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Rubber industry - 221 entries found

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CIS 11-0302
Associação Empresarial de Portugal (AEP), Programa Operacional de Assistência Técnica (POAT)
Prevent!ng - Prevention as a solution: Rubber and plastics industry
Preven!r - Prevenção como solução: Indústria da borracha e das matérias plásticas [in Portuguese]
This CD-ROM includes a manual on good working practices in the rubber and plastics industry in Portugal. The analysis of this sector was part of a larger technical assistance programme, whose main objective was to support companies to implement measures to achieve desired operational efficiency, with a focus on occupational safety and health. The programme is primarily aimed at small and medium enterprises., Portugal, 2011. CD-ROM.


CIS 11-0139 Sein M.M., Howteerakul N., Suwannapong N., Jirachewee J.
Job strain among rubber-glove-factory workers in Central Thailand
This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and examine factors associated with, job strain among workers in a rubber-glove factory in a central province of Thailand. A total of 200 workers aged 18-55 years who had worked at the factory for at least six months completed the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) (Thai version). The prevalence of job strain was 27.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated two variables significantly associated with job strain: low supervisor social support (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.08) and high job insecurity (djusted OR 2.25). Effective training for supervisors to create good relationships among workers and supervisors, and ensuring steady and secure jobs for good employees, are necessary measures.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.503-510. 36 ref.
Job_strain.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0161 Arphorn S., Chaonasuan P., Pruktharathikul V., Singhakajen V., Chaikittiporn C.
A program for Thai rubber tappers to improve the cost of occupational health and safety
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an occupational safety and health programme among rubber tappers involving training on self-care in order to reduce and prevent work-related accidents, injuries and illnesses. Data on costs for healthcare, prevention and treatment of work-related accidents, injuries and illnesses were collected among 49 rubber tappers by means of interviewer-administered questionnaires. It was found that after the implementation of the programme, there were significant reductions in the proportion of the injured subjects, the level of pain and treatment costs. The programme significantly raised health awareness among the tappers and in the community.
Industrial Health, May 2010, Vol.48, No.3, p.275-282. 9 ref.


CIS 09-1131 Jönsson L.S., Lindh C.H., Bergendorf U., Axmon A., Littorin M., Jönsson B.A.G.
N-nitrosamines in the Southern Swedish rubber industries - Exposure, health effects, and immunologic markers
The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to N-nitrosamines in the Swedish rubber industry and possible related health effects. Samples of N-nitrosamines were collected in the breathing zone of 96 rubber workers and analyzed with liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Symptoms, together with medical and occupational histories were obtained from structured interviews. Immunologic markers were analyzed in blood. High levels of N-nitrosamines were found and must be lowered considerably to decrease the risk of cancer. The lack of exposure-response relationships with the various reported symptoms may be due to a healthy-worker selection or the possibility that the symptoms are caused by other exposures.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2009, Vol.35, No.3, p.203-211. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 09-1045 Jakobsson K., Mikoczy Z.
Reproductive outcome in a cohort of male and female rubber workers: A registry study
The objective of this study was to investigate whether employment in the Swedish rubber industry from 1973 onwards had a negative impact on reproductive health. Pairs of mother and child, and triads of father-mother-child were obtained through linkage of a cohort of 18,518 rubber factory employees with the Swedish Population Registry. Birth outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Register for 17,918 children. For each child, parental employment as blue-collar rubber worker during the pregnancy and sperm maturation period was obtained from work-place records. Children to female food industry workers, in all 33,256, constituted an external reference group. Working in the rubber industry was found to have a statistically significant effect on the sex ratio, the risk of multiple births, birth weight and weight for gestational age.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.165-174. 43 ref.


CIS 09-1129 Jönsson L.S., Littorin M., Axmon A., Jönsson B.A.G., Broberg K.
Lung function in relation to 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and genetic effect modification among rubber workers in Sweden
The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of impaired lung function among Swedish rubber workers. Included in the study were 159 rubber exposed and 118 unexposed controls. Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (a marker of carbon disulfide and vulcanization fumes) were assessed by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes were analyzed by Taqman-based allelic discrimination and conventional polymerase chain reaction. There was an association between increasing levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid and impaired lung function among exposed workers. The association was modified by glutathione S-transferase alpha 1 (GSTA1)-52 and GSTP1-114. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep 2008, Vol.50, No.9, p.1006-1012. 43 ref.

CIS 09-655 de Vocht F., Sobala W., Peplonska B., Wilczynska U., Gromiec J., Szeszenia-Dabrowska N., Kromhout H.
Elaboration of a quantitative job-exposure matrix for historical exposure to airborne exposures in the Polish rubber industry
A job-exposure matrix for inhalable aerosols, aromatic amines, and cyclohexane soluble matter was elaborated based on measurements collected routinely between 1981 and 1996 in a large Polish rubber factory. It provides an overview of historical exposure levels and will enable the estimation of lifetime exposure for individual workers in a Polish cohort of rubber workers and further investigation of the associations between specific exposures and cancer risk. Overall, exposures to most substances have deceased in recent years.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.852-860. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 09-160 Jönsson L.S., Jönsson B.A.G., Axmon A., Littorin M., Broberg K.
Influence of glutathione-related genes on symptoms and immunologic markers among vulcanization workers in the southern Sweden rubber industries
The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of genetic variants on symptoms of the eyes and airways, headache and nausea, as well as on immunologic markers, among vulcanization workers in the Swedish rubber industry. Polymorphisms in genes, which are involved in the defence against reactive oxygen species and metabolism of toxic substances present in the vulcanization fumes, were analysed. A total of 145 exposed and 117 unexposed workers were included in the study. Data concerning symptoms and medical and occupational histories were obtained in structured interviews. Immunologic markers were analysed in blood. Polymorphisms in glutathione-related genes were analysed by TaqMan allelic discrimination and polymerase chain reaction. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that hereditary factors may influence the susceptibility to symptoms and the immunologic response of rubber industry workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2008, Vol.81, No.7, p.913-919. Illus. 36 ref.


CIS 09-322 Rahimi E., Emad A., Rajaeei Fard A.R.
An epidemiological study of talc-related respiratory morbidity among employees of a rubber industry in Shiraz-Iran
The purpose of this study was to assess and characterize the pulmonary reactions associated with occupational exposure to talc dust. It involved ninety-seven talc workers and 110 unexposed employees of a rubber industry in Shiraz, Iran. Standardized respiratory questionnaires were administered to the subjects, they underwent chest X-ray and were examined by a specialist for any possible respiratory abnormality to be diagnosed. Pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were also performed just before and after the work shift. Moreover, to assess the extent to which workers had been exposed to talc dust, inhalable and respirable dust concentrations were measured in different worksites. Talc exposed subjects had a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Similarly, PFTs revealed that exposure to this lubricating agent was associated with significant decreases in the mean percentage predicted of vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1). Moreover, there was an acute reduction in some parameters of pulmonary function such as VC, FVC and FEV1, over the work shift. Chest radiographs of exposed workers showed that pneumoconiosis profusions were between p 0/0 and p 2/1 according to the ILO 1980 chest X-ray classification. These results that are in full agreement with preliminary observations and support the notion that occupational inhalation exposure to talc is associated with both acute and chronic respiratory disorders and induces bronchitis and interstitial lung disease.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2007, Vol.80, No.6, p.539-546. 26 ref.

CIS 09-66 Beall C., Corn M., Hong C., Matthews R., Delzell E.
Mortality and cancer incidence among tire manufacturing workers hired in or after 1962
This study evaluated mortality during 1962 through 2003 and cancer incidence during 1995 through 2003 at a tyre manufacturing plant in the United States. The cohort included 3425 men and women, employed in the plant for at least one year. Employees experienced 390 deaths compared with 608 expected (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 64). Total cancer mortality (SMR 75) and lung cancer mortality (SMR 72) were lower than expected. Hourly white men had small increases in stomach cancer, bladder cancer, and leukaemia deaths. During 1995 through 2003, 169 incident cancers were observed compared with 197 expected. Three mesothelioma cases occurred among hourly white men (standardized incidence ratio 653); however all had been potentially exposed to asbestos before starting at the tyre plant.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2007, Vol.49, No.6, p.680-690. 20 ref.

CIS 08-383 Crépy M.N.
Occupational skin diseases caused by rubber
Dermatoses professionnelles au caoutchouc [in French]
Occupational allergies to rubber are common. They are mostly caused by gloves. Occupational skin diseases are either of the "immediate allergy" type with urticaria, rhinitis, asthma and risk of anaphylaxis, or of the "delayed allergy" type, with contact allergic eczema. The main allergens are latex proteins, as well as various sulfur-containing vulcanization agents. IPPD-type antioxidants also have a strong allergic potential. They are found in black rubber, mainly in the automobile sector and in the rubber goods industry. Prevention is based on a more widespread use of latex substitutes and less-allergenic additives. When the wear of latex gloves cannot be avoided (such as in cases of infection risks), gloves with a low latex protein content should be favoured, with little or no powder.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2007, No.109, p.73-86. Illus. 87 ref.$File/TA75.pdf [in French]


CIS 07-582 Linz A.J., Greenham R.K., Fallon L.F.
Methemoglobinemia: An industrial outbreak among rubber molding workers
This article describes the investigation of an occupational outbreak of methaemoglobinaemia among five steam press operators at a rubber plant. Investigative findings identified the cause as repeated exposure (through manual handling) to an adhesive containing dinitrobenzene. The workers presented with yellow-stained hands and a variety of clinical manifestations. Methaemoglobinaemia levels obtained in the emergency room ranged from 3.8% to 41.2%. Methylene blue rapidly reversed the cyanosis and alleviated associated symptoms in the rubber moulding workers requiring treatment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2006, Vol.48, No.5, p.523-528. 24 ref.

CIS 07-161 Iavicoli I., Carelli G.
Evaluation of occupational exposure to N-nitrosamines in a rubber-manufacturing industry
This study sought to determine volatile N-nitrosamines levels in the air of the rubber-manufacturing industry and to measure urinary N-nitrosamines concentrations among exposed workers. Personal monitoring of 34 workers was performed by sampling nine airborne N-nitrosamines in four Italian factories that manufactured rubber drive belts for automotive engines. Urinary N-nitrosamine levels were determined in all exposed workers and 26 controls. Analyses were conducted by capillary gas chromatography and thermal energy analyser. It was found that airborne and urinary N-nitrosamines levels were very low and, in most cases, below the limit of detection (0.06µg/m3 and 0.1µg/L respectively). However, it is recommended that workers should still be monitored constantly because some of these substances are known to be genotoxic and carcinogenic.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.195-198. 31 ref.


CIS 06-663 Vermeulen R., Jönsson B.A.G., Lindh C,H., Kromhout H.
Biological monitoring of carbon disulphide and phthalate exposure in the contemporary rubber industry
Urinary levels of 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxyl acid (TTCA), a metabolite of carbon disulfide (CS2), and phthalic acid (PA), a metabolite of phthalates, were studied across factories and departments in the rubber industry. Spot urine samples from 101 rubber workers employed in nine factories were collected on different days. Levels of both biomarkers increased significantly during the working week compared to Sunday. Levels of both biomarkers did not differ markedly between working days. Increases seemed to be restricted to specific factories and or departments, such as moulding and curing. Findings confirm that rubber workers are exposed to various levels of phthalates and CS2 depending on the specific conditions of the factories and departments. Biological monitoring appears to be a reliable means of evaluating exposures to these substances.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2005, Vol.78, No.8, p.663-669. 22 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-311 Borak J., Slade M.D., Russi M.
Risks of brain tumors in rubber workers: A metaanalysis
A meta-analysis of brain tumour risk estimates reported in cohort studies of rubber and tyre industry workers was carried out to investigate whether these workers suffer increased risks of brain tumour. Twenty unique cohorts were identified that met predefined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis determined an overall relative risk of 0.90. This finding is consistent with that of earlier studies concluding that risks of brain tumour are not increased as a result of occupational exposures in the rubber and tyre industry.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.47, No.3, p.294-298. 37 ref.


CIS 04-411 Kobayashi H., Ohara I., Kanoh S., Motoyoshi K., Aida S., Kohyama N.
Clinicopathological features of pure mica pneumoconiosis associated with Sjögren syndrome
There are few reports on the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of pure mica pneumoconiosis. A case of pure mica pneumoconiosis in a rubber factory female worker in Japan is presented, together with the clinical-pathological findings. Chest HRCT demonstrated subpleural and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening. The characteristic histological features were pulmonary fibrosis accompanied by prominent histiocytic granulomas containing giant cells. It is concluded that pure mica pneumoconiosis can be identified by specific radiological and pathological observations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.45, No.3, p.246-250. Illus. 9 ref.


CIS 03-1813 Hartwig S., Rupp A., Puls E., Kim J.H., Binder F.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Cleaning and maintenance of industrial installations: Exposure to substances
Reinigung und Instandhaltung von Industrieanlagen: Stoffbelastungen [in German]
A total of 175 job observations were carried out in 12 companies during cleaning, maintenance and repair work. The average time needed for the tasks was recorded, and the organization workflow related to the tasks was noted. Moreover, respiratory and dermal exposures were assessed for the distinct tasks during non-normal production modes. The provision conditions and the type and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were noted. It was found that in approximately 25% of the cases investigated, hazardous substances were present in concentrations considerably exceeding the recommended threshold values. The PPEs were wrongly used more than 75% of the cases, and were wrongly dimensioned or not correctly provided in 50% of the cases.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. xvii, 168p. Illus. 57 ref. Price: EUR 16.50.

CIS 03-1301 Domański W.
Nitrosoamine hazards in the rubber industry
Zagrożenia nitrozoaminami na stanowiskach pracy w przemyśle gumowym [in Polish]
The paper lists sources of N-nitrosamines and their precursors in rubber products. Determinations were made at 150 workplaces in several rubber enterprises. They showed that N-nitrosamines were present in two thirds of the workplaces surveyed. N-nitroso dimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitroso methyl ethyl amine (NMEA), N-nitroso diethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitroso piperidine (NPIP) were the most frequent products detected in workplace air. In half of the tested samples the concentration of N-nitrosamines did not exceed 1µg/m3.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Apr. 2003, No.4 (381), p.20-22. 7 ref.


CIS 03-803 Domański W., Makles Z.
Dangerous nitroso amines
Niebezpieczne nitrozoaminy [in Polish]
Nitroso amines are physiologically active harmful chemical agents with potential mutagenic, carcinogenic and toxic properties. This monograph describes the structure, reactions, functions, chemical reactivity, biological activity and health effects of nitroso amines, as well as methods for their neutralization. It also describes sampling and analysis methods in the work environment, particularly in the rubber and food industries.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2002. 199p. Illus. 253 ref.

CIS 02-1805 Rinsky R.A., Hornung R.W., Silver S.R., Tseng C.Y.
Benzene exposure and hematopoietic mortality: A long-term epidemiologic risk assessment
Previous studies of a cohort of rubber industry workers indicated an association between benzene exposure and excess mortality from leukaemia and multiple myeloma. To determine whether risks remain elevated since plant shutdown, follow-up was extended from 1981 through 1996. Risks were evaluated using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and generalized Cox proportional hazards regression models. Five new leukaemia cases were observed in benzene-exposed white males, but the summary SMR for this group declined from 3.37 to 2.56. In regression models, cumulative exposure was significantly associated with elevated relative risks for leukaemia mortality. Four new multiple myeloma deaths occurred, three of which were in workers judged to be unexposed. These findings reaffirm the leukaemogenic effects of benzene exposure and suggest that excess risk diminishes with time.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec 2002, Vol.42, No.6, p.474-480. 23 ref.


CIS 04-134 Wieczorek Z., Augustyńska D., Drygała M., Gierasimiuk J., Pośniak M.
Occupational safety and health in small business - Occupational safety and health in the rubber and vulcanization industry - OSH check list; Employers' guide
Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w małych przedsiębiorstwach - Bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w zakładach wulkanizacyjnych i produkujących wyroby z gumy - Lista kontrolna bhp; Poradnik pracodawcy [in Polish]
The check list for the evaluation of occupational safety and health in the rubber and vulcanization industry is designed for use in conjunction with the corresponding employer's guide. It lists the potential hazards that may be found in these workplaces and provides suggestions for their control or elimination. It also contains a list of relevant Polish legislation and technical standards.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 31+51p. 71 ref.

CIS 02-728 Straughan J.K., Sorahan T.
Cohort mortality and cancer incidence survey of recent entrants (1982-91) to the United Kingdom rubber industry: Preliminary findings
The mortality and cancer incidence experienced by a cohort of 9,031 male and female rubber workers were compared with expected values, based on national rates defined by period, age and sex. All members of the cohort had a minimum of 12 months of employment in the industry and were first employed at one of the 42 participating British factories during the period 1982-91. Mortality data were available for the period 1983-98. Mortality from lung and stomach cancer was not different significanly from the expected ratios. Only one difference between observed and expected numbers was significant, i.e. mortality from testicular cancer (observed 3, expected 0.51). Although the findings relate to an early period of follow-up, they suggest that the increased standardized mortality ratio for stomach and lung cancers reported for historical cohorts of rubber workers may not be apparent in more recent cohorts.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.574-576. 7 ref.

CIS 02-189 Li K., Yu S.
Oesophageal cancer and occupational exposure to rubber: A nested case-control study
In this study, the data of nine cases of oesophageal cancer deaths among workers at a rubber plant during 1973-1995 and 36 controls matched for sex and age were analysed. Oesophageal cancer risks for exposure to rubber were assessed, unadjusted and adjusted for non-occupational factors by conditional logistic regression. In grouped analysis, odds ratios (ORs) for oesophageal cancer were found to be 2.67 for compounding workers and 1.40 for assembly workers. No excess risks were found in the remaining three departments. The results indicate that a one-year change in the compounding department was associated with a 4% increment in the OR. When adjusted for serum cholesterol level, a 6% increase (OR) was observed. Significant associations between risk for oesophageal cancer and specific exposures or processes within the rubber plant were not found. The slight excess risk for oesophageal cancer in the rubber plant may be related to exposure to dusts and solvents.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.355-359. 16 ref

CIS 02-322 Vermeulen R., de Hartog J., Swuste P., Kromhout H.
Trends in exposure to inhalable particulate and dermal contamination in the rubber manufacturing industry: Effectiveness of control measures implemented over a nine-year period
Exposure to inhalable particulates and dermal exposure to cyclohexane soluble matter (CSM) were evaluated in seven rubber manufacturing companies in The Netherlands in 1988 and 1997. The identified exposure trends were used to study the effectiveness of control measures implemented over a nine-year period. Inhalable particulate exposure was measured with a PAS6 sampling unit. Dermal exposure was assessed by means of a dermal pad sampler worn at the lower wrist. Changes in working organization and control measures taken after 1988 were identified based on discussions with plant management and two walk-through surveys performed in 1994 and 1997. Comparison of the exposure levels between 1988 and 1997 revealed a reduction rate of 5.7 and 6.7% per year for inhalable particulate and dermal exposure, respectively, showing the success of the efforts undertaken to improve working conditions in the rubber manufacturing industry.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.343-354. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 01-1067 Vermeulen R., Kromhout H., Bruynzeel D.P., de Boer E.M.
Ascertainment of hand dermatitis using a symptom-based questionnaire: Applicability in an industrial population
The applicability of a symptom-based questionnaire on hand dermatitis was assessed in a population of 224 rubber workers. Subsequently, 202 workers were examined by a dermatologist. The two different diagnostic tools used for assessing dermatitis resulted in dissimilar estimates of the prevalence of hand dermatitis, ranging from 6.9% to 38.1% of all workers. Using the medical evaluation as benchmark, moderate sensitivity and specificity (respectively 71.4% and 76.1%), low positive predictive value (18.2%) and high negative predictive value (97.3%) were observed for the classification based on the self-administered questionnaire. When evaluated against "first symptoms of dermatitis" the sensitivity decreased, while the specificity remained almost the same. The findings differ from the original questionnaire validation study among nurses. If questionnaires are to be used, validity studies have to be carried out to evaluate differences in perception of skin diseases between different occupational populations.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2000, Vol.42, No.4, p.202-206. 20 ref.

CIS 01-822 Sri-Akajunt N., Sadhra S., Jones M., Burge P.S.
Natural rubber latex aeroallergen exposure in rubber plantation workers and glove manufacturers in Thailand and health care workers in a UK hospital
The aim of this study was to estimate airborne natural rubber latex (NRL) concentrations for three occupational exposure groups, rubber plantation workers and NRL glove manufacturers in Thailand and health care workers in the UK. Two rubber plantations (110 workers), three NRL glove manufacturing factories (583 workers) in Thailand and one UK hospital (490 workers) were selected for the study. A preliminary workplace survey was carried out. Personal sampling was conducted and NRL aeroallergens were measured by an inhibition assay with NRL-specific IgE antibodies from NRL-sensitized people. The highest geometric mean NRL aeroallergen concentration was found in the glove manufacturing factories (7.3µg/m3), followed by the rubber plantations (2.4µg/m3) and the hospital (0.46µg/m3). The highest exposure to NRL aeroallergens is likely to occur in the manufacturing factories. Exposure to aeroallergens for the plantation workers was considered to be moderate and that of health care workers to be low.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2000, Vol.44, No.2, p.79-88. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 00-802 Sorahan T., Hamilton L., Jackson J.R.
A further cohort study of workers employed at a factory manufacturing chemicals for the rubber industry, with special reference to the chemicals 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), aniline, phenyl-β-naphthylamine and o-toluidine
Mortality (1955-1996) and cancer morbidity (1971-1992) of a cohort of 2,160 male production workers from a chemical factory in north Wales were investigated. All subjects had at least 6 months employment at the factory and some employment in the period 1955-84. Detailed job histories were abstracted from company computerized records and estimates of individual cumulative exposure to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and its derivatives were obtained, with a job exposure matrix derived by a former factory hygienist. Durations of employment in the aniline, phenyl-β-naphthylamine (PBN) and o-toluidine departments were also calculated. Findings suggest that some members of this cohort have had occupational bladder cancer. The simplest interpretation of the findings about bladder cancer may be that PBN (or a chemical reagent or chemical intermediate associated with its production at this factory in the 1930s and 1940s) is a bladder carcinogen.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2000, Vol.57, No.2, p.106-115. Illus. 30 ref.


CIS 03-817 Pośniak M.
Chemical hazards in selected technological processes
Zagrożenia chemiczne w wybranych procesach technologicznych [in Polish]
This publication is aimed at persons responsible for assessing occupational exposure to harmful substances involved in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and its compounds, polyurethanes, as well as in the rubber industry and during impregnation. For each substance or process, it discusses sources of chemical hazards, health effects, sampling and analysis methods in the work environment, methods of hazard control and methods of neutralizing the harmful substances. See also CIS 03-804, which covers several other industrial processes.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 171p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 01-1714 Mundt K.A., Weiland S.K., Bucher A.M., Straif K., Werner B., Chambless L., Keil U.
An occupational cohort mortality study of women in the German rubber industry: 1976 to 1991
In this study, patterns of mortality are studied among 2,871 women employed in one of five German rubber plants for at least 1 year on or after 1 January 1976, and observed through 31 December 1991. Mortality for all causes was close to expected (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=101), but cancer mortality was lower than expected (SMR=90). Nevertheless, excesses were observed for mortality from stomach cancer (SMR=156), lung cancer (SMR=140), and lymphatic system cancers (SMR=175). Stronger associations were observed among sub-cohorts defined by time period hired. Despite the limited numbers of deaths, modest excesses of mortality due to specific cancers were observed and are consistent with previous studies.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.41, No.9, p.807-812. 36 ref.

CIS 00-1067 Collins J.J., Strauss M.E., Riordan S.G.
Mortalities of workers at the Nitro plant with exposure to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole
A cohort study of workers exposed to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) at a rubber chemicals plant in Nitro (West Virginia) examines the mortalities of 1,059 full-time white male production workers employed at the plant from 1955 to 1977. A detailed exposure assessment was done on the 600 workers with exposure to MBT. It was found that MBT workers have expected rates of lung and prostate cancer. There was an excess of bladder cancer among MBT workers who had definite exposure to 4-aminobiphenyl (PAB), and MBT workers with potential exposure to PAB. However, there were no deaths from bladder cancer among workers with no exposure to PAB, although there were only 0.2 deaths expected. The potential confounding of exposure to PAB an unknown portion of in the MBT workers makes it impossible to evaluate risk of bladder cancer in this population at this time. However, exposure to MBT does not seem to increase the risk of most cancers including cancers of the lung and prostate.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.56, No.10, p.667-671. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 00-423 Stewart R.E., Dennis L.K., Dawson D.V., Resnick M.I.
A meta-analysis of risk estimates for prostate cancer related to tire and rubber manufacturing operations
A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies that used standard mortality ratios and of three case-control studies that used odds ratios was conducted to investigate the association between prostate cancer and exposure to tyre and rubber manufacturing environments. The pooled results from the cohort studies showed a standard mortality ratio of 101, whereas the pooled results from the case-control studies showed an odds ratio of 1.10. The overall risk estimate from all 12 studies was 1.03. The conclusion of this meta-analysis was that work exposure in a rubber and tyre manufacturing environment does not result in an increased risk of prostate cancer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.12, p.1079-1084. 46 ref.

CIS 00-199
Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Laboratory
Determination of rubber process dust and rubber fume (measured as cyclohexane-soluble material) in air
This data sheet describes a soxhlet extraction procedure for the determination of rubber process dust and rubber fume in air, measured as cyclohexane-soluble material. Sampling equipment, laboratory apparatus and analysis method are outlined. Detection limits are 0.18mg/m3 for rubber process dust and 0.12mg/m3 for rubber fume. Additional information on rubber fumes: properties, occurrence, toxicity. Replaces CIS 88-945.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., June 1999. 6p. 9 ref. Price: GBP 12.00.

CIS 99-1254 Straif K., Weiland S., Werner B., Wienke A., Keil U.
Elevated mortality from nonalcohol-related chronic liver disease among female rubber workers: Is it associated with exposure to nitrosamines?
In a long-term mortality study of 2,875 female rubber workers in a plant producing tires or technical rubber goods, the excess mortality from cirrhosis of the liver was most pronounced for nonalcohol-related cirrhosis of the liver. Mortality from alcohol-related cirrhosis of the liver and from other alcohol-related diseases was not significantly elevated. All cases of nonalcohol-related cirrhosis had worked in production of technical rubber goods and risks increased with earlier years of hire and with longer duration of employment in this work area. Although results should be interpreted with caution, they suggest that the observed excess deaths from cirrhosis of the liver are associated with occupational risk factors. Exposure to nitrosamines may be a plausible risk factor. Topics: alcoholism; cirrhosis; cohort study; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; hepatic diseases; mortality; nitroso amines; risk factors; rubber industry; women.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.264-271. Illus. 54 ref.


CIS 01-1074 Kogevinas M., Sala M., Boffetta P., Kazerouni N., Kromhout H., Hoar-Zahm S.
Cancer risk in the rubber industry: A review of the recent epidemiological evidence
To examine epidemiological evidence of cancer risk among workers in the rubber industry, relevant epidemiological studies published after the last detailed review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 1982 were reviewed. Excess risks of bladder cancer, lung cancer and leukaemia were found in most studies, with risk ratios above 1.5 in about half of the studies. A moderate excess risk for laryngeal cancer was consistent across studies. Excess risks were found in a few studies for cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, skin, prostate, kidney, brain, and thyroid, and for malignant lymphoma and multiple myeloma, but overall results were not consistent for these neoplasms. Magnitude of the observed risks varied considerably between studies, but overall the findings indicate the presence of a widespread moderate to increased cancer risk among rubber workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.55, No.1, p.1-12. Illus. 119 ref.

CIS 00-111 Weiland S.K., Chambless L., Werner B., Mundt K.A., Bucher A., Birk T., Keil U.
Workplace risk factors for cancer in the German rubber industry: Part 1 - Mortality from respiratory cancers; Part 2 - Mortality from non-respiratory cancers
A cohort of active and retired male workers in the German rubber industry was followed for mortality from 1981 to 1991. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for six work areas. SMRs for laryngeal cancer were highest in the material preparation area and were significant among workers employed for more than ten years in this area. Increased mortality rates from lung cancer were identified in three work areas and mortality from pleural cancer was increased in all six areas. Exposure to asbestos is one risk factor for the excess deaths from lung cancer. Mortality from several non-respiratory cancers was also increased in several work areas.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1998, Vol.55, No.5, p.317-332. Illus. 94 ref.

CIS 99-655
Health and Safety Commission, Rubber Industry Advisory Committee
Safeguarding of calenders in the rubber industry
Topics: control elements; European Communities; hazard evaluation; information of personnel; legislation; mechanical hazards; mills and calenders; nip protection; nips; preventive maintenance; rubber industry; safe working methods; safety devices; safety guides; sensing guards; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. v, 24p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: GBP 6.00.

CIS 98-1658 Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Kanceljak B., Schachter E.N., Macan J., Budak A.
Respiratory function and immunological status in workers employed in a latex glove manufacturing plant
Topics: airborne dust; allergy tests; asthma; talc; chronic bronchitis; Croatia; determination in air; dyspnoea; epidemiologic study; immunology; irritation; latex; pulmonary function; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests; rubber industry; sensitization; ventilatory capacity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1998, Vol.33, No.2, p.175-181. 44 ref.

CIS 98-1365 Siribaddana S.H., Wijesundera A., Fernando R.
Toluene diisocyanate exposure in a glove manufacturing plant
Topics: tolylene diisocyanate; case study; enzyme disturbances; irritation; latex; neurological effects; pulmonary function; rubber industry; Sri Lanka.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1998, Vol.36, No.1 and 2, p.95-98. 7 ref.

CIS 98-708 Cox C., Que Hee S.S., Tolos W.P.
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to carbon disulfide
Topics: carbon disulfide; 2-thiothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid; determination in urine; exposure tests; personal sampling; respirators; rubber industry; urinary metabolites; USA; viscose rayon industry.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.33, No.1, p.48-54. 31 ref.

CIS 98-766 Meijer E., Heederik D., Kromhout H.
Pulmonary effects of inhaled dust and fumes: Exposure-response study in rubber workers
Topics: acute toxicity; chronic toxicity; cross-sectional study; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; length of exposure; mists; Netherlands; personal sampling; pulmonary function; respirable dust; respiratory diseases; respiratory function tests; rubber industry; shift work; smoking.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.33, No.1, p.16-23. 30 ref.

CIS 98-85
Health and Safety Commission, Rubber Industry Advisory Committee
Health and safety training in the rubber industry
Topics: causes of accidents; cost of accidents; hazard evaluation; implementation of control measures; responsibilities; role of management; rubber industry; safety and health training; safety training in industry; training manuals; training material; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. ix, 317p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 50.00.


CIS 98-1364 Oury B., Protois J.C.
Volatile N-nitrosamines in the rubber industry - Evaluation of occupational exposure on 36 continuous rubber vulcanization lines
N-nitrosamines volatiles dans l'industrie du caoutchouc - Evaluation de l'exposition professionnelle sur trente-six lignes de vulcanisation continue [in French]
Topics: air sampling; carcinogens; determination in air; exposure evaluation; France; manufacturing processes; nitroso amines; permissible levels; personal sampling; rubber industry; salt-bath hardening; substitution; survey; volatile substances; vulcanization.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1997, No.168, Note No.2059-168-97, p.441-452. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 97-1552 Process industry
These nine chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various process industries: power generation; chemical industry; polymers and rubbers; paint industry; pharmaceutical industry; biotechnology industry; food processing industry; paper, pulp and chloralkali industry; tobacco industry.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.297-433. Illus. Bibl.ref.


CIS 98-213 Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Doko-Jelinic J., Budak A.
Longitudinal study of respiratory findings in rubber workers
Topics: airborne dust; asthma; chronic bronchitis; Croatia; dyspnoea; epidemiologic study; pulmonary function; respiratory impairment; rubber industry; sinusitis; smoking; ventilatory capacity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.30, No.2, p.171-179. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 97-498 Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics Society of Western France - Meetings of 16 and 17 November 1995
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'Ouest - Séances des 16 et 17 novembre 1995 [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in papers presented at the 16-17 November 1995 meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: risk of encephalopathy due to prions when performing autopsies; skin diseases in fish farming; skin diseases in hairdressing; carpal-tunnel syndrome in hairdressing; skin allergies in the rubber industry; prevention of eye injuries due to laser radiation in the aircraft industry; skin burns due to handling of vitamin K3; hospital hygiene in medical students; biological risk control in laboratory work; personnel in establishments for retired people; immune-allergic pulmonary pathology due to shiitake (mushroom from East-Asia).
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.384-398.

CIS 97-201 Reh B.D., Fajen J.M.
Worker exposures to nitrosamines in a rubber vehicle sealing plant
Inhalation exposures to nitrosamines were evaluated at a plant manufacturing rubber vehicle sealing. All of the 28 personal breathing zone samples contained detectable concentrations of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), nitrosodiethylamine, nitrosopiperidine, and nitrosomorpholine; 27 samples had detectable samples of nitrosopyrrolidine. Personal exposures were highest for operators of the salt bath line, which appeared to be the primary source of nitrosamine formation. Nitrosamine exposures at the plant were much higher than the current German standard. Plant investigators recommended that the ventilation systems be improved to reduce exposures to the lowest feasible concentrations until the source of nitrosamines could be eliminated.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1996, Vol.57, No.10, p.918-923. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 96-1439
Health and Safety Commission, Rubber Industry Advisory Committee
Dust and fume control in rubber mixing and milling
This guidance provides practical advice on the effective control of dust and fume during rubber mixing and milling. The following control methods are described: elimination and substitution; containment by means of enclosed and automated processes; mixer dust seals; appropriate materials handling systems; process control; ventilation control; local exhaust ventilation; regular inspection and maintenance; contingency procedures for accidental releases of dust or fume; segregation of dusty processes; housekeeping; respirators; training and worker involvement.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. v, 23p. Illus. 23 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.


CIS 02-581 Ethylenethiourea
Ethylenthioharnstoff [in German]
A few cases of dermal sensitization to ethylenethiourea have been described. Studies on five workers employed in the processing of ethylenethiourea showed lower serum T4 levels than controls, indicating a possibility of a disturbance of the thyroid function. The are no indications of thyroid tumour development in workers in the rubber industry and no indication of an increased incidence of congenital malformations in the children of occupationally exposed women. Animal experiments show that ethylenethiourea is concentrated in the thyroid. Thiourea is carcinogenic (dose-dependent thyroid carcinomas) and teratogenic.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 94p. 147 ref.

CIS 96-2112 Van Tongeren M., Kromhout H., Swuste P.
A protocol for systematic workplace investigation in the rubber manufacturing industry
A protocol for systematic workplace investigation in the Dutch rubber manufacturing industry has been developed. The protocol, based on results and experiences of an industry-wide hygiene study, makes it possible to evaluate and control hazardous working conditions in rubber manufacturing facilities not included in the hygiene survey. Emphasis is placed on the assessment of exposure to particulates, rubber fumes, solvents and noise, and of dermal exposure to contaminants, but also of exposure to vibration, extreme climate conditions, deleterious working postures, accident risks and unhealthy working habits. Data were collected by using questionnaires and check-lists with the analysis being performed using a large number of decision trees which are based on the best technical means of controlling hazardous working conditions. A test was carried out to compare the results of the protocol with results of the hygiene study. Although this test indicated that the protocol does not generate quantifiable results, it was concluded that it could be a very useful tool for evaluating control measures, for indicating better means of controlling hazardous working conditions and for setting priorities for exposure monitoring and workplace improvement.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Feb. 1995, Vol.39, No.1, p.55-61. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 96-1405 Whillans F.
Chemical safety problems identified and prioritised: A manufacturer of plastic and rubber components
A survey of chemical safety and its management was carried out in a plastics and rubber manufacturing plant using hazardous rubber blending and spray-painting operations. Several problems were identified: no effective line of health and safety management; inadequate material safety data sheet procedures; inadequate employee awareness of risk from chemical contact; inadequate and inconsistent monitoring of hazardous substances; inadequate and ill-advised spraying procedures. Recommendations for improvements in these areas are put forward.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1995, Vol.11, No.1, p.29-35. 4 ref.

CIS 96-763 Utterback D.F., Rinsky R.A.
Benzene exposure assessment in rubber hydrochloride workers: A critical evaluation of previous estimates
Many risk assessments for leukaemia associated with benzene exposure have been based on a 1981 mortality study among a cohort of rubber hydrochloride workers. A re-examination of this study in 1992 resulted in retrospective benzene exposure estimates far greater than those previously reported; this suggests that calculated risk estimates for benzene were lower than previously estimated. The 1992 reanalysis is critically examined and it is concluded that the approach falls short of the claim of providing more plausible exposure estimates for the cohort. The original exposure estimates remain the most consistent with all the information available on rubber hydrochloride manufacturing.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1995, Vol.27, No.5, p.661-676. 35 ref.

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