for health and productivity
Sand core making is a manual process, in which workers often work in awkward postures and suffer from musculoskeletal disorders, primarily affecting the low-back region. In this study, an attempt was made to organize the sand core making operation for enhancing productivity. The existing processes of sand core making were found to involve some unnecessary steps, which hamper the rate of work and productivity. The modified process eliminates these steps involving awkward postures and the overall productivity in carbon dioxide sand core making and chemical sand core making increased by 8.5% and 30%, respectively.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 2006, Vol.36, No.10, p.915-920. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 06-816 Hoshuyama T., Pan G., Tanaka C., Feng Y., Yu L., Liu T., Liu L., Hanaoka T., Takahashi K.
Mortality of iron-steel workers in Anshan, China: A retrospective cohort study
Foundry workers have increased mortality and morbidity risks from numerous causes, including various cancers. A retrospective Chinese iron-steel cohort study was conducted to examine the mortality effects of exposure to foundry work. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized rate ratios (SRRs) were calculated to evaluate mortality risks among male workers with exposure to 15 hazardous factors, adjusting for confounders. During 14 years of follow-up, 13,363 out of 121,846 male workers died. SMR analysis showed a healthy-worker effect in comparison with the general population. SRR analysis showed increased risks for all causes, all neoplasms, and others among the exposed workers compared with non-exposed blue-collar workers. Combined exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two or more dusts increased the risks of lung cancer (SRR=654; 95% CI: 113-3,780) and other malignancies. Foundry work has adverse health effects, including carcinogenic risks. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.193-202. 30 ref. [in English]


CIS 07-1390 Wells D., Greenall A.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluating the effectiveness of legislation, technology and working methods for reducing occupational exposure in the foundry industry
This project was designed to exploit the wealth of historical dust, fume and gas occupational exposure data in the foundry industry of the United Kingdom, available in the archives of a foundry technology research organization. Over 50,000 data points were extracted from archived reports and transferred to an electronically-analyzable database to provide an insight into the effects of legislation, sector guidance, technology and working methods on the reduction of occupational exposure in the foundry industry. The results confirmed that United Kingdom legislation including the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023) together with industry efforts had profound beneficial effects on exposure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. vi, 91p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 07-176 Costa J.C., Dias A.M., Peixoto A.R., Botelho Chaves A., Silva Ribeiro C., Malheiros L.F., Maia e Costa H.
Occupational exposure to chemicals in the Portuguese foundry industry
Esposição profissional a agentes químicos na indústria da fundição portuguesa [in Portuguese]
Chemical occupational exposure profiles were defined for the ferrous and nonferrous metal subsectors of the foundry industry in Portugal. The study involved 15 foundries. Chemicals considered included crystalline silica, metal dusts and fumes, total dusts and mineral oils. The study enabled the characterisation of 148 exposure profiles, based on hazard evaluation. Several recommendations for improved occupational exposure risk management that comply with legal requirements in this sector are proposed.
Instituto para a Segurança, Higiene e Saúde no Trabalho (ISHST), Rua Barata Salgueiro, 37, 5° 1250-042 Lisboa, Portugal, June 2005. 224p. Illus. 66 ref.

CIS 06-1477 Lei L., Liang Y.
Ergonomic problems among foundry workers in China - A field survey and simulation study in the laboratory
Foundry work has long been regarded as a highly hazardous occupation. It is characterized by high exposures to both physical and chemical hazards, as well as to high ergonomic loading. This article describes a study undertaken to assess ergonomic problems among foundry workers in China. It involved a questionnaire survey and medical examinations of 617 foundry workers, together with job observations and electromyography (EMG) measurements. A second part of the study consisted in EMG measurements among volunteers carrying out simulated foundry tasks in a laboratory. Several recommendations aimed at improving ergonomics and working conditions are proposed on the basis of the findings of the study.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Nov. 2005, Vol.12, No.3, p.65-67. Illus. 3 ref. [in English]

CIS 05-660 Ostiguy C., Asselin P., Malo S., Nadeau D., DeWals P.
Management of occupational manganism - Consensus of an experts' panel
Prise en charge du manganisme d'origine professionnelle - Consensus d'un groupe international d'experts [in French]
In response to a request from the Quebec Commission for Occupational Safety and Health (Commission pour la santé et la sécurité du travail - CSST), a literature review was undertaken on the possible health effects (mainly to the nervous system) resulting from occupational exposure to manganese. This metal is present in high concentrations in the air of mines and foundries. Claims have also been made to the CSST by workers exposed to this substance during operations to weld steel to manganese. This report describes the process of manganese assimilation by the body, its biomarkers and its various health effects. It also compares the standards and recommendations for guidelines of various organizations. Current Quebec standards are similar to American, British and Australian standards. Organizations and groups of researchers in this field favour making them more restrictive in order to take into account the early effects on the central nervous system.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. vii, 56p. 202 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French] [in English]


CIS 05-142 Courtois B.
Workshops for the casting of copper alloy components - Health and safety
Les ateliers de moulage de pièces en alliages de cuivre - Hygiène et sécurité [in French]
French production of components made from copper alloys represents an annual consumption of approximately 25,000 tons of copper. Workers in this sector are exposed to various hazards that may present serious risks to their health. This guide is more specifically aimed at SMEs that supply small, medium or large batches of components for various industrial sectors under subcontract. It presents the main hazards found in copper alloy foundries together with suitable preventive measures. Contents: introduction and general aspects; organizational measures; design and maintenance of premises; production phases. Appendices cover: personal protective equipment; main occupational diseases found among foundry workers; glossary.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2004. 72p. Illus. Approx 150 ref. Price: EUR 9.40. Downloadable version free.$FILE/ed921.pdf [in French]

CIS 04-649 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Lobo Gutierrez C.L., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Foundries
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Fonderies [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of foundry workers in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values (see CIS 04-642 to 04-648, CIS 04-650 to 04-651 and CIS 04-653 to 04-655).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 56p. Illus. 69 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]


CIS 06-151 Zhuang Z., Coffey C.C., Jensen P.A., Campbell D.L., Lawrence R.B., Myers W.R.
Correlation between quantitative fit factors and workplace protection factors measured in actual workplace environments at a steel foundry
This study investigated the protective effect of good and poor-fitting half-facepiece, air-purifying respirators at a steel foundry and examined the correlation between workplace protection factors (WPFs) and quantitative fit factors (FFs). Fifteen volunteers participated in the study. Each subject was fit-tested with two respirator models in three sizes. Each worker wore the respirator twice per day (at the beginning of the shift and following the lunch break) for two days. WPFs were measured by collecting ambient and in-facepiece air samples simultaneously. WPF values were significantly correlated with the FFs. Respirator fit-factor was shown to be a meaningful indicator of respirator performance in actual workplace environments.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2003, Vol.64, No.6, p.730-738. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 05-632 Altindag Z.Z., Baydar T., Isimer A., Sahin G.
Neopterin as a biomarker for the evaluation of occupational exposure to silica
The aim of this study was to measure neopterin levels among workers exposed to silica and also to examine whether these measurements would be of use in assessing occupational exposure to silica. Serum and urinary neopterin levels of 22 silica-exposed workers and 20 unexposed healthy volunteers were investigated by immunoassay, spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques. In the control and exposed groups of workers, serum neopterin levels were 5.98±0.44 and 7.86±1.97nmol/l, respectively while urinary neopterin levels were 97.60±41.42nol/mol creatinine and 165.59±78.20µmol/mol creatinine respectively. Correlations between urinary neopterin levels, serum neopterin concentration and working years, smoking status, self-reported complaints, and silica in the working atmosphere were also evaluated. The findings suggest that follow up of neopterin levels may have diagnostic value in silica-related diseases such as silicosis.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2003, Vol.76, No.4, p.318-322. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 05-624 Fairfax R.E.
Overexposure to crystalline silica in a foundry operation
Foundry workers are known to be exposed to crystalline silica. In most foundries, metal castings are made through the use of sand moulds. Exposure to crystalline silica occurs during the moulding process, during shakeout operations and during metal finishing. This report describes the inspection made by NIOSH in a foundry. Personal sampling for respirable silica was conducted throughout the plant. This inspection discovered three cases of overexposure to crystalline silica and the employer was cited for various violations under existing U.S. regulations. A plan for reducing exposures was discussed and agreed with the employer. It involved various technical measures, including exhaust ventilation, and the supply of respirators and protective clothing as an interim measure.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2003, Vol.18, No.1, p.18-21. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 04-656 Ostiguy C., Malo S., Asselin P.
Synthesis of scientific knowledge on the health risks following occupational exposure to manganese
This review documents current knowledge on the potential occupational health effects, mainly on the central nervous system, following occupational exposure to manganese. This metal is present in high concentrations in the air in mines and foundries. Claims have also been made to the Quebec Occupational Safety and Health Commission (CSST) by workers exposed to this substance during welding operations involving steel containing manganese. The report describes processes of assimilation of manganese by the body, its biomarkers and its effects on health. It also compares different organizations' standards and guideline recommendations. Current Quebec standards are similar to those of the United States, the United Kingdom and Australia. Organizations and groups of researchers in this field recommend making them more restrictive in order to take into account the early effects on the central nervous system.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2003. 38p. 211 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. [in English]

CIS 04-203 Probst W.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Noise emission data on selected machine types (woodworking machines, foundry machinery, beverage bottling machines and industrial sewing machines)
Geräuschemissionswerte von ausgewählten Maschinengruppen - (Holzverarbeitung-, Gießerei-, Getränkeabfüll- und Industrienähmaschinen) [in German]
Various European directives and standards set stringent requirements with respect to noise emissions that machinery manufacturers and users need to satisfy. Manufacturers must minimize the risks to health resulting from the use of machinery and inform the users on levels of noise emissions. In this study, noise emission levels from four types of machines were examined: woodworking machines, beverage bottling machines, foundry machinery and industrial sewing machines. Technical measures adopted by enterprises for reducing noise emissions were also examined. The study shows that the trend towards reductions in noise emissions is slow and is only perceptible over a 10-year period.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 156p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: EUR 14.50.

CIS 03-1768 Başaran N., Shubair M., Ündeğer Ü., Kars A.
Monitoring DNA damage in foundry and pottery workers exposed to silica by the alkaline comet assay
Workers in the foundry and pottery industries are exposed to a mixture of chemicals including silica, a substance widely suspected of causing genetic alterations. To investigate the potential hazard associated with the occupational exposure to silica, DNA damages in the peripheral lymphocytes of 30 foundry and 22 pottery workers were examined using the alkaline gel electrophoresis or comet assay method, and compared with 52 healthy subjects with no history of occupational exposure to silica or other chemicals. The DNA damage observed in the lymphocytes of both foundry and pottery workers was significantly higher than that among controls. DNA damage was also caused by cigarette smoking, since the damage observed in smoking silica-exposed workers compared with the non-smoking workers was significantly higher.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2003, Vol.43, No.6, p.602-610. 43 ref.

CIS 03-956 Bellemare M., Beaugrand S., Marier M., Larue C., Vezeau S.
Simulations focusing on the activity during the ergonomic monitoring of industrial projects: Two cases of design of drivers' cabs in the metal transformation industry
Les simulations centrées sur l'activité au cours de l'accompagnement ergonomique des projets industriels: deux cas de conception de cabines de véhicule dans l'industrie métallurgique [in French]
This report consists of a discussion paper on the approach followed by ergonomics professionals in interventions aimed at improving conditions of work and reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among workers in the aluminium industry. It is based on the evaluations of ergonomic interventions at two jobs of an aluminium foundry, those of gantry crane operator and of driver of the crucible-carrying truck. In both cases, the future activity model was applied and simulations of operator activity were carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies are discussed and commented in light of the findings from these interventions.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 3C2, Canada, Mar. 2003. xii, 142p. Illus. 43 ref. CD-ROM containing the PDF version of the document is included (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader). [in French]

CIS 03-668 Adzersen K.H., Becker N., Steindorf K., Frenzel-Beyme R.
Cancer mortality in a cohort of male German iron foundry workers
The purpose of the study was to examine whether work in iron foundries increases the risk of cancer. Occupational histories were collected among members of a cohort of 17,708 male German production workers in 37 iron foundries who were first employed in 1950-1985 with a minimum employment period of one year. Mortality was compared with that of the German general population during 1950-1993. Mortality from all causes was elevated (standard mortality ratio (SMR)=115.4), as was for total cancer (SMR=123.8), especially cancers of the lung (SMR=163.9) and liver (SMR=322.5) and diseases of the respiratory system (SMR=147.6). Non- significant elevations of mortality were also found for cancers of the mouth, pharynx and larynx. The elevated mortality persisted for decades after termination of employment. The results provide further evidence for an increased risk of cancer among foundry workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.295-305. 41 ref.


CIS 07-699
Health and Safety Executive
Hand-arm vibration in foundries: Furnace and ladle relining operations
In many foundries, furnace or ladle wrecking/relining is an area where workers may be exposed to significant hand-arm vibration. This information note presents possible approaches to reducing exposure, namely the use of the following: preformed linings or lining boards, push-out mechanism for removing spent linings, castables in preference to rammed linings, high quality materials for longer life, vibration-reduced chisels and rammers and management and environmental controls.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb 2002. 2p. 5 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1899 Daniell W.E., Swan S.S., McDaniel M.M., Stebbins J.G., Seixas N.S., Morgan M.S.
Noise exposure and hearing conservation practices in an industry with high incidence of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss
This cross-sectional study examined noise exposures and hearing conservation practices in the foundry industry in the State of Washington, where a high rate of hearing loss claims had been recorded. Ten representative foundries were evaluated with personal noise dosimetry, management interviews, employee interviews and the analysis of previous audiometric test records. Noise levels routinely exceeded 85dBA. No company was in full compliance with hearing conservation regulations. Most employees for whom audiograms indicated hearing impairment or loss had not been informed of the findings. Companies where more effort is put into hearing conservation programmes can achieve a higher employee awareness. However, there were broad deficiencies even in the better programmes in this sample, suggesting that workers in this industry probably face a continuing risk of occupational hearing loss.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.309-317. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 02-1909
Health and Safety Executive
A purchasing policy for vibration-reduced tools in foundries
This information sheet guides the foundries industry in the selection and purchasing of fettling tools in order to minimize the risks of hand-arm vibration syndrome. Contents: employers' and suppliers' duties; criteria to make the right choice (vibration emission and length of exposure); considerations in tool selection; adequate maintenance; training and supervision for proper use of machines.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 3p. 8 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1714 Hoyle J., Cherry N., Pickering C.A.C., Burgess G., Smedley J., Dippnall M., Niven R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational lung disease in ferrous foundry workers
In a study of workers in ten ferrous foundries, it was found that the 509 men exposed to chemical binders were more likely (16.1%) to complain of chest tightness than the 402 non-exposed men (7.7%), an odds ratio of 2.32 after allowing for confounders. Of the 170 exposed men complaining of at least one chest symptom, 144 underwent histamine challenge testing. 20 were positive in the exposed group, while in the non-exposed group, only eight were positive. No difference was seen between exposure groups in the small number of cases diagnosed as occupational asthma. No evidence of major differences in health were found between exposed and non-exposed ex-employees. The most notable finding was the low reactivity in the histamine challenge test of workers with symptoms from both the exposed and non-exposed cohorts. Although there was only weak evidence of respiratory ill health associated with foundry work in this study, the potential exists where exposures to chemicals binders are high.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 26p. 4 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]

CIS 02-720 Wulff M., Högberg U., Stenlund H.
Occupational and environmental risks of spontaneous abortions around a smelter
To evaluate the effects of working or living near a smelter on reproductive outcome, a case-control study was conducted in Sweden involving employees at the smelter, a sample of residents near the smelter and a sample of residents at a distance from the smelter, as controls. Participants were given a questionnaire, in 1992, and cases of live births and spontaneous abortions were obtained for the period between 1982 and 1990 from the population registry. Risk factors were studied by logistic regression. A validity study between register and questionnaire data on spontaneous abortions and legal abortions was completed. The results indicate that there was no increase in the level of spontaneous abortions associated with smelter work or to living close to the smelter.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.131-138. Illus. 49 ref.


CIS 02-679 Park R.M.
Mortality at an automotive engine foundry and machine complex
Mortality was analysed for an automotive engine foundry and machining complex, with process exposures estimated from job assignments. Logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 2546 deaths, and numbers of work-related deaths were estimated. Lung cancer mortality in the foundry was increased where cleaning and finishing of castings was performed (OR 1.7) and in core-making after 1967 (OR 1.5). Black workers had excess lung cancer mortality in machining heat-treat operations (OR 2.5) and excess non-malignant respiratory disease mortality in moulding (OR 2.5) and core-making (OR 2.7). Stomach cancer mortality was elevated among workers with metalworking fluid exposures in precision grinding (OR 2.4). Heart disease mortality was increased among all workers in moulding (OR 1.6), as was stroke mortality among workers exposed to metalworking fluids (OR 1.8). 11% of deaths were estimated to be work-related.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.483-493. 71 ref.

CIS 02-105
Health and Safety Commission
Hand-arm vibration in foundries
This booklet aimed at managers, safety officers and safety representatives within the foundry industry gives guidance on how to reduce the risks of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Main topics covered: definition of HAVS; risks factors; cost for employers; exposure control; engineering and management controls: personal protection; system design and process control; good grinding practices; selection of grinding wheels; wheel hardness; training; work organization; health surveillance.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. 30p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.


CIS 02-1246 Wong O., Harris F.
Cancer mortality study of employees at lead battery plants and lead smelters, 1947-1995
To examine the cancer mortality of male workers exposed to lead in the United States, a cohort of 4,518 workers at lead battery plants and 2,300 at lead smelters was examined. Vital status was ascertained between 1947 and 1995. Site-specific cancer standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), based on the mortality rates of the U.S. male population and adjusted for age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. In addition, a nested case-control study of stomach cancer (30 cases and 120 age-matched controls) was also conducted. Results indicate a significant mortality increase from stomach cancer. A small, but statistically significant mortality increase from lung cancer and from cancer of the thyroid and other endocrine glands was also observed. No increased mortality was found for kidney cancer, bladder cancer, cancer of the central nervous system, lymphatic cancer and haematopoietic cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.255-270. 12 ref.

CIS 02-425 Enhanced safety through the use of Suva protective devices
Une sécurité accrue grâce aux dispositifs de protection Suva [in French]
Mehr Sicherheit mit Suva-Schutzeinrichtungen [in German]
Più sicurezza con i dispositivi di protezione Suva [in Italian]
This leaflet provides short descriptions of guards or safety devices offering protection against mechanical hazards in moulding, cutting or machining workshops that can be obtained through Suva, including price indications.
Suva, Bereich Sicherheitsprodukte, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, no date. 2p. Illus.

CIS 00-1350 Zorilla Bringas F.J.
Study of risks from mobile drilling equipment
Estudio de riesgos en carros perforadores [in Spanish]
Twelve different models of tracked motorized drilling trucks with a single arm, weighing between 2 and 10 tons, were evaluated in terms of their occupational hazards. It was found that the operators are mainly exposed to three types of hazards: dust, noise and adverse weather conditions. Exposure to dust and noise is a function of the equipment's age and type (pneumatic or hydraulic, with or without aspiration, position of the hammer drill, etc.). Personal protective equipment must in particular include protection against the weather, ear protection and protection of the eyes against particle impact. Results are presented in graphical form.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2000, No.6, p.4-12. Illus.

CIS 00-1173 Abrahamsson L.
Production economics analysis of investment initiated to improve working environment
The results of an evaluation of a new workplace for ladle preparation are described. A Swedish steel company initiated a development project related to ladle service work in order to come to grips with the difficult working environment and problems associated with absenteeism due to illness and occupational injuries. The evaluation was performed for the first three years after implementation of the project and shows that the new workplace considerably improved working conditions and increased both the quality and efficiency of production. Calculations show that an investment initiated to improve the working environment can be profitable.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 2000, Vol.31, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 4 ref.


CIS 01-1136 Lécrivain J., Gerber J.M., Aubert S., Delsaut P., Dogan C., Masson A., Héry M.
Assessing the quality of air used to feed supplied air respirators: Measurement of oil and carbon monoxide content
Evaluation de la qualité de l'air utilisé pour l'alimentation des systèmes à adduction d'air: mesure de la teneur en huile et en monoxyde de carbone [in French]
The objective of this study was to examine the quality of compressed air from compressors supplied to wearers of respiratory protection devices. A field study was conducted in different industrial settings, including asbestos removal work, metal part sandblasting and fettling work in a foundry. A sampling and counting method for compressed air was developed, and oil and carbon monoxide concentrations were measured in the air either while it was coming out of the compressor or after it had gone through a cleaning device. The findings differed between sites, although serious exposures were encountered only on one site (and excessively high concentrations in air directly at the compressor on one other site). The responsibilities of the various industry participants (equipment hirers, employers and occupational hygienists) are described, and the need for special compressors for respirable air as well as the importance of maintenance and inspection procedures for this type of equipment are emphasized.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1999, No.175, p.5-12. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 01-1003 Health and safety in the steel industry - A workers' handbook
Aimed at safety representatives, labour inspection services and steel and foundry workers, this guide is designed to improve working conditions in the industry. It provides guidance on the best standards of safety and health worldwide. A first section describes safety and health issues associated with various phases of the steel production process and the manufacture of steel products; a section on occupational diseases describes the main health problems of steel and foundry workers; finally, a section on hazards explains the physical, chemical and psychological causes of steelworkers' health problems, and proposes appropriate methods of prevention. Internationally-accepted exposure standards are presented.
International Metalworkers Federation, 54bis route des Acacias, 1227 Carouge, Genève, Switzerland, 1999. 148p. Illus. 48 ref. Index.

CIS 00-1740
Health and Safety Executive
Hazards associated with foundry processes: Hand-arm vibration - Assessing the need for action
Follow-up to CIS 97-632. Topics: data sheet; foundries; hand-arm vibration; hazard evaluation; limitation of exposure; safety guides; United Kingdom; vibrating tools; vibration control.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Feb. 1999. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 00-1680 Lander F., Kristiansen J., Lauritsen J.M.
Manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen and scrap recycling workers
The aim of the study was to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in foundry furnacemen by a combined measuring of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and manganese in ambient air (air-Mn). Air-Mn and B-Mn were measured during and after exposure in 24 furnacemen employed in foundries and in 21 workers from a scrap recycling plant. Furnacemen who work in insufficiently ventilated smelting departments inhale, absorb and retain significant amounts of manganese in their blood despite a generally low measured airborne level of manganese fumes. The exposure values compared with post-exposure values revealed a significant decrease in the B-Mn level of the most exposed furnacemen. Two persons were suspected of suffering clinically subacute manganese intoxication as both had B-Mn levels beyond the normal limit. The results indicate that B-Mn may be a valuable parameter for estimating recent exposure (within 1-2 weeks).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1999, Vol.72, No.8, p.546-550. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 00-1348 Beccastrini S., Tavassi S.
Risks, damage and solutions in the earth-mould remelting departments of cast-iron foundries in the region of Florence
Rischi, danni e soluzioni nel comparto fonderie di ghisa in terra di II fusione dell'area fiorentina [in Italian]
The cast iron processing industry has a significantly higher accident rate and accident severity than the average of the metallurgical industry. Six companies in the region of Florence (Italy) were analysed for the risks inherent to each production step. Major risks identified were dust (including silica), chemicals (vapours of furfuryl alcohol, formaldehyde, hydrocarbons, phenols, ammonia, organic solvents, hydrogen fluoride, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, metal fumes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide), hand-arm vibration, noise, radiant heat, hot-cold temperature changes, allergic contact dermatitis and musculoskeletal disorders. Preventive solutions are provided; the need for local aspiration, improved tooling and adequate personal protective equipment is highlighted.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.12, No.3, p.22-53. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-1430 Sułkowski W., Kowalska S., Lipowczan A., Prasher D., Raglan E.
Tinnitus and impulse noise-induced hearing loss in drop-forge operators
Tinnitus is frequently accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss, particularly in people exposed to impulse noise. A group of 261 drop-forge operators exposed to impulses with peak levels of 135dB and 169 age-matched controls underwent otological and audiometric examination, and complaints for tinnitus in both groups were analysed. Tinnitus, most common in operators with long exposure (> 10 years), was found in 184 operators (70.4%) versus 6 (3.5%) in controls. The findings closely corresponded with the degree of impulse-noise induced hearing loss. Since the maximum audiometric notch was mostly localized at 6kHz and rarely at 4kHz, the approximate pitch of the tinnitus was related to the frequencies where hearing was most affected. It is concluded that impulse-noise induced tinnitus may be sometimes more severe in its effects than is hearing loss, thus creating an additional reason for strict hearing protection programmes.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.12, No.2, p.177-182. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 99-1534 Firth H.M., Elwood J.M., Cox B., Herbison G.P.
Historical cohort study of a New Zealand foundry and heavy engineering plant
This historical cohort study investigated the mortality of workers who had been exposed to asbestos, machining fluids and foundry work in a foundry and heavy engineering plant in the railway rolling stock manufacturing industry in New Zealand. There were small increases in risk for several causes of death among the foundry and heavy engineering workers. However, these increases were small and the possible effects of smoking and other lifestyle factors could not be excluded. There was evidence of asbestos-related disease in those involved in engineering work in the past. Topics: asbestos; cancer; cardiovascular diseases; cohort study; foundries; long-term study; lubricants; lung cancer; mortality; musculoskeletal diseases; pleural mesothelioma; respiratory diseases; smoking.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.56, No.2, p.134-138. 30 ref.


CIS 01-207 Bilke F.
Storage and use of flammable foundry blackings
Lagerung und Verarbeitung brennbarer Schlichten in Giessereien [in German]
In foundries, flammable liquids with ignition temperatures below 21°C and between 21 and 55°C are used in the coating of moulds. Layout and design of the storage facilities including storage tanks for such substances in compliance with German safety regulations are illustrated and discussed. For example, for storage of more than 5000 litres of flammable mould-coating liquids permission must be obtained from the authorities and an inspection is required to make sure that the storage facilities including the storage tank comply with German safety regulations.
Giesserei, 8 Sep. 1998, Vol.85, No.9, p.61-69. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 00-1608 Grimsrud T.K., Langseth H., Engeland A., Andersen A.
Lung and bladder cancer in a Norwegian municipality with iron and steel producing industry: Population based case-control studies
To investigate the influence of occupation on lung and bladder cancer among men in a Norwegian municipality where an iron and steel plant constitutes the major industry, a population-based case-control study was performed based on lung and bladder cancer cases. Information on occupations and smoking habits was collected through interviews and from personnel files. An odds ratio for lung cancer of 2.9 was associated with exposure to PAHs. Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with work experience in the pig iron department at the ironworks. A non-significant OR of 1.8 was associated with exposure to asbestos. Bladder cancer was not associated with exposure to PAHs at the iron, steel and coke plant, or with experience at any of the production departments at the plant. One fifth of the lung cancer cases were attributed to exposure to PAHs or asbestos. More than 80% of the cases of lung cancer were attributed to tobacco smoking. The cancer risk in the pig iron department may have been due to a combination of exposures to PAH, asbestos and dust of mixed composition.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1998, Vol.55, No.6, p.387-392. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 99-588 Rosenman K.D., Reilly M.J.
Asbestos-related X-ray changes in foundry workers
From 1985 to 1996, 115 cases reported to the Michigan State Surveillance System as silicosis, non-specified pneumoconiosis, or pulmonary fibrosis, were reclassified as having asbestos-related radiological changes after a B-reader interpretation of each case's chest X-rays. Among the 115 reclassified reports 57 had worked in foundries. Only 7 (14.8%) of these had their primary work in maintenance in the foundry; 40 (85.1%) had their primary foundry work in a production job; and for 10 individuals the occupation was not known. Clinicians caring for foundry workers need to be aware that asbestos-related radiological changes are not uncommon in this population and asbestos exposure should be considered as one of the carcinogens contributing to the known increased risk of lung cancer among foundry workers. Topics: asbestos; asbestosis; chest radiography; epidemiologic study; foundries; job-exposure relation; length of service; lung diseases; Michigan; opacities; pleural thickening; radiological changes; silicosis; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.34, No.2, p.197-201. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 98-1361 Anttila A., Pukkala E., Aitio A., Rantanen T., Karjalainen S.
Update of cancer incidence among workers at a copper/nickel smelter and nickel refinery
Topics: cancer; nickel; copper; nickel sulfate; cohort study; foundries; frequency rates; gastrointestinal cancer; latency; length of service; long-term study; lung cancer; morbidity; nasal cancer; smelting plants.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 1998, Vol.71, No.4, p.245-250. 18 ref.

CIS 98-1285
Health and Safety Commission
Health surveillance in the foundry industry
Topics: airborne dust; data sheet; dermatitis; foundries; hand-arm vibration; harmful substances; health hazards; health service records; hearing loss; high-risk groups; irritants; legislation; medical supervision; metals; mists; respiratory diseases; United Kingdom; upper extremity disorders; wood dust.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, July 1998. 22p. 27 ref.

CIS 98-1254 Dell T., Berkhout J.
Injuries at a metal foundry as a function of job classification, length of employment and drug screening
Topics: abrasive operations; contusion; coremaking; drug testing; epidemiologic study; eye injuries; foundries; fractures; job-exposure relation; length of service; moulding; statistical evaluation; strain injuries; thermal burns; USA; wounds.
Journal of Safety Research, Spring 1998, Vol.29, No.1, p.9-14. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 99-613 Controlling silica dust from foundry casting-cleaning operations
Topics: cleaning of castings; data sheet; dust control; exhaust ventilation; foundries; local exhaust; respirable dust; silica; USA.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Dec. 1997. 2p. Illus. 1 ref.

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