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Manufacturing of electrical appliances and equipment - 393 entries found

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CIS 11-0740 Nagami M., Tsutsumi A., Tsuchiya M., Morimoto K.
Job control and coworker support improve employee job performance
This study examined the prospective association of psychosocial job characteristics with employee job performance among 777 full-time employees at a manufacturing company in Japan, using data from a one-year follow-up survey. Psychosocial job characteristics were measured by the Job Content Questionnaire, and job performance was evaluated using the World Mental Health Survey Instrument. The association between psychosocial job characteristics and job performance was tested using multiple regression analysis, controlling for demographic variables, work status, average working hours per day, job type and job performance. Job control and co-worker support were positively related to job performance. These findings suggest that it is worthwhile to enhance employees' job control and provide a mutually supportive environment to ensure positive employee job performance.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.845-851. 21 ref.
Job_control.pdf [in English]


CIS 09-1085 Lu J.L.
Occupational hazards and illnesses of Filipino women workers in export processing zones
In this study on occupational exposure and health problems among women workers in export processing zones in the Philippines, hazards were evaluated through workplace monitoring, survey questionnaires and interviews with 500 respondents (88.8% women) in 24 companies. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. The top five hazards were ergonomic hazards (of relevance to 72.2% of the workers), heat (66.6%), overwork (66.6%), poor ventilation (54.8%) and chemical exposure (50.8%). The most common illnesses were gastrointestinal problems (57.4%), backache (56%), headache (53.2%), and fatigue/weakness (53.2%).
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2008, Vol.14, No.3, p.333-342. 22 ref.

CIS 09-516 McDonell D.
Going lean
This article reviews the impact of lean manufacturing techniques on occupational safety and health. It argues that the two are not mutually exclusive, based on the work practices and experience of a major Canadian manufacturer of transformers.
Accident Prevention, Nov.-Dec. 2008, Vol.55, No.4, p.28-33. Illus.

CIS 09-653 Ahmed K., Ayana G., Engidawork E.
Lead exposure study among workers in lead acid battery repair units of transport service enterprises, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study
The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of lead exposure in battery repair workers of three transport service enterprises in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjective information from the workers was obtained by means of structured questionnaires. Urinary aminolevulinic acid levels were determined among workers exposed and not exposed to lead, matched by age. Urinary aminolevulinic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in exposed compared to the non-exposed group. From the questionnaire responses and workplace observations, it was also known that all the repair units did not implement effective preventive and control measures for workplace lead exposure. Taken together, these findings indicated that workers in lead acid battery repair units of the transport service enterprises are not protected from possibly high lead exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Nov. 2008, Vol.3, No.30, 8p. Illus. 30 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-642 Mohammadi S., Mehrparvar A.H., Aghilinejad M.
Appendectomy due to lead poisoning: A case report
Lead poisoning is a common occupational health hazard in developing countries and many misdiagnoses and malpractices may occur due to unawareness of symptoms. This article presents a case of occupational lead poisoning in a battery worker with abdominal colic who initially underwent appendectomy. Later on he was diagnosed with lead poisoning and was treated appropriately with lead chelator. Lead poisoning is frequently overlooked in the diagnosis of acute abdominal pain, which may result in unnecessary surgery. Appropriate occupational history taking is helpful in making a correct diagnosis.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Oct. 2008, Vol.3, No.23, 2p. 5 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1421 Tsukada T., Sakakibara H.
A trail [sic] of individual education for hearing protection with an instrument that measures the noise attenuation effect of wearing earplugs
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individual training of workers, using an instrument to quantitatively evaluate the noise attenuation gained with the use of earplugs, on the use of hearing protection devices. The subjects were 68 male workers exposed to noise of above 80dB(A) at an electronic parts manufacturer in Japan. They received group instruction on the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss, and individual education on the proper use of earplugs. Two months after the training, the prevalence of the regular use of hearing protectors among workers in loud working environments increased from 46% to 66%. The results suggest that individual training is an effective means to increase both the usage rate and the proper use of hearing protection devices.
Industrial Health, July 2008, Vol.46, No.4, p.393-396. 11 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-1066 Sun Y., Sun D., Zhou Z., Zhu G., Zhang H., Chang X., Lei L., Jin T.
Osteoporosis in a Chinese population due to occupational exposure to lead
The objective of this study was to investigate whether occupational lead exposure was associated with low bone mass in a population working in a storage battery plant. A total of 249 persons (191 men and 58 women) completed a questionnaire on various demographic, personal and job-related factors. Monophoton absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density (BMD). Urinary (UPb) and blood (BPb) lead concentrations were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The BMD was significantly decreased in the groups of the high UPb compared with the low UPb level in both genders. The prevalence of osteoporosis was significantly related to the increase of both UPb and BPb. There was a dose-response relationship between lead exposure and prevalence of osteoporosis. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2008, Vol.51, No.6, p.436-442. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 08-1389 Kalahasthi R.B., Rajmohan H.R., Rajan B.K., Karuna Kumar M.
Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating
This case-control study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzymes A and B among cadmium plating workers. It involved 100 workers of a telephone manufacturing plant in India, including 50 cadmium plating workers and an equal number of age and sex matched unexposed administrative staff. A significant increase of urinary total NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were noted in exposed group compared to controls. The levels of urinary NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that urinary NAG could be used as a biomarker for exposure to cadmium.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, July 2007, Vol.2, No.5, 7p. 28 ref.

CIS 07-1354 The production of electronic components for the IT industries: Changing labour force requirements in a global economy
La production des composants électroniques pour les industries des technologies de l'information: évolution des besoins de main-d'œuvre dans une économie mondialisée [in French]
La fabricación de componentes electrónicos para las industrias de las tecnologías de la información: El cambio de las necesidades con respecto a la mano de obra en una economía mundializada [in Spanish]
This report was prepared as a basis for discussion at a tripartite meeting on emerging labour and social issues in the electronic components manufacturing sector held in Geneva, Switzerland, 16-18 April 2007. Spectacular growth and investment in the electronic components industry, which manufactures the worlds chips, semi-conductors, cell phones, music players and computers, has generated millions of jobs and spawned billions of dollars in investment, much of it developing and emerging economics, especially in Asia. However, the report argues that this growth has also spawned a considerable number of social and labour challenges, including concerns over working conditions, wage levels, gender issues and management-labour relations.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2007. xii, 119p. Illus. Price: CHF 15.00. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]


CIS 07-1126 Liao Y.H., Hwang L.C., Kao J.S., Yiin S.J., Lin S.F., Lin C.H., Lin Y.C., Aw T.C.
Lipid peroxidation in workers exposed to aluminium, gallium, indium, arsenic, and antimony in the optoelectronic industry
The objective of this study was to investigate whether exposure to aluminium, gallium, indium, arsenic, and antimony induces lipid peroxidation in humans. Blood and urine levels of 103 exposed electronic industry workers and 67 referents were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA), the product of lipid peroxidation, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mean plasma MDA level of the exposed workers was significantly higher than that of the referents. The levels of MDA in the exposed workers were correlated significantly with the levels of urinary gallium and arsenic.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.48, No.8, p.789-793. 35 ref.

CIS 07-634 Fenga C., Cacciola A., Martino L.B., Calderaro S.R., Di Nola C., Verzera A., Trimarchi G., Germanò D.
Relationship of blood lead levels to blood pressure in exhaust battery storage workers
This study examined the relationship between occupational lead exposure and elevated blood pressure among a group of 27 workers of a lead battery plant in Italy aged between 27 to 62 years. Measurements were taken of blood lead concentration, blood biomarkers of lead exposure, body mass index and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The results showed that long-term occupational exposure was related to a slight increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure among workers who had been exposed to higher levels of lead compared to those exposed to lower levels. Furthermore, blood lead concentration was higher among workers exposed to higher levels of ambient lead, while in the same group of workers ALAD (aminolevulinic acid dehydratase) activity was reduced. It is concluded that long term cumulative lead exposure can significantly increase blood pressure in workers exposed to low levels of lead.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.44, No.2, p.304-309. 18 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1407 Guthrie G., Dilworth M., Sen D.
Reducing mercury exposure in fluorescent lamp manufacture - A workplace case study
Based on job observations and exposure evaluations in a fluorescent lamp manufacturing plant, this study concludes that there is considerable risk of mercury exposure of workers. By virtue of its volatility and a tendency for spilled metallic mercury to break up into small globules, thereby increasing the surface area available for vaporization, controlling exposure at the workplace can be difficult. Although the study focused on a single workplace, the findings and recommendations apply equally well to other workplace settings where mercury is used and handled in its metallic form, for example, the repair and manufacture of thermometers and gauges.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2006, Vol.3, No.2, p.D15-D18. Illus. 16 ref.


CIS 06-1395 Bailar J.C., Greenberg M., Harrison R., LaDou J., Richter E., Watterson A.
Cancer risk in the semiconductor industry: A call for action
While many known carcinogens are used in the manufacture of semiconductors, no broad epidemiological study has been conducted to define possible risks. This paper outlines the health hazards associated with exposure to carcinogens in the semiconductor industry and calls for a large and definitive study of cancer in semiconductor workers across a range of countries and manufacturing processes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2002, Vol.8, No.2, p.163-168. 19 ref.

CIS 06-1103 Beall C., Bender T.J., Cheng H., Herrick R., Kahn A., Matthews R., Sathiakumar N., Schymura M., Stewart J., Delzell E.
Mortality among semiconductor and storage device-manufacturing workers
Mortality among 126,836 workers at two semiconductor facilities and one storage device facility was evaluated between 1965 and 1999. Cause-specific mortality rates were compared with general population rates. Employees had lower-than-expected mortality overall (6579 observed deaths, standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=65), for all cancers combined (2159 observed, SMR=78) and for other major diseases. However, central nervous system cancer was associated with maintenance personnel at one of the semiconductor facilities (10 observed, SMR=247). Prostate cancer was associated with facilities and laboratories at the storage device facility (18 observed, SMR=198). Further evaluation of workplace exposures or independent investigations of similar occupational groups may clarify the interpretation of associations observed in this study.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2005, Vol.47, No.10, p.996-1014. 45 ref.

CIS 06-899 Karakaya A.E., Ozcagli E., Ertas N., Sardas S.
Assessment of abnormal DNA repair responses and genotoxic effects in lead exposed workers
Genotoxic effects of lead were studied in blood cell samples from 23 workers of battery manufacturing plants and 23 unexposed controls. Tests included chromosomal aberration (CA) assay and X-ray induced challenge (XRC) assay to assess DNA damage and interference with DNA repair processes after an in vitro exposure of X-ray. Cases were classified into categories according to their blood lead levels. The CA frequencies in the exposed and control groups were not significantly different by the conventional CA assay, however, the XRC assay demonstrated significantly elevated CAs. Non-significant but reduced DNA repair responses were also observed in lead exposed workers. The results suggest that lead exposure may cause reduction in DNA repair capacity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.47, No.4, p.358-363. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 06-499 Lu J.L.
Perceived job stress of women workers in diverse manufacturing industries
An investigation of the impact of organizational factors on perceived job stress among women workers in the garment and electronics industries in the Philippines was undertaken. The sample included 23 establishments with 630 women respondents. Questionnaires, walkthrough surveys of the industries, and interviews were carried out. Workplace factors studied included job content, the nature of tasks, job autonomy, hazard exposure and management and supervisory styles. Statistical analysis highlighted the interactions among the organizational factors. It was found that workers experienced job stress when they were subjected to low job autonomy, poor work quality, close monitoring and high workload.
Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Summer 2005, Vol.15, No.3, p.275-291. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 06-380 Kiec-Swierczynska M., Krecisz B., Swierczyska-Machura D., Zaremba J.
An epidemic of occupational contact dermatitis from an acrylic glue
Dermatological examinations were performed in 81 workers involved in the manufacture of electric coils for television displays. They had worked for four years in contact with a UV-curing glue containing various acrylates. Acrylate-specific dermal lesions were detected in 21 of these workers. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 12 of the workers and occupational allergic contact dermatitis in the other nine. Twelve reacted to acrylates. Cross-reactions with methacrylates were not observed. The highest number of positive tests was obtained with triethyleneglycol diacrylate (10) and diethyleneglycol diacrylate (9).
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2005, Vol.52, No.3, p.121-125. 18 ref.

CIS 06-376 Ichihara G.
Neuro-reproductive toxicities of 1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane
2-Bromopropane (2-BP), used as an alternative to chlorofluorocarbons in a Korean electronics factory, caused reproductive and haematopoietic disorders in male and female workers. After identification of 2-BP toxicity, 1-bromopropane (1-BP) was introduced as an alternative. 1-BP was considered less mutagenic than 2-BP, but subsequent animal experiments revealed 1-BP to be a potent neurotoxic substance. It was also revealed that 1-BP has reproductive toxicity, but with target cells that are different from those of 2-BP. After the first animal study describing the neurotoxicity of 1-BP, human cases were reported showing decreased vibration perception, paraesthesia in the lower extremities, decreased sensation in the thighs, ventral and gluteal regions, stumbling and headache, as well as mucosal irritation. More work is necessary on the dose-response of bromopropanes in humans and on the mechanisms underlying the differences in toxic effects between the two bromopropanes.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.79-96. 94 ref.

CIS 05-293 Rischitelli G.
Dermatitis in a printed-circuit board manufacturing facility
Dermatitis complaints are frequently encountered among workers in the microelectronics industry and have been associated with a variety of physical, chemical and psychosocial causes. Employees working in the silk-screening and kiln-drying areas of a printed-circuit board manufacturer complained of recurrent itching and rashes. This report describes those symptoms and the results of a brief survey of the affected employees, which provided useful data regarding the likely aetiology. A brief epidemiological survey instrument was used to gain information regarding the pattern, duration and frequency of employee symptoms. Data from the survey were used to identify seasonal variations in symptoms that correlated with specific environmental factors in the plant. This brief epidemiological investigation using a self-reported symptom survey was an efficient tool for cataloguing the character, pattern, duration and frequency of complaints that correlated with specific environmental factors in the plant (temperature and low humidity), which were likely causes of the outbreak.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2005, Vol.52, No.2, p.78-81. 9 ref.


CIS 05-477 Yeow P. H. P., Sen R. N.
Ergonomics improvements of the visual inspection process in a printed circuit assembly factory
An ergonomic evaluation was conducted on the visual inspection process of a printed circuit assembly factory. The process was studied through subjective assessment and direct observation. Three problems were identified: operators' eye problems; insufficient time for inspection; ineffective visual inspection. These problems caused a yearly rejection cost of USD 298,240, poor quality, customer dissatisfaction and poor occupational health and safety. Several ergonomic recommendations were made to rectify the problems. These recommendations produced savings in rejection costs, reduced operators' eye strain, headaches and watery eyes, lowered the defect percentage at customers' sites and increased the factory's productivity.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.369-385. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 05-162 Shiau C.Y., Wang J.D., Chen P.C.
Decreased fecundity among male lead workers
The objective of this study was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) in wives of male workers exposed to lead in order to determine the dose-response relation between blood lead and decreased fecundity. 163 currently-employed married male lead battery workers were classified into five categories of exposure based on questionnaire information and annual blood lead levels. Information pertaining to the TTP was collected using personal interviews of men and their spouses. Fecundity ratios (FRs) were calculated using regression techniques. After controlling for other factors associated with TTP, a dose-response relation was observed between blood lead level and TTP. The measured FRs were 0.90, 0.72, 0.52 and 0.40 for concurrent blood lead levels of <20, 20-29, 30-39, and >40µg/dl, respectively. These results corroborate the hypothesis that a raised blood lead level affects fecundity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.61, No.11, p.915-923. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 04-655 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 04-557 Guével E., Madani R., Conso F., Causse E., Choudat D.
Thyroidal dysfunction and occupational overexposure to iodine
Dysfonctionnement thyroïdien et surcharge iodée professionnelle [in French]
Two cases of work-related thyroid dysfunction are presented. Two workers involved in the machining and polishing of sodium and caesium iodide crystals employed at the same enterprise showed thyroid function disorders and high levels of 24h urinary iodine excretion. Following the report of these two cases of thyroid dysfunction and the elevated urinary excretion of iodine found among other exposed workers in the course of a biological monitoring programme implemented within the enterprise, preventive measures and medical surveillance based on action levels of this biological exposure index were proposed. The prevention of iodine exposure is primarily based on collective measures (process confinement and local exhaust), personal protective equipment and strict adherence to hygienic measures.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2004, Vol.65, No.5, p.438-441. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 04-343 Nichols L., Sorahan T.
Health and Safety Executive
Further update of cancer incidence and cancer mortality in a cohort of semiconductor workers
This study investigated cancer mortality and morbidity of a cohort of 1807 employees from a semiconductor factory in the United Kingdom. The cohort comprised workers in employment in 1970, and workers commencing employment in the period 1970-1979. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized registration ratios (SRRs) were used to assess mortality and morbidity respectively in the total cohort compared to the general population. Overall mortality was close to expectation among men (SMR 99) and below expectation among women (SMR 74). Cancer mortality (all sites) was above expectation among men (SMR 112) and below expectation in women (SMR 69). Incidence of all sites of cancer were close to expectations for both men and women. However, certain sites had significantly high incidence (rectum among men, SRR 284, pancreas and malignant mesothelioma among women, SRR 226 and 221 respectively). Follow-up to the study analysed under CIS 86-154.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. vi, 27p. 7 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-379 Chee H.L., Rampal K.G.
Work-related musculoskeletal problems among women workers in the semiconductor industry in Peninsular Malaysia
A cross-sectional study to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems and work-related risk factors was conducted among 906 women semiconductor workers. Data on working conditions, work postures and body pains were collected by means of questionnaires. Logistic regression showed that lower-limb pain was significantly associated with standing, neck and shoulder pain with sitting and lifting, upper-back pain with climbing steps, low back pain with hand and wrist movements, and hand and wrist pain with lifting. Neck and shoulder pain was significantly higher for workers with shorter working durations, while lower-limb pain was significantly higher for workers with longer working durations. End-of-line assembly workers had significantly higher odds ratios for pain at all sites, while middle-of-line workers had higher odds ratios for pain in neck and shoulders and upper back. Finally, wafer-fabrication workers had higher odds ratios for low back pain and pain in the lower limbs.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2004, Vol.10, No.1, p.63-71. 28 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-332 Azaroff L.S., Levenstein C., Wegman D.H.
The occupational health of Southeast Asians in Lowell: A descriptive study
To assess the occupational health of a group of vulnerable immigrant workers, 160 residents of Cambodian or Lao origin in Lowell in the U.S. State of Massachusetts were interviewed regarding working conditions, health problems and use of medical services. Over 40% reported working in electronics and computer assembly. A fourth of those currently employed held temporary jobs. Workplace hazards included soldering fumes, inadequate ventilation, prolonged sitting or standing, awkward postures, unguarded machinery, shift work, long hours and pressure to produce quickly. Common work-related health problems included sprains and strains, headache, dizziness and flu-like symptoms. Less than a third of the respondents were aware of workers' compensation.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2004, Vol.10, No.1, p.47-54. 40 ref. [in English]


CIS 07-964 Sen R.N., Yeow P.H.P.
Ergonomic study on the manual component insertion lines for occupational health and safety improvements
This study was carried out to improve occupational safety and health among manual component insertion operators in a printed circuit board factory. Subjective and objective assessments and direct observations were carried out. Simple and low-cost ergonomic interventions were implemented, namely repairing chairs, reducing high workloads, assigning operators to a maximum of two workstations, confining machines that emitted high levels of smell and noise and providing tools for finger work. The results of the interventions were reductions in operators' chair discomfort, work stress and discomfort due to frequent change of their workstations. Several health hazards were also eliminated, including inhalation of solder fumes, exposure to excessive noise and injuries resulting from the handling of sharp components.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.57-74. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 03-1923 Wirtanen G., Salo S.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
34th R3-Nordic contamination control symposium
Proceedings of a conference on contamination control held in Turku, Finland, 2-4 June 2003. Papers are grouped according to the sessions in which they were presented: plenary session on contamination control; contamination control in food processing and biotechnology; contamination control in pharmaceutical processes; contamination control in microelectronics and clean room technology.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2003. 418p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 85.00 (+ 8% VAT). [in English]

CIS 03-1936 Henrotin J.B., de Lavareille M.D.
Musculoskeletal disease and occupational physicians: Study within an enterprise with the aim of establishing the occupational origin of the condition
Troubles musculo-squelettiques et médecin du travail: une étude en entreprise pour convaincre? [in French]
This cross-sectional survey on musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) was carried out by means of self-administered questionnaires among 83 randomly-selected workers at plant producing electrical equipment. The prevalence of MSDs over a 12-month period was 48.7% for the shoulders and 52.6% for the hands and wrists. While some MSD symptoms (shoulder, back) were related to stress and psychological symptoms such as anxiety and depression, this was not the case for hand-wrist complaints. The study confirmed the importance of the MSD problem within the enterprise. The manufacturer embarked on an information campaign on the issue and implemented ergonomic changes at the some of the workstations. Two years later, the first tangible results were a 50% decrease in sickness absenteeism.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2003, Vol.64, No.1, p.27-35. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 03-1654 Chee H.L., Rampal K.G.
Relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers in Malaysia
This cross-sectional survey was carried out to determine the relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women working in the semiconductor industry. Subjects were women production workers from 18 semiconductor factories. Sick leave and exposure to physical and chemical hazards were determined by self reporting. The effects of age, marital status, work task, work schedule, work section, and duration of work in factory and work section were also explored by logistical regression. Marital status was strongly linked to the taking of sick leave. Chemical and physical exposures, with the exception of poor ventilation and smelling chemicals, showed no significant relation to the taking of sick leave within the past year. Workers in wafer polishing workers and parts assembly operations faced significantly higher odds of taking sick leave.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.60, No.4, p.262-270. 17 ref.

CIS 03-1442 Yeow P.H.P., Sen R.N.
Quality, productivity, occupational health and safety and cost effectiveness of ergonomic improvements in the test workstations of an electronics factory
Results of an ergonomic study of workstations where electrical testing is performed in a plant manufacturing printed electronic circuits. Both workers' subjective assessment and direct observation methods were used on the operators to discover the problems at their workstations. The following problems were observed: poor workstation design; mix-ups of tested and untested boards, missing or incorrect test steps, unclear pass/fail criteria for the projected colour test. Ergonomic interventions implemented were: an improved workstation layout with space for resting arms and the oscilloscope and computer keyboards within easy reach of the operators; clear segregation of tested and untested boards to prevent mix-ups; retraining of operators by more qualified trainers; reference colour samples for more effective recognition of different colours in the projection screen. The interventions implemented were simple and inexpensive; nevertheless, they resulted in improved productivity, quality and working conditions.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 2003, Vol.32, No.3, p.147-163. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 03-1434 Rogers M.
Lessons learned from SARS
This article presents examples of how the Canadian operations of several multinational enterprises with frequent contact with East Asia reacted to the threat of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) among their employees. It outlines the main preventive actions that need to be taken in the event of a new outbreak of SARS. These include hazard evaluation, identification of alternatives such as home work and developing a human resource policy response addressing the issues of absenteeism, safety and health, commuting and travel. Guidance aimed at employers and employees on the main control measures of infectious diseases are also provided, in the form of check lists.
Accident Prevention, Sep.-Oct. 2003, Vol.50, No.5, p.12-17, 36-37. Illus.


CIS 03-1458 Khalfallah T., Akrout M., Henchi A., Chaari N., Hamdi L., Chadly A.
Ergonomic evaluation of body movements and postures in the industrial sector
Evaluation ergonomique des gestes et postures dans le secteur industriel [in French]
This ergonomic analysis was carried out within an electronic component assembly enterprise employing 85 women, of which one third showed symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the neck and upper extremities at the time of periodical medical examinations. Through job studies, it was possible to observe the strongly repetitive nature of body movements during assembly and welding, as well the wide flexions of the wrist during welding and testing. Ergonomic improvements are proposed for assembly, welding and testing tasks.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Oct. 2002, No.23, p.24-29. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 03-361 Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods - Manual of tests and criteria - Third revised edition - Amendment 1: Lithium batteries [United Nations]
Tausiyāt bi-ša)ni naql al- badā)i( al-ħaṭira. Dalīl al-iħ tibārāt wa al-ma(ayīr. Al-ṭab(a al-ṯ alaṯa al-munqiḥa. Al-ta(dīl 1: batārīāt al-līṯ īūm [in Arabic]
Rekomendacii po perevozke opasnyh gruzov - Rukovodstvo po ispytanijam i kriterijam - Tret'e peresmotrennoe izdanie - Popravka 1: Litievye batarei [in Russian]
Recommandations relatives au transport de marchandises dangereuses - Manuel d'épreuves et de critères - Troisième édition révisée: Amendement 1: piles et batteries au lithium [Nations Unies] [in French]
Recomendaciones relativas al transporte de mercancías peligrosas - Manual de pruebas y criterios - Tercera edición revisada - Enmienda 1: Pilas y baterías de litio [in Spanish]
The recommendations on test methods and criteria supplement the Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods and the related model regulations (see CIS 01-1792). This amendment to the third revised edition contains corrections and amendments to the classification criteria and testing procedures for lithium batteries.
United Nations, Sales Section, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 3rd rev.ed., 2002. v, 10p.

CIS 03-279 Wang V.S., Lee M.T., Chiou J.Y., Guu C.F., Wu C.C., Wu T.N., Lai J.S.
Relationship between blood lead levels and renal function in lead battery workers
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between blood lead (PbB) levels and renal function indices of blood-urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SC) and uric acid (UA) among lead battery industry workers with exposure to lead. 229 workers of both genders from two lead battery factories were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Personal airborne and blood samples were collected on the same day. A positive correlation between PbB levels and individual renal function index of BUN, SC, and UA was found. PbB levels and renal function indices showed significant difference between male and female workers. An increment of 10µg/dL PbB produced an increase of 0.62mg/dL BUN and an increase of 0.085mg/dL UA. For all workers, there was a significant dose-response relationship between PbB and BUN and UA levels. It is suggested that blood-urea nitrogen and uric acid be considered as indicators of renal dysfunction in lead-exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.75, No.8, p.569-575. 40 ref.


CIS 06-1396 Cullen M.R., Checkoway H., Eisen E.A., Kelsey K., Rice C., Wegman D.H., Whitehead L.
Cancer risk among wafer fabrication workers in the semiconductor industry
Executive summary of a literature survey aimed at evaluating possible cancer risk among wafer fabrication workers in the semiconductor industry. It concludes that there is no affirmative evidence to support the contention that workplace exposures to chemicals or other hazards in wafer fabrication, now or historically, measurably increase the risk for cancer in general, or for any particular form or type of cancer. However, it also concludes that there is insufficient evidence to state that exposures to chemicals and other hazards in wafer fabrication have not or could not result in measurably increased risk of one or more cancer types. Further specific epidemiological studies are recommended.
Scientific advisory committee, 181 Metro Drive, Suite 450, San Jose, CA 95110, USA, Oct. 2001. 5p. [in English]

CIS 06-1114 McElvenny D.M., Darnton A.J., Hodgson J.T., Clarke S.D., Elliott R.C., Osman J.
Health and Safety Executive
Cancer among current and former workers at National Semiconductor (UK), Ltd., Greenock: Results of an investigation by the Health and Safety Executive
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) responded in late 1998 to developing concerns about cancer among current and former workers at a semiconductor plant in the United Kingdom. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cancer incidence and mortality of current and former workers at the plant. The mortality analyses included 4388 workers and the average length of follow up was 12.5 years. All-cause mortality for women was slightly below expected levels, while mortality for men was substantially below expected levels. Total cancer incidences were close to expected levels for men and for women. Four specific cancers were higher than expected, but based on a very small number of cases (lung cancer, stomach cancer and breast cancer among women, and brain tumours among men). These findings will require further investigation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. x, 91p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 7.50. [in English]

CIS 03-1239 Kim K.S.
Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
Research into the working hazards involving workers in the electrical and electronic industries and related occupational musculoskeletal disorders
Jeonki, jeonja jejoupche gunroja ei jakup wiheom sung kwa jik up sung gun gol kyeok ke jil whan yeon gu [in Korean]
This report describes research carried out to check the ergonomic hazards that are present in the electrical and electronics industries, and their relationship with occupational musculoskeletal disorders. Validated ergonomic hazard evaluation tools (JSI, OWAS, RULA, OSHA and ANSI 8-365 check lists) were used for comparison and evaluation. The report analyses factors that may affect occupational musculoskeletal disorders occurring in each part of the body, based on data obtained through questionnaires, and introduces a tool that can perform actual ergonomic hazard assessment during workplace surveys.
Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency, 34-4 Gu-san dong, Bupyung gu, Inchon 403-711, Republic of Korea, 2001. 139p. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 03-1483 Nakata A., Haratani T., Takahashi M., Kawakami N., Arito H., Fujioka Y., Shimizu H., Kobayashi F., Araki S.
Job stress, social support at work and insomnia in Japanese shift workers
To study the relationship between psychological job stress and insomnia in shift workers, a self-administered questionnaire concerning job stress, sleep, depressive symptoms and lifestyle factors was submitted to a sample of 530 rotating shift workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company. Perceived job stress was assessed using the Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Overall prevalence of insomnia was 37.8%. Logistic regression analyses showed that lower social support at work was significantly associated with a greater risk of insomnia than the higher social support (odds ratio (OR) 2.5). Higher job strain with lower social support at work increased the risk, compared to lower strain with higher support at work (OR 1.5). The findings suggest the low social support at work is independently associated with insomnia in shift workers.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.203-209. 27 ref.

CIS 02-1787 Sińczuk-Walczak, Jakubowski M., Matczak W.
Neurological and neurophysiological examinations of workers occupationally exposed to manganese
To assess the effects of manganese on the functions of the nervous system in exposed workers in the shipbuilding and electrical industries, 75 male workers, 62 welders and fitters and 13 workers involved in battery production, were studied. The control group consisted of 62 non-exposed men matched by age and work shift distribution. Of the 62 welding workers, 30 worked in the area with Mn concentrations exceeding the MAC value of 0.3mg/m3. In battery production, six subjects were subject to concentrations exceeding MAC values. Clinically, the increased emotional irritability, dysmnesia, concentration difficulties, sleepiness and limb paresthesia predominated among the disorders of the nervous system functions in exposed workers. Generalized and paroxysmal changes were the most common recordings in the abnormal electroencephalography. Visual evoked potentials examinations showed abnormalities which could be a signal of the optic neuron disorders. The results show that manganese exposures within the range of <0.01-2.67mg/m3 can induce sub-clinical effects on the nervous system.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.14, No.4, p.329-337. 16 ref.

CIS 02-819 Bar-Sela S., Reingold S., Richter E.D.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a battery-factory worker exposed to cadmium
A 44-year-old patient died from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after nine years of heavy exposure to cadmium (Cd) in a nickel-cadmium battery plant. Two years after starting work, he and co-workers had experienced pruritus, loss of smell, nasal congestion, nosebleeds, cough, shortness of breath, severe headaches, bone pain, and proteinuria. Upper back pain and muscle weakness progressed to flaccid paralysis. EMG findings were consistent with motor neuron disease. Cd impairs the blood-brain barrier, reduces levels of brain copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and enhances glutamate uptake in glial cells. High levels of methallothionein, a sign of exposure to heavy metals, have been found in brain tissue of deceased ALS patients. The effects of Cd on enzyme systems that mediate neurotoxicity and motor neuron disease suggest a relationship between Cd and ALS in this worker.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.109-112. 49 ref.

CIS 02-457 Abbas M.F., Faris R.H., Harber P.I., Mishriky A.M., El-Shahaly H.A., Waheeb Y.H., Kraus J.F.
Worksite and personal factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome in an Egyptian electronics assembly factory
The study objective was to identify personal and work related risk factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in electronics assembly operators relative to clerical workers in the same factory. Of 422 workers in a television assembly factory located in Ismailia, Egypt, 198 (46.9%) participated. The electronics assembly workers were more likely to report CTS (odds ratio = 11.41) than were the clerical workers. The significant risk factors were longer work years (odds ratio = 1.11) and precision-type hand grip (odds ratio = 6.5). The results suggest an association between electronics assembly and CTS. Work years and precision grip are possible risk factors for CTS and should be studied more thoroughly. Tools to reduce the need for precision grip may help reduce CTS.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.31-36. Illus. 17 ref.


CIS 02-1246 Wong O., Harris F.
Cancer mortality study of employees at lead battery plants and lead smelters, 1947-1995
To examine the cancer mortality of male workers exposed to lead in the United States, a cohort of 4,518 workers at lead battery plants and 2,300 at lead smelters was examined. Vital status was ascertained between 1947 and 1995. Site-specific cancer standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), based on the mortality rates of the U.S. male population and adjusted for age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. In addition, a nested case-control study of stomach cancer (30 cases and 120 age-matched controls) was also conducted. Results indicate a significant mortality increase from stomach cancer. A small, but statistically significant mortality increase from lung cancer and from cancer of the thyroid and other endocrine glands was also observed. No increased mortality was found for kidney cancer, bladder cancer, cancer of the central nervous system, lymphatic cancer and haematopoietic cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.255-270. 12 ref.

CIS 02-1324 Chuang H.Y., Schwartz J., Tsai S.Y., Lee M.L.T., Wang J.D., Hu H.
Vibration perception thresholds in workers with long term exposure to lead
Workers in a lead battery factory in Taiwan (China) were required to have a blood lead measurement during each of the 5 years preceding this study. All were invited to take the vibration perception threshold (VPT) test. The variables of exposure to lead were all significantly correlated with the VPT of the feet, but not of the hands. The conclusion is that measurement of VPT is a relatively effective tool for detecting lead neuropathy and that lead might cause sensory neuropathy with an effect threshold corresponding to a 5 year mean blood lead concentration of 31µg/dL.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.588-594. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 02-284 Hwang Y.H., Chao K.Y., Chang C.W., Hsiao F.T., Chang H.L., Han H.Z.
Lip lead as an alternative measure for lead exposure assessment of lead battery assembly workers
Air lead, lead loadings on workers' sleeves, gloves, hands, cheeks, and lips, and blood lead were determined in 96 workers from a lead battery plant in Taiwan. A questionnaire also was administered on work history, suspected exogenous lead sources, and personal behaviour and activities. Total air lead at different sub-areas ranged from 0.070 to 0.159mg/m3. Respirable air lead level for different subgroups of workers varied from 0.009 to 0.032mg/m3, whereas those of the blood lead level ranged from 22.4 to 44.5µg/dL. The heaviest lead loadings were found for plate-processing workers (66.4 on gloves, 0.80 on cheeks, and 0.79µg/cm2 on bare-hands after washing). Blood lead level was significantly correlated with lead levels in air, lead loadings on lips, and bare hands after washing. Regression analysis shows that only lip lead can be used as an alternative index of lead exposure through ingestion.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.825-831. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 02-1306 Electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing sector - Prevention manual
Sector do material eléctrico e electrónico - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
CD-ROM version of the manual analysed under CIS 01-1007. Contents: organization of occupational safety and health services; occupational safety in the electrical and electronic manufacturing sectors; occupational hygiene (noise and vibration, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, dangerous substances, thermal environment, ventilation, lighting, order and cleanliness); ergonomic issues; personal protective equipment; safety signs; emergency plans; offices, storage areas and staff rooms; safety and health on construction sites; health surveillance; accident investigation and analysis; training and information of workers; glossary; labelling of dangerous substances; example of emergency plan; relevant legislation and standards in Portugal.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecçaão das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, 1999. CD-ROM for Windows 95/98/NT (requirements: PC Pentium 400Mhz, 32 MB RAM, CD-ROM unit min. 32x, graphic card 800x600).

CIS 01-1007 Cavalleri A., Ivo Gonçalves A., Antunes A.M., Neves J., Coelho L.
Electrical and electronic material manufacturing sector - Prevention manual
Sector do material eléctrico e electrónico - Manual de prevenção [in Portuguese]
This manual, published in collaboration with the Portuguese National Association of Manufacturers of Electrical and Electronics Materials (ANIMEE), provides an overview of occupational safety and health in the industry. Contents: organization of occupational safety and health services; occupational safety in the sector; occupational hygiene (noise and vibration, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, dangerous substances, the thermal environment, ventilation, lighting, order and cleanliness); ergonomic issues; personal protective equipment; safety signs; emergency plans; offices, storage areas and staff rooms; safety and health on construction sites; health surveillance; accident investigation and analysis; training and information of workers. In annex: glossary; labelling of dangerous substances; sample emergency plan; relevant legislation and standards in Portugal.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, May 1999. 373p. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 00-1668 Bader M., Dietz M.C., Ihrig A., Triebig G.
Biomonitoring of manganese in blood, urine and axillary hair following low-dose exposure during the manufacture of dry cell batteries
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 100 workers from three different workplace areas in a dry cell battery manufacturing plant and on 17 currently nonexposed referents, to examine the relationship between the external exposure to manganese dioxide (MnO2) and the body burden of manganese in blood, urine and hair. Manganese in blood and axillary hair correlated with airborne manganese in group-based calculations but not on an individual level. The manganese concentrations varied between 3.2µg/L and 25.8µg/L in the blood and between 0.4µg/L and 49.6µg/L in hair. Mean values were lower for the nonexposed referents. Manganese differed significantly between the highly exposed workers and both the reference and the low-exposure group. No differences for manganese in urine were observed between workers and referents. Manganese in blood is a specific and suitable parameter for the biomonitoring of MnO2 exposure, although its validity is limited to group-based calculations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1999, Vol.72, No.8, p.521-527. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 00-1463 Wirtanen G., Salo S., Mikkola A.
30th R3-Nordic Contamination Control Symposium
Proceedings of the annual symposium of R3-Nordic, the association for microbial contamination control held in Helsinki, Finland, 30 May-2 June 1999. Contents: contamination control in food processing; contamination control in pharmaceutical processes; clean room technology and contamination control in microelectronics.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland, 1999. 503p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-1068 Shih T.S., Liou S.H., Chen C.Y., Chou J.S.
Correlation between urinary 2-methoxy acetic acid and exposure to 2-methoxy ethanol
To examine the correlation between airborne 2-methoxy ethanol (ME) exposures and urinary 2-methoxy acetic acid (MAA), 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) personal breathing zone samples and urine samples before and after the shift were collected from Monday to Saturday for 27 workers exposed to ME and on Friday for 30 control workers. No correlation was found between airborne exposure to ME and urinary MAA for special operation workers due to the use of personal protective equipment. For regular operation workers, a significant correlation was found between urinary MAA (mg/g creatinine) on Friday at the end of the shift and the weekly mean exposures of ME in a 5 day working week. The proposed biological exposure index BEI, which corresponds to exposure for 5 days and 8 hours a day to 5ppm, extrapolated from the regression equation, is 40mg MAA/g creatinine. A significant correlation was also found between the weekly increase of urinary MAA and the weekly mean exposures of ME. The recommended value of the weekly increase of urinary MAA for 5 days repeated exposures of 5ppm ME is 20mg/g creatinine.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.56, No.10, p.674-678. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 00-833 Kheifets L.I., Gilbert E.S., Sussman S.S., Guénel P., Sahl J.D., Savitz D.A., Thériault G.
Comparative analyses of the studies of magnetic fields and cancer in electric utility workers: Studies from France, Canada and the United States
To summarize and facilitate comparison of three major studies of electric utility workers that examined the relation between exposure to magnetic fields and risk of brain cancer and leukaemia, a common analytical approach was applied to the data of the three studies. A nested case-control design with conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the relative risk/10 microtesla-years (µT-years) for each of the contributing cohorts and for the combined data. Apparent inconsistencies in the findings of these studies can be explained by statistical variation. Overall, the studies suggest a small increase in risk of both brain cancer and leukaemia. Different methodological choices had little impact on the results. Based on a combined analysis of data from ail five studies, the relative risk/10 µT-years was 1.12 for brain cancer, and 1.09 for leukaemia, neither of which was significant at the 95% confidence interval (CI) level. The combined estimates seem to provide the best summary measures of the data from all studies. However, fluctuations in risks among studies may reflect real differences, and the exposure measurements in different studies may not be entirely comparable.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.56, No.8, p.567-574. Illus. 19 ref.

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