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Smelting and refining operations - 428 entries found

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CIS 12-0190 Abramson M.J., Benke G.P., Cui J., de Klerk N.H., Del Monaco A., Dennekamp M., Fritschi L., Musk A.W., Sim M.R.
Is potroom asthma due more to sulphur dioxide than fluoride? An inception cohort study in the Australian aluminium industry
Although an asthma-like syndrome has been recognized in aluminium smelter workers for over 70 years, the causal agent has been difficult to identify. An inception cohort study was conducted at two Australian aluminium smelters where 446 employees participated over a period of nine years. Cumulative exposures between interviews were estimated from job histories using a task exposure matrix based on measurements in the smelters. Participants completed an MRC respiratory questionnaire, spirometry and methacholine challenge test. Data were analyzed with generalized estimating equations to allow for repeated measurements of each participant. Wheeze and chest tightness, the two symptoms most closely related to asthma, showed associations with occupational exposures. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) exposure was significantly associated with these symptoms, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) to methacholine (a feature of asthma), airflow limitation (reduced one-second forced expiratory volume/forced vital capacity ratio) and longitudinal decline in lung function. Fluoride exposure was associated with the same outcomes, but less strongly. Inhalable dust and the benzene soluble fraction (BSF) were associated with symptoms of asthma and BHR. Although many of the exposures were highly correlated, further modelling suggested that of the known respiratory irritants, SO2 was more likely than fluoride to be primarily responsible for the symptoms observed. Fluoride, inhalable dust and SO2 were the most important airborne contaminants associated with effects on lung function. The observed effects were detected at contaminant levels within occupational exposure standards, so further reductions are required, particularly in SO2 exposures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2010, Vol.67, No.10, p.679-685. Illus. 30 ref.
Is_potroom_asthma_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]


CIS 11-0833 Hopf N.B., Carreón T., Talaska G.
Biological markers of carcinogenic exposure in the aluminum smelter industry - A systematic review
Exposure monitoring programs have been used in the aluminium smelter industry for decades to decrease the risk of cancer from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Biological monitoring of PAHs incorporates all routes of exposure. Measuring postshift urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP), a metabolite of pyrene, determines worker's daily PAH exposures, while measuring DNA adducts reflect chronic exposures to PAHs. This study reviewed the scientific literature to identify changes over time in 1OHP levels, DNA adduct levels and other contributing factors associated with 1OHP and DNA adduct levels in the aluminium smelter industry. No trends were observed in 1OHP and DNA adduct levels. Possible reasons for this unexpected finding are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2009, Vol.6, No.9, p.562-581. Illus. 77 ref.
Biological_markers.pdf [in English]

CIS 09-1235 Sim M.R., Del Monaco A., Hoving J.L., MacFarlane E., McKenzie D., Benke G., de Klerk N., Fritschi L.
Mortality and cancer incidence in workers in two Australian prebake aluminium smelters
This study aimed to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality among workers of two Australian prebake aluminium smelters. It involved a cohort of 4396 men who had worked in a prebake smelter for at least three months, matched against national cancer databases to obtain cause of death and type of cancer. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were calculated for the whole cohort and for specific subgroups of workers. Findings are discussed. Although there were no overall excesses of mortality or cancer, incident mesothelioma and kidney cancer risks were however elevated.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2009, Vol.66, No.7, p.464-470. 29 ref.

CIS 09-598 Chashchin V., Solonin Y., Pancheva G., Bojko E., Vaktskjold A., Talykova L., Nieboer E., Syurin S., Burakova O., Skandfer M., Gudkov A., Øvrum A., Nikanov A., Junttila S., Vorne J., Rönkkö A.
Mining and metallurgy
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health in mining and metallurgy of relevance to Nordic countries and Russia. Topics addressed: impact of the economic downturn on occupational health in the mining and metallurgic sectors in a region of Russia; work environment and health hazards in the coal industry in a region of Russia; studies in Russia of occupational nickel exposure and pregnancy outcome; risk factors and prevalence of bronchopulmonary disorders in mining and metallurgical workers in a region of Russia; psychological aspects of shift rotation in the oil and gas sector in Northern Russia; prevalence of vibration disease among miners exposed to hand-arm vibration in Northwest Russia; occupational safety in vocational mining education.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2009, Vol.12, No.1, p.1-31 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English]


CIS 09-644 Vaktskjold A., Talykova L.V., Chashchin V.P., Odland J.Ö., Nieboer E.
Maternal nickel exposure and congenital musculoskeletal defects
The objective of this study was to investigate whether women occupationally exposed to nickel in the nickel and copper refineries in the Kola region of Russia in early pregnancy were at elevated risk of delivering a newborn with a malformation or deformation of the musculoskeletal system. Data were obtained from the Kola Birth Register. Each record was assigned a categorical nickel exposure rating according to the occupation the delivering woman had at the time of becoming pregnant. Based on 22,965 births, 304 infants (13.3/1,000 births) were diagnosed with musculoskeletal defects at birth, especially for feet deformities. The incidence was high, but unrelated to maternal exposure to nickel. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.825-833. 47 ref.

CIS 09-390 Rabinowitz P.M., Galusha D., Slade M.D., Dixon-Ernst C., O'Neill A., Fiellin M., Cullen M.R.
Organic solvent exposure and hearing loss in a cohort of aluminium workers
This retrospective cohort study was undertaken to examine the relationship between solvent exposure and hearing loss among workers of a large aluminium producer in the United States. A cohort of 1319 workers aged 35 years or less at inception was followed for five years. Typical solvent exposures involved mixtures of xylene, toluene and methyl ethyl ketone. Subjects were classified as solvent exposed or not on the basis of industrial hygiene records linked with individual job histories. Hearing levels were assessed using pure tone audiometry. Data were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic models. Findings show that exposure to organic solvents is a risk factor for high frequency hearing loss, although the data do not allow conclusions about dose-response relationships.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.65, No.4, p.230-235. 18 ref.

CIS 09-59 Taiwo O.A., Slade M.D., Cantley L.F., Fiellin M.G., Wesdock J.C., Bayer F.J., Cullen M.R.
Beryllium sensitization in aluminum smelter workers
To determine whether beryllium-related disease exists among aluminium smelter workers, 734 employees from four aluminium smelters in the United States found to have significant beryllium exposure based on five years of sampling and analysis participated in a medical surveillance programme that included a respiratory symptoms questionnaire, spirometry and a beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test. Time-weighted average beryllium exposures based on personal sampling ranged from 0.002 to 13.00µg/m3. Despite the high levels of some of these exposures, only two employees had confirmed beryllium sensitization. The low beryllium sensitization rate observed may be related to good work practices and the use of personal protective equipment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.50, No.2, p.157-162. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 09-157 Godderis L., Deschuyffeleer T., Roelandt H., Veulemans H., Moens G.
Exposure to metalworking fluids and respiratory and dermatological complaints in a secondary aluminium plant
In this study, the exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) was evaluated in 31 workers of three departments (extrusion, hot and cold rolling mill) in a secondary aluminium plant in Belgium. Evaluations also included urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and self-assessments of respiratory and dermatological complaints by means of questionnaires. Atmospheric levels of MWFs and biodegradation products were low in all work environments. 1-Hydroxypyrene levels were all around the detection limit of 0.2µg/L. The scores for skin and respiratory symptoms were higher in the hot and cold rolling mill departments than in the extrusion department. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.845-853. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 08-835 Laier Johnsen H., Kongerud J., Hetland S.M., Šaltytė Benth J., Søyseth V.
Decreased lung function among employees at Norwegian smelters
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure and lung function among workers at Norwegian smelters. Spirometry was performed on 3924 employees, who also completed a standardized questionnaire. The employees were classified by job functions: line operators; non-line operators; non-exposed office workers. Multivariate analyses showed that, compared to the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in non-exposed workers, the FEV1 was 87mL and 65mL lower in line and non-line operators, respectively. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2008, Vol.51, No.4, p.296-306. 31 ref.


CIS 09-1121 Søyseth V., Johnsen H.L., Benth J.S., Hetland S.M., Kongerud J.
Production of silicon metal and alloys is associated with accelerated decline in lung function
To investigate the association between decline in lung function and the production of alloys in the Norwegian smelting industry, all 3924 employees of the sector were examined annually for five years. The outcome variable was one-second forced expiratory volume in litres divided by the square of subjects' height in metres (FEV1/height2). In the sub-cohorts of the ferrosilicon/silicon metal and silicon carbide industries, the differences between oven operators and non-exposed workers were -2.3 (-4.3 to -0.3) and -5.6 (-10.4 to -0.7) mL/(m2) x year), respectively. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.1020-1026. 27 ref.

CIS 09-319 Jones S.R., Atkin P., Holroyd C., Lutman E., Vives i Batlle J., Wakeford R., Walker P.
Lung cancer mortality at a UK tin smelter
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lung cancer mortality and quantitative measures of exposure in a tin smelter. Using available records of occupational hygiene measurements, exposure matrices for arsenic, cadmium, lead, antimony and polonium-210, covering the main process areas of the smelter, were established as well as work histories from personnel record cards for the previously defined cohort of 1462 male employees. Three different methods of extrapolation were used to assess exposures prior to 1972 when no measurement results were available. Lung cancer mortality was examined in relation to cumulative inhalation exposure by Poisson regression analysis. No significant associations could be found between lung cancer mortality and simple cumulative exposure to any of the substances studied. When cumulative exposures were weighted according to time since exposure and attained age, significant associations were found between lung cancer mortality and exposures to arsenic, lead and antimony. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, June 2007, Vol.57, No.4, p.238-245. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 09-394 Szyman£ka-Chabowska A., Antonowicz-Juchniewicz J,, Andrzejak R.
The concentration of selected cancer markers (TPA, TPS, CYFRA 21-1, CEA) in workers occupationally exposed to arsenic (As) and some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) during a two-year observation study
Molecular epidemiology studies have lately been focused on occupational cancer associated with exposure to chemical carcinogens in the work environment. A two-year observation study was designed to investigate the relationship between arsenic, lead and cadmium concentrations and the levels of cancer markers: TPA (tissue polypeptide antigen), TPS (tissue polypeptide specific antigen), CYFRA 21-1 and CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) in 69 male workers occupationally exposed to As and Pb, and environmentally exposed to Cd via tobacco smoking. Significant correlations were found between CEA and blood Cd concentrations or between CEA and the duration of work under exposure. All the metals examined were found to have an influence on the concentration of cancer markers, except for CYFRA 21-1. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.3, p.229-239. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 09-125 Dyosi S.
Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter
This cross-sectional study investigated the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a South-African lead smelter involved in the recycling of lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. Although the plant had adopted several control measures, some areas had average lead-in-air levels above 0.15mg/m3, the occupational exposure limit for lead. Workers in the smelting area and battery breaking area had the highest blood lead levels. Personal protective equipment was not in regular use in lead exposure zones.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Oct. 2007, Vol.4, No.10, p.762-769. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-1055 Gibbs G.W., Sevigny M.
Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers. Part 3: monitoring the mortality of workers first employed after January 1, 1950
The objective of this study was to monitor changes over time in mortality of workers first employed in Quebec aluminium smelters after 1950. Mortality of cohorts by decade of hire was compared with Quebec population and same plant experience before 1950. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and respiratory cancer mortality were statistically in excess. In the combined cohorts, standardized mortality ratios exceeded 110 for cancers of oesophagus, rectum, and rectosigmoid junction, pancreas, larynx, lung, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, cerebrovascular disease and asthma. These findings essentially mirrored the experience of pre-1950 workers. There was a significant downward trend in mortality from all causes, lung and bladder cancer. See also CIS 08-1052 and 08-1054.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2007, Vol.49, No.11, p.1269-1287. 10 ref.

CIS 08-1054 Gibbs G.W., Armstrong B., Sevigny M.
Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers. Part 2: Mortality of three cohorts hired on or before January 1, 1951
The mortality of 5,977 male aluminium smelter workers hired at three Quebec plants before 1951 was compared with that of Quebec men. Statistically significant causes of death were: lung cancer (at the three plants); bladder cancer and chronic obstructive lung disease (at two plants); cancers of the stomach, digestive system, rectum, pancreas, and larynx, Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease (one plant). Mortality from cancer of the lung and bladder and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are related to exposure in Söderberg smelters. The cause of increased stomach cancer mortality is unclear. Excess mortality from some other diseases may be explained by factors other than coal tar pitch volatiles exposure. See also CIS 08-1052 and 08-1055.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2007, Vol.49, No.10, p.1105-1123. 42 ref.

CIS 08-1052 Lavoué J., Gérin M., Côté J., Lapointe R.
Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers. Part 1: The reduction plants and coal tar pitch volatile (CTPV) exposure assessment
This article presents the work undertaken to assess the exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPV) and to develop the job-exposure matrix (JEM), as part of a study on the mortality and cancer incidence among aluminium smelter workers in Quebec, Canada. Historical CTPV exposure was assessed by estimating benzene-soluble material (BSM) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) levels for combinations of job and time period. These estimates were derived by using several procedures including averaging measurement data, a deterministic mathematical model using process-related correction factors and expert-based extrapolation. The JEM comprised 28,910 jobs, covering seven facilities from 1916 to 1999. Estimated exposures ranged from 0.01µg/m3 to 68.08µg/m3 for B[a]P and 0.01mg/m3 to 3.64mg/m3 for BSM, and were lowest before 1940 and after 1980. See also CIS 08-1054 and 08-1055.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2007, Vol.49, No.9, p.997-1008. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 08-354 Pollack K.M., Agnew J., Slade M.D., Cantley L., Taiwo O., Vegso S., Sircar K., Cullen M.R.
Use of employer administrative databases to identify systematic causes of injury in aluminum manufacturing
Employer administrative files are an underutilized source of data in epidemiologic studies of occupational injuries. Personnel files, occupational health surveillance data, industrial hygiene data and a real-time incident and injury management system from a large multi-site aluminium manufacturer were linked deterministically. This method successfully created a database containing over 100 variables for 9101 workers from eight geographically dispersed plants in the United States. Between 2002 and 2004, there were 3563 injuries to 2495 employees. The most common injuries were sprain/strains (32%), contusions (24%), and lacerations (14%). A multivariable logistic regression model revealed that physical job demand was the strongest predictor of injury risk, in an exposure dependent fashion. Other strong predictors of injury included female gender, young age, short company tenure and short time on current job.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.676-686. Illus. 32 ref.


CIS 08-399 Domínguez Gracia A.I., Rubio Aranda E., Martínez Terrer T., Conte Solano J.C., Rubio Calvo E.
Hearing trauma induced from a combined exposure to smoking and occupational noise in the metalworking industry
Adquisición de un trauma acústico por multiexposición a tabaco y ruido laboral en la industria del metal [in Spanish]
This study evaluated the combined effect of smoking and exposure to noise in the metalworking industry on hearing loss. It involved 257 workers, including 112 in good health, 66 with massive hearing trauma and 79 showing initial signs of hearing trauma. The study shows that the probability of hearing loss increases among workers exposed to noise in occupational settings and who are smokers. The worst results were found among workers smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day and exposed to occupational noise for 20 years or more.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2006, Vol.LII, No.205, p.33-40. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 07-1130 Sińczuk-Walczak H., Szymczak M., Aniołczyk H., Brzeźnicki S., Raźniewska G., Trzcinka-Ochocka M., Matczak W.
The effect of combined exposure to chemical and physical factors on the nervous system during aluminium production: A preliminary finding
Skutki zdrowotne w układzie nerwowym łącznego narażenia na czynniki chemiczne i fizyczne podczas produkcji aluminium: Doniesienie wstępne [in Polish]
Medical examinations were carried out on 39 male workers exposed to aluminium dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and magnetic fields during aluminium production. Clinical symptoms, such as headache (46.2%), increased emotional irritability (66.7%), concentration difficulty (25.6%), insomnia (30.8%), hypersomnia (15.4%), and mood lability (10.3%) predominated among functional disorders of the nervous system in workers chronically exposed to chemical and physical factors. Objective neurological examinations did not reveal organic lesions in the central or peripheral nervous system. In EEG recordings classified as abnormal, paroxysmal changes were most common (20.5%).
Medycyna pracy, 2006, Vol.57, No.1, p.7-13. 28 ref.

CIS 07-968 Lamonde F., Richard J.G., Beaufort P.
Project management, ergonomics, and safety and health: The case of the design of a plant in Quebec
Gestion de projet, ergonomie et santé-sécurité: le cas de la conception d'une usine québécoise [in French]
This article presents the approach adopted by an ergonomist and two occupational safety and health professionals responsible for integrating ergonomics and occupational safety and health in an aluminium plant in Quebec. It involves five principles: advancing step-by-step during the project; adapting to engineering requirements; validating actions; testing design choices during user activities; and recording actions undertaken. This approach made it possible to influence the design of workplaces, eliminate many hazards at source and develop an occupational safety and health programme prior to the commissioning of the plant.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Dec. 2006, No.205, p.41-54. Illus. 52 ref.$File/ND2260bis.pdf [in English]$File/ND2260.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-645 Potula V., Kleinbaum D., Kaye W.
Lead exposure and spine bone mineral density
The purpose of this study was to assess changes in spine bone mineral density (BMD) over time in relation to changes in bone and blood lead levels and other risk factors among female former smelter workers. Spine BMD was measured using an X-ray bone densitometer and tibia bone lead content was estimated using an X-ray fluorescence system. Blood lead levels were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption with Zeeman effect background correction. Information about risk factors was obtained through a questionnaire. After controlling for baseline BMD, baseline blood lead measured in 1994 and time since menopause, spine bone density in 2000 decreased with increasing blood lead levels in 2000 in all women, especially if they worked in technical jobs most of the time at the plant.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2006, Vol.48, No.6, p.556-564. 58 ref.

CIS 07-409 Taiwo O.A., Sircar K.D., Slade M.D., Cantley L.F., Vegso S.J., Rabinowitz P.M., Fiellin M.G., Cullen M.R.
Incidence of asthma among aluminum workers
Exposures to respiratory irritants encountered in the aluminium industry in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand have been suggested as the cause of "potroom asthma". This study was designed to assess whether asthma occurs excessively among potroom workers in the USA and if so, to identify possible risk factors. It was based on data for the years 1996 to 2002 from a large aluminium producer with multiple production sites. The asthma incidence ratio between potroom and non-potroom workers after adjusting for smoking was 1.40. Although bivariate analyses showed a relationship between asthma incidence and exposure to total fluoride, gaseous fluoride, particulate fluoride, sulfur dioxide and smoking, only the effects of gaseous fluoride (relative risk, RR=5.1) and smoking (RR=7.7) remained significant in the multivariate model. Potroom asthma appears to occur at the studied U.S. aluminium smelters at doses within regulatory guidelines.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2006, Vol.48, No.3, p.275-282. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 07-170 Lundström N.G., Englyst V., Gerhardsson L., Jin T., Nordberg G.
Lung cancer development in primary smelter workers: A nested case-referent study
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of work-related exposure to arsenic and lead versus smoking among lead smelter workers who had developed lung cancer. In a cohort of 3979 lead smelter workers, 46 male subjects had contracted respiratory malignancies. They were compared with 141 age-matched male referents by conditional logistic regression analysis. Cases showed a fourfold higher smoking rate compared with referents. When restricted to smokers, the cumulative air arsenic exposure index, but not the lead exposure indices, was also significantly higher among the cases. It is concluded that cumulative arsenic exposure and smoking were the main risk factors for the development of lung cancer, but not lead exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2006, Vol.48, No.4, p.376-380. 30 ref.


CIS 06-885 Rosenberg N.
Pulmonary berylliosis
Bérylliose pulmonaire [in French]
Pulmonary berylliosis is defined by respiratory symptoms following the inhalation of dust or smoke containing beryllium particles. Workers in the beryllium smelting and metalworking industries are most at risk of exposure. Contents of this review article on berylliosis: physiopathology; prevalence and epidemiology; diagnosis of acute and chronic berylliosis; development of the disease; prevention (medical supervision, monitoring of workplace air, ventilation, personal protective equipment); compensation of occupational diseases in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2005, No.104, p.513-521. 77 ref.$File/TR36.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-532 Gawęda E., Kondej D.
Recommendations for health protection at heavy metal refining plants
Zalecenia dotyczące profilaktyki na stanowiskach rafinacji metali ciężkich [in Polish]
Chemical hazards likely to be encountered at heavy metal refining plants are listed, including carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic substances, and the provisions of occupational health standards are explained. Includes recommendations for occupational exposure assessment and for methods of collective and personal protection.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2005. 36p. 20 ref.

CIS 06-364 Schütz A, Olsson M., Jensen A., Gerhardsson L., Börjesson J., Mattsson S., Skerfving S.
Lead in finger bone, whole blood, plasma and urine in lead-smelter workers: Extended exposure range
The objective of this study was to assess historical exposure to lead and to study the relationships between lead concentrations in whole blood (B-Pb), plasma (P-Pb), urine (U-Pb), finger bone (Bone-Pb) and duration of employment in workers at a secondary lead smelter and to compare the findings with those of studies of populations with a wide range of lead exposure. The study population included 39 workers at a German secondary lead smelter. The results were compared with data from previous studies of Swedish, Russian and Ecuadorian lead-exposed subjects. The high Bone-Pb values recorded for the German workers implied a historical lead exposure of considerable magnitude. The long-term high lead exposure also showed up in the B-Pb levels for both active and retired workers, leading to the implementation of safety measures in order to comply with biological threshold limits.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.78, No.1, p.35-43. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 06-137 Gawęda E.
Occupational exposure to carcinogenic metals and metalloids in refining of heavy metals
Narażenie zawodowe na rakotwórcze metale i metaloidy w procesach rafinacji metali ciężkich [in Polish]
Concentrations of carcinogenic metals (cadmium, nickel) and metalloids (arsenic) were measured in workplace air during heavy metals refining processes. The tests were conducted in two large Polish plants, a copper smelter and a non-ferrous metals smelter, at workstations for the refining of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and silver and the production of nickel sulfate and selenium. The presence of arsenic in the workplace air was found in both plants. Exposure to cadmium occurred only in the non-ferrous metals smelter. The highest exposure was found at workstations in the lead and cadmium refining processes. The presence of nickel was found only at workstations with nickel sulfate production. The results highlight the need for routine measurements of arsenic concentrations at all workstations in the production of metals with a high degree of purity.
Medycyna pracy, 2005, Vol.56, No.2, p.161-165. 8 ref.

CIS 05-373 Bleecker M.L., Ford D.P., Lindgren K.N., Hoese V.M., Walsh K.S., Vaughan C.G.
Differential effects of lead exposure on components of verbal memory
To determine if verbal learning and memory retention is affected by lead exposure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was administered to 256 English-speaking lead smelter workers (mean age 41 years and mean employment duration 17 years). Lead exposure variables, based on up to 25 years of prior blood lead data, included a mean current blood lead of 28µg/dl, working lifetime time weighted average blood lead (TWA) of 39µg/dl, and working lifetime integrated blood lead index (IBL) of 728µg-y/dl. Associations of these chronic and recent lead exposure variables with measures from the RAVLT were modelled through multiple linear regressions after controlling for age and educational achievement. It was found that long-term lead exposure interfered with the organisation and recall of previously learned verbal material.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.62, No.3, p.181-187. Illus. 45 ref.


CIS 07-866 Garçon G., Leleu B., Zerimech F., Marez T., Haguenoer J.M., Furon D., Shirali P.
Biologic markers of oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity as studied in biomonitoring of adverse effects of occupational exposure to lead and cadmium
This study examined the impregnation levels of workers occupationally exposed to lead and cadmium, the usefulness of early urinary markers of nephrotoxicity and the occurrence of oxidative stress as the underlying mechanism involved in adverse effects induced by lead or cadmium. Levels of lead and cadmium in blood and urine were measured in 35 male workers in a nonferrous metal smelter. Relations between oxidative stress markers and exposure levels, on the one hand, and early urinary markers and exposure levels, on the other hand, were evaluated. Mean exposure levels were moderate. Findings suggest the use of α-glutathione S-transferases excretion in urine as an indicator of early changes in the proximal tubular integrity that could later lead to clinical disease if exposure is not reduced.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.46, No.11, p.1180-1186. 35 ref.

CIS 04-410 Pereira Vianna M.I., Sousa Santana V., Loomis D.
Occupational exposures to acid mists and gases and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa
To examine the hypothesis that acid mist or mixtures of acid mists and acid gases are associated with ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa, all 665 active male workers of a metal processing factory in Brazil were studied. Semi-quantitative measures of exposure were estimated from a job exposure matrix, and ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa were identified with standardized clinical dental examinations. It was found that past exposure to acid mists were positively associated with ulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa but only among workers without lip sealing, that is not having the ability to keep lips closed at rest (age- and alcohol consumption-adjusted prevalence ratio PR=3.40). The evidence of a chronic rather than acute irritative process suggests a possible step involving the aetiology of oral malignancies, which however needs further investigation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.45, No.3, p.238-245. 23 ref.

CIS 04-103 Barnard C.G., McBride D.I., Firth H.M., Herbison G.P.
Assessing individual employee risk factors for occupational asthma in primary aluminium smelting
To assess the importance of individual risk factors in the development of occupational asthma (OA) among primary aluminium smelting workers, a case-control study was carried out among workers employed in areas with moderate to high levels of dust and fume. 45 cases diagnosed with OA and four controls per case were matched for the same year of employment and age group. The pre-employment medical questionnaires were reviewed. Further information on demographics and details of allergic symptoms, respiratory risk factors, respiratory symptoms were obtained through medical examinations. Finally, all participants were subjected to spirometry. There was a significant positive association between hay fever and OA (odds ratio OR 3.58). A higher forced expiratory ratio (FER) at employment reduced the risk of developing OA (OR 0.93). The risk of OA was more than three times higher in individuals with an FER of 70.0-74.9% than in individuals with an FER ≥80.0% (OR 3.46). Individuals with hay fever may be more susceptible to OA when exposed to airborne irritants in primary aluminium production. The pathological basis may be reduced nasal filtration and increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2004, Vol.61, No.7, p.604-608. 38 ref.


CIS 06-110 Sim M., Benke G.
World at work: Hazards and controls in aluminium potrooms
Primary aluminium is produced by the electrolytic reduction of alumina in large carbon-lined steel vessels called pots. Hundreds of these pots are housed in facilities called "potrooms". This article summarizes the main occupational hazards faced by workers in potrooms, along with necessary control measures. Contents: jobs and tasks in the potroom; hazards in potrooms (coal tar pitch volatiles including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fluorides, alumina and coke dusts, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide); health hazards (cancer, respiratory diseases, asthma, bronchial hyper-responsiveness); measures to protect workers (local exhaust, work in enclosed cabins with filtered air, remote handing, personal protective equipment, regular medical supervision including spirometry).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.989-992. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 05-308 Fritschi L., Sim M.R., Forbes A., Abramson M.J., Benke G., Musk A.W., de Klerk N.H.
Respiratory symptoms and lung-function changes with exposure to five substances in aluminium smelters
To determine whether occupational exposures contribute to respiratory symptoms among workers involved in the production of primary aluminium, a cross-sectional survey of 1,615 male employees of two Australian aluminium smelters was conducted. Subjects underwent spirometry and were asked about respiratory symptoms and the relationship of those symptoms to work. Their job histories were combined with a task-exposure matrix to produce individual quantitative measures of cumulative exposure to fluoride, sulphur dioxide, respirable dust, the benzene-soluble fraction of coal tar pitch volatiles (BSF) and oil mist. After adjusting for smoking and age, it was found that subjects with the highest cumulative exposure to fluoride (>0.16mg/m3 years) and respirable dust (>2.9mg/m3 years) were two to four times more likely to report work-related wheeze and chest tightness than were unexposed subjects. Lower prevalence ratios for the same symptoms were seen with sulphur dioxide and BSF. Levels of lung function decreased slightly with exposure to oil mist, but not with cumulative exposure to other substances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2003, Vol.76, No.2, p.103-110. 28 ref.

CIS 05-152 Menezes Filho J.A., de Carvalho W.A., Spínola A.G.
Assessment of occupational exposure to lead in a metallurgy plant - A cross-sectional study
Avaliação da exposição ocupacional ao chumbo em uma metalúrgica - Um estudo transversal [in Portuguese]
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate occupational exposure to lead in a smelting plant. It involved 195 workers of a primary lead refining plant and an unexposed control group of 65 persons. In both groups, determinations of blood lead, urinary d-aminolvulinic acid, zinc protoporphyrin and haemoglobin were made. Compared to the control group, levels of all these indicators were significantly higher in the metallurgy workers, even among persons working in administrative services; the highest levels were recorded among workers assigned to sintering.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.105/106, p.63-72. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 03-956 Bellemare M., Beaugrand S., Marier M., Larue C., Vezeau S.
Simulations focusing on the activity during the ergonomic monitoring of industrial projects: Two cases of design of drivers' cabs in the metal transformation industry
Les simulations centrées sur l'activité au cours de l'accompagnement ergonomique des projets industriels: deux cas de conception de cabines de véhicule dans l'industrie métallurgique [in French]
This report consists of a discussion paper on the approach followed by ergonomics professionals in interventions aimed at improving conditions of work and reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among workers in the aluminium industry. It is based on the evaluations of ergonomic interventions at two jobs of an aluminium foundry, those of gantry crane operator and of driver of the crucible-carrying truck. In both cases, the future activity model was applied and simulations of operator activity were carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of various methodologies are discussed and commented in light of the findings from these interventions.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 3C2, Canada, Mar. 2003. xii, 142p. Illus. 43 ref. CD-ROM containing the PDF version of the document is included (requires Adobe Acrobat Reader). [in French]


CIS 03-572 Mvududu J.C.
Hazard identification and risk management - A strategic tool for marketing health and safety in industry
Hazard identification and risk assessment activities are key aspects of the successful implementation of a safety, health and environmental management system. Contents of this review article on hazard identification and risk management: definitions of hazard identification and risk assessment; distinctions between risk, hazard and danger; risk assessment principles; understanding risk assessment; outline of the risk assessment programme implemented by a mining and smelting industrial group.
On Guard, Mar. 2002, Vol.7, No.1, p.9-16. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1959 Morken T., Moen B., Riise T., Vigeland Hauge S.H., Holien S., Langedrag A., Olson H.O., Pedersen S., Liahjell Saue I.L., Seljebø G.M., Thoppil V.
Effects of a training program to improve musculoskeletal health among industrial workers - Effects of supervisors' role in the intervention
To evaluate the effects of a one-year training programme on musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors and coping, 549 workers from eight plants in the aluminum industry in Norway were divided into three groups: shift group with supervisor; shift group without supervisor and managers. The effects were measured using a questionnaire including items on musculoskeletal symptoms, coping, job demands, control and social support. Participants in the "operators without a supervisor" group used coping strategies more often and tended towards increased social support. No significant changes in musculoskeletal symptoms were found. The intervention groups implemented changes in the work environment such as redesigning the workplace, changing work tools and increasing job variation.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Aug. 2002, Vol.30, No.2, p.115-127. Illus. 44 ref.


CIS 03-746 Symanski E., Chan W., Chang C.C.
Mixed-effects models for the evaluation of long-term trends in exposure levels with an example from the nickel industry
The purpose of this paper is to examine certain features of data from long-term studies and to present a general conceptual framework by which these features may be taken into account so that statistically valid inferences can be made. Statistical methods that rely on the application of mixed-effects models are proposed for evaluating long-term trends in exposure to workplace contaminants. The mixed-effects model presented herein has fixed effects for trend components and random effects for workers, job groups, buildings and manufacturing plants. It provides information about the magnitude of sources of variation associated with different groupings of workers. The mixed-effects model was applied to a large database of shift-long personal exposure measurements collected on workers exposed to nickel aerosols in the nickel-producing industry.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.71-81. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 03-772 Kerr S.M., Vincent J.H., Ramachandran G.
A new approach to sampling for particle size and chemical species 'Fingerprinting' of workplace aerosols
This article describes a new instrument for aerosol sampling. A commercially-available, high-volume (28.3Lpm) Andersen-type cascade impactor was modified in order to extend its operational range further into the range of large inhalable particles for purposes of use in an exposure assessment study in the primary nickel production industry. The modification involved incorporating a 10ppi (pores per inch) porous plastic foam top stage that has a wide penetration curve with a 50dae-value of approximately 27µm. This enabled the upper end of the range of the instrument to be extended from about 10 to greater than 70µm. A mathematical inversion algorithm developed in earlier research was modified so that it could be applied to this new instrument. The new instrument was deployed in a pilot field study by to demonstrate the potential of the new instrument for generating useful information pertaining to health-relevant aerosol size tractions (e.g., inhalable, thoracic and respirable), and for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, oxidic and total nickel chemical species groups.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 2001, Vol.45, No.7, p.555-568. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1034 Commission Directive 2001/91/EC of 29 October 2001 adapting to technical progress for the eighth time Annex I to Council Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (hexachloroethane) [European Union]
Directive 2001/91/CE de la Commission du 29 octobre 2001 portant huitième adaptation au progrès technique de l'annexe I de la directive 76/769/CEE du Conseil concernant le rapprochement des dispositions législatives, réglementaires et administratives des Etats membres relatives à la limitation de la mise sur le marché et de l'emploi de certaines substances et préparations dangereuses (hexachloroéthane) [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2001/91/CE de la Comisión, de 29 de octubre de 2001, por la que se adapta al progreso técnico por octava vez el anexo I de la Directiva 76/769/CEE del Consejo relativa a la aproximación de las disposiciones legales, reglamentarias y administrativas de los Estados miembros que limitan la comercialización y el uso de determinadas sustancias y preparados peligrosos (hexacloroetano) [in Spanish]
This Directive modifies Directive 76/769/EEC (see CIS 01-965). It extends the prohibition of the use of hexachloroethane to the manufacturing and processing of non-ferrous metals, for which a derogation had been in effect until this Directive, in order to allow for its use in non-integrated aluminium foundries and in the production of certain magnesium alloys.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 30 Oct. 2001, Vol.44, No.L 286, p.27-28. [in English] [in Spanish] [in French]

CIS 02-784 Counter S.A., Buchanan L.H., Ortega F.
Gender differences in blood lead and hemoglobin levels in Andean adults with chronic lead exposure
A study of the prevalence of lead (Pb) intoxication was conducted in 158 adults (67 men and 91 women) living at an altitude of 2,500-2,800 meters in Ecuadorian Andean villages with high Pb contamination from local small-scale Pb-glazing cottage industries. Venous blood samples showed mean blood lead (PbB) levels of 34.5µg/dL for men and 27.0µg/dL for women. 39% of the men had PbB levels≥ 40µg/dL, while 41% of the women had PbB levels≥ 30µg/dL (the WHO health-based biological limits). A reference group of 39 adults (24 men and 15 women) had a mean PbB level of 5.9µg/dL, significantly different from that of the 158 subjects in the study group. The difference in mean PbB levels of men (6.8µg/dL) and women (4.7µg/dL) in the reference group was significant. The mean altitude-corrected haemoglobin levels in the study group were lower than normal, 11.3g/dL for men and 10.9g/dL for women.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.113-118. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 02-783 Breton R.A., Vyskocil A.
Smoking and blood cadmium concentrations in young pre-employees
Smoking is the main source of cadmium, a known human carcinogen, among young adults. The objective of this study was to determine blood and urine cadmium levels of young adults occupationally exposed to cadmium in relation to number of cigarettes smoked and sex. Data were gathered for 132 young adults (smokers and non-smokers, men and women) by means of a questionnaire and blood and urine analyses. There were no statistical differences between smokers and non-smokers in urine cadmium concentrations, whereas blood cadmium levels in young adult smokers were 11 times higher than in non-smokers. An increase in blood cadmium without any changes in urine cadmium could be explained by the accumulation of cadmium in tissues. After 20 to 40 years of smoking, and without exposure to any other source of cadmium, it is expected that smokers would reach the urinary level of 5µg/g creatinine that would warrant job reassignment away from cadmium exposure. Further thought needs to be given to reassignment policies and work practices for smokers and non-smokers with respect to cadmium exposure.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.22-25. 7 ref.


CIS 03-669 Moulin J.J., Clavel T., Buclez B., Laffite-Rigaud G.
A mortality study among workers in a French aluminium production plant
Etude de mortalité parmi les salariés d'une usine de production d'aluminium en France [in French]
The aim of this study was to establish the possible existence of a relationship between bronchopulmonary cancer and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aluminium industry. The historical cohort consisted of all 2133 male workers who had been employed for at least a year between 1950 and 1994 in the same plant of a French aluminium producer. Mortality was followed for the period between 1968 and 1994, during which 335 deaths were registered. Causes of death were obtained from death certificates. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using regional mortality rates as external reference. The observed mortality was lower than expected for all causes of death (SMR=0.81) and for lung cancer (SMR=0.63). No lung cancer excess was observed in workshops where PAH exposure was likely to have occurred, and no trend was observed according to duration of exposure and time since first exposure. This low lung cancer mortality may be partly explained by a pronounced healthy worker effect. Translation into French of an article that appeared originally in International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.181, p.5-13. 42 ref. [in French]

CIS 02-1770 Symanski E., Chang C.C., Chan W.
Long-term trends in exposures to nickel aerosols
A evaluation of the long-term changes in exposure levels to nickel aerosols was conducted using data from 10 nickel-producing and nickel-using industries. Significantly negative linear trends were found for exposures in the mining (-7%/yr), smelting (-9%/yr) and refining (-7%/yr) sectors, while exposures in milling showed a positive trend (+4%/yr). Effects of the work environment, process and nature of the job on exposure trends were evaluated. The decline in exposures was greater in workplaces with no ventilation compared with ventilated workplaces, in workers who performed similar rather than diverse tasks, and in North American workplaces compared with workplaces in Europe and Western Australia. These results could be used in the design of prospective sampling protocols and in future retrospective health-effect studies of workers in the nickel industries.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.324-333. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-116 Benke G., Sim M., Fritschi L., Aldred G.
Beyond the job exposure matrix (JEM): The task exposure matrix (TEM)
The job exposure matrix (JEM) has been widely used to assign cumulative exposure to workers. In these studies, workers with the same job title and duration are usually assigned similar cumulative exposures, expressed in mg/m3-years. However, if the job is composed of multiple tasks, assigning all workers within a job the same mean exposure can lead to misclassifications. A method called the "task exposure matrix" (TEM) is presented, which reduces the variability of the JEM methodology. By summing the cumulative exposures of a worker over all the tasks worked within a job title, it is possible to address the variability of exposure within the job title, and reduce possible exposure misclassification. The construction of a TEM is outlined and its application in the primary aluminium industry is described.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.475-482. Illus. 12 ref


CIS 01-1767 Werner M.A., Vincent J.H., Thomassen Y., Hetland S., Berge S.
Inhalable and "total" metal and metal compound aerosol exposures for nickel refinery workers
Research was conducted at a Scandinavian nickel refinery to investigate exposures to compounds of nickel and several other metals as measured according to the conventional total aerosol approach and those as measured according to the inhalability criterion. Differences between measures of exposure were examined and related to the particle size distributions of the aerosols inhaled by the workers. Side-by-side comparisons were conducted, in which workers wore the two types of samplers simultaneously. Workers were also made to wear personal inhalable dust spectrometers (PIDS) which provided particle size distribution information. It was shown that inhalable aerosol exposures for nickel, copper, cobalt, lead and iron were consistently greater than the corresponding total aerosol exposure, tending to be more so for worksites where the aerosol was coarsest.
Occupational Hygiene, 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.93-109. 21 ref.

CIS 00-1029 Fritschi L., Beach J., Sim M., Abramson M., Benke G., Musk A.W., de Klerk N., McNeil J.
Respiratory symptoms and lung function in two prebake aluminium smelters
This cross-sectional study examined work-related respiratory symptoms and lung function in different departments of aluminium smelters compared to administration employees. Multiple logistic regression was performed with each of four work-related symptoms as outcomes and multiple linear regressions were performed with FEV1 and FVC as outcomes. After adjusting for age and smoking, work-related respiratory symptoms were reported significantly more often among the ingot mill, anode and potroom groups in Smelter A. In Smelter B, ingot employees were more likely to report work-related wheeze and potroom employees were more likely to report work-related rhinitis. Symptoms tended to increase with increasing time in the potrooms but were more likely to occur in new employees in the ingot mill and anode process groups. After adjusting for age, height and smoking, there were no significant differences between the process groups for either FEV1 or FVC at Smelter A, and at Smelter B potroom employees had slightly greater FEV1 and FVC than the administration employees.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1999, Vol.35, No.5, p.491-498. 15 ref.

CIS 00-137 Rønneberg A., Haldorsen T., Romundstad P., Andersen A.
Occupational exposure and cancer incidence among workers from an aluminium smelter in western Norway
Associations between specific cancers and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), asbestos, electromagnetic fields and heat were studied in a cohort of Norwegian aluminum smelter workers. A positive association was found between bladder cancer and PAH exposure 30 years or more before observation for the production cohort. Results also suggest an association between PAH and pancreatic cancer, although this is not statistically significant. In the maintenance cohort there was a positive association between employment as an electrician and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer, and a non-significant association between PAH and lung cancer. Short-term workers showed a statistically significant excess of lung cancer. The results support previous findings of an association between exposure to PAH and bladder cancer.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1999, Vol.25, No.3, p.207-214. 28 ref.

CIS 00-179 Radon K., Nowak D., Heinrich-Ramm R., Szadokwski D.
Respiratory health and fluoride exposure in different parts of the modern primary aluminium industry
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 78 potroom workers, 24 foundry workers, 45 carbon-plant workers and 56 control workers (watchmen, craftsmen, office workers, laboratory employees) of a modern aluminium plant to investigate possible acute and long-term respiratory health effects of work at different working places. The survey consisted of pre- and postshift spirometric and urinary fluoride measurements. In a multiple regression model a small but significant negative correlation was found between postshift urinary fluoride concentrations and forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1, and peak expiratory flow (PEF). Across-shift spirometric changes were observed only in FVC among carbon-plant workers. The results suggest that lung function impairment in the modern primary aluminium industry may be only partly due to fluoride exposure and that working in aluminium carbon plants may cause acute lung function changes.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 1999, Vol.72, No.5, p.297-303. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 99-2033 Bernard T.E., Cross R.R.
Heat stress management: Case study in an aluminum smelter
Environmental data were collected in an aluminium smelter and used to develop a prediction model for WBGT levels at target locations in potrooms based on the temperature and humidity of air entering the potrooms at a representative (reference) location. The WBGT prediction in combination with metabolic rate and a task analysis was implemented in a spreadsheet scheme for heat stress evaluation of different jobs. Heat stress guidelines were developed to manage the risk of heat-related disorders. The guidelines mapped out policy, responsibilities and activities, and included environmental thresholds at the reference location for administrative controls and personal protection. The current level of heat stress was broadcast through the potrooms so that appropriate actions could be taken. The success of the guidelines was seen in the reduction of heat-related disorders and overall injuries. Topics: aluminium industry; climatic measurement; exposure evaluation; heat load; heat stress assessment; heat stress indices; heat transfer; hot workplaces; humidity measurement; mathematical models; prediction formulae; refining; smelting plants; threshold limit values; WBGT index.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Mar. 1999, Vol.23, No.5-6, p.609-620. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 99-1960 Aiba Y., Ohshiba S., Horiguchi S., Morioka I., Miyashita K., Kiyota I., Endo G., Takada H., Iwata H.
Peripheral hemodynamics evaluated by acceleration plethysmography in workers exposed to lead
To clarify the effect of lead exposure on peripheral haemodynamics, acceleration plethysmography (APG) was performed on 48 male subjects occupationally exposed to lead (exposure group) and 43 male subjects with no history of occupational exposure to lead (control group). In the exposure group, the blood lead concentration (Pb-B) was also measured. Each APG parameter was assessed by comparing measured data with standard aging curves. A significant negative correlation was obtained between the APG parameter -b/a and Pb-B. The exposure group showed significantly lower values of parameters -b/a and b/a than did the control group. The parameter -b/a in the exposure group showed a dose-dependent decrease with increases in length of working career (duration of exposure to lead) and Pb-B. The parameter -b/a significantly decreased in subjects with working careers of five years or more and in subjects whose Pb-B was 40µg/100mL or more. Results suggest that lead exposure affects peripheral haemodynamics as evaluated by APG. Topics: atherosclerosis; lead; determination in blood; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; lead industry; peripheral circulation; plethysmography.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.37, No.1, p.3-8. Illus. 18 ref.

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