ILO Home
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us Français | Español
view in a printer-friendly format »

Petrochemical industry - 262 entries found

Your search criteria are

  • Petrochemical industry


CIS 10-0521 Wendt J.K., Tsai S.P., Bhojani F.A., Cameron D.L.
The Shell disability management program: A five-year evaluation of the impact on absenteeism and return-on-investment
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the disability management programme of a major oil and petrochemical enterprise on the absenteeism of employees in the United States. The absence episodes and days lost per employee from 2004 to 2008 were compared to pre-program values in 2002, and productivity gains from transitional duty (TD) were examined. Between 2002 and 2008, absence episodes/100 employees decreased from 37.4 to 25.7 among hourly workers but increased from 9.7 to 13.1 among staff employees. Days lost per employee decreased from 7.4 to 5.2 for hourly employees and were virtually unchanged for staff employees. TD resulted in 6042 days saved in 2006 and 11,438 days in 2008, with direct cost savings of more than USD 4.1 million from 2006 to 2008 and an estimated overall 2.4: to 1 return-on-investment.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2010, Vol.52, No.5, p.544-550. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 10-0304 Pinto Goncalves Filho A., Celio Silveira Andrade J., de Oliveira Marinho M.M.
A safety culture maturity model for petrochemical companies in Brazil
A framework to measure safety culture maturity in the Brazilian oil and gas companies was formulated based on the model of Hudson. Following a review of the safety culture literature, a questionnaire was designed to measure five aspects of organisational safety indicative of five levels of cultural maturity. The questionnaire was completed by the safety managers of 23 petrochemical companies based in Camacari, Brazil, who were interviewed one month later. The reliability of the questionnaire was tested by asking the same questions in the interview and comparing the answers. The correlation coefficients between the questionnaire and interview scores demonstrated good reliability. The model of Hudson and the revised framework and questionnaire were found to be practical to use, making it possible to identify levels of safety culture maturity in the context of the Brazilian petrochemical industry.
Safety Science, June 2010, Vol.48, No.5, p.615-624. Illus. 47 ref.


CIS 09-1290 Downstream oil industry safety statistics
The European downstream oil industry safety statistics from 1993 to 2008 are presented in the form of key performance indicators: lost workday injury frequency; lost work injury severity; all-injury frequency; road accident rate; fatal accident rate. The statistics include the companies' own employees as well as contractors and are split between manufacturing (mostly refining) and marketing (distribution and retail).
CONCAWE Review, Autumn 2009, Vol.18, No.2, p.14-16. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 09-1010 Lee M.S., Paek D., Eum K.D., Siegrist J., Li J., Lee H.E., Cho S.I.
Paternal work stress and prolonged time to pregnancy
The aim of this study was to explore an association between psychosocial stress at work in married men and their spouses' prolonged time to pregnancy (TTP). All married male workers of a large Korean petrochemical enterprise and their wives fulfilling the selection criteria were included. Data were available from 322 couples. Psychosocial stress at work was measured by the effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. In the chronically stressed group, delayed TTP was associated with an elevated imbalance between effort and reward (OR 0.47). A similar but somewhat weaker effect was found for the overall group (OR 0.67).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2009, Vol.82, No.2, p.209-216. Illus. 53 ref.


CIS 08-1171 Torres K.
Creating a pipeline to heat stress prevention
In the United States in 2005, 47 workers died from exposure to environmental heat and five died from contact with a hot object or substance. There are three types of heat stress: heat cramps (cramps in extremities, especially legs); heat exhaustion (dizziness, weakness, fainting, nausea, headache, cold and clammy skin, dry tongue, thirst); heat stroke (high body temperature, decreased level of consciousness, change in behaviour, not sweating, red or pale skin, elevated heart rate and rapid breathing). When heat cramps and heat exhaustion are not treated rapidly, the situation can escalate to heat stroke, which is a life-threatening illness. This article discusses the prevention of heat stress among workers in the petrochemical industry. It emphasizes the importance of monitoring work environment temperatures, work breaks and the consumption of fluids.
Occupational Hazards, May 2008, Vol.70, No.5, p.41-43. Illus.


CIS 09-65 Tsai S.P., Ahmed F.S., Wendt J.K., Foster D.E., Donnelly R.P., Strawmyer T.R.
A 56-year mortality follow-up of Texas petroleum refinery and chemical employees, 1948-2003
This study updates an earlier investigation on the mortality risk of employees of a refinery and petrochemical complex in Texas, United States, by extending the follow-up until 2003. The cohort consisted of 10,621 employees with an average follow-up of 34 years. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for age, race and calendar years were used as a measure of risk. Overall mortality (SMR 0.77), all cancer mortality (SMR 0.87) and most cause-specific mortalities were lower than or similar to those of the surrounding population. The only statistically significant excess of mortality found in this study was an increase in mesothelioma among maintenance employees; the SMR was 4.78 among employees who worked for a minimum of one year and was 7.51 among those with 10 or more years of employment and 20 or more years of latency.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2007, Vol.49, No.5, p.557-567. 48 ref.

CIS 08-1392 Attarchi M.S., Aminian O., Dolati M., Mazaheri M.
Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: A cross-sectional study
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of mild to moderate long-term exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) on the liver, and to assess the suitability of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool for these effects. Liver enzyme levels of 52 exposed workers were compared to 48 unexposed controls. Cases worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex in Iran, and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. Both groups answered a questionnaire on personal factors and work history. There were statistically-significant differences between cases and controls in ALP and GGT; there were also differences in AST, ALT and bilirubin, but this difference was not statistically significant. Mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis; cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in the regular monitoring of liver function among PVC production workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Aug. 2007, Vol.2, No.6, 6p. 26 ref.

CIS 08-897 Concawe Review 16:2
Topics addressed in this review of CONCAWE activities: future demand and composition of fuels for road transport, including biofuels; software tool to assist enterprises comply with the information dissemination requirements of the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation (E-PRTR); challenges in accurate measurements of particulate matter (PM10) in diesel emissions; assessing the environmental sensitivity of petrol stations across Europe with respect to leaks and groundwater protection.
CONCAWE Review, 2007, Vol.16, No.2. p.1-21 (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 08-179 Abbasi T., Abbasi S.A.
The boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE): Mechanism, consequence assessment, management
Among the most devastating of accidents likely in chemical industry is the boiling liquid expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE). It is accompanied by highly destructive blast waves. In most situations there is also a fireball or a toxic gas cloud. The damaging effect of these accidents is reflected in the fact that the 80-odd major BLEVEs that have occurred between 1940 and 2005 have claimed over a 1000 lives and have injured over 10,000 persons besides harming property worth billions of dollars. Releases of toxic chemicals like chlorine and phosgene from BLEVEs have damaged large chunks of areas surrounding the sites. This article presents an overview of the mechanisms, causes, consequences and preventive strategies of BLEVEs.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Mar. 2007, Vol.141, No.3, p.489-519. Illus. 131 ref.


CIS 08-387 Cable J.
The silent killer
Nitrogen is an invisible, tasteless and odorless gas that comprises about 78 percent of the air we breathe, but its potential to kill workers in or near confined spaces should never be underestimated. This article describes a fatal nitrogen asphyxiation accident having occurred in an oil refinery, the common causes of accidents involving 80 fatalities and 50 injuries having occurred in the United Stated between 1992 and 2002 and the good practices to adopt for preventing these accidents (alarm systems, continuous atmosphere monitoring, ventilation with fresh air, rescue organization, training).
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 2006, p.40-43. Illus.

CIS 08-395 Gennaro V., Montanaro F.
Pleural mesothelioma among asbestos-exposed workers in petroleum refineries: A work-related disease and a sentinel event
Il mesotelioma pleurico nei lavoratori esposti ad amiento nelle raffinerie du petrolio: malattia professionale ed evento sentinella [in Italian]
Petroleum refinery workers were not considered at risk for asbestos-related pathologies, in spite of the documented presence of asbestos at their place of work. This article reports the findings of epidemiological studies which demonstrate a high risk of pleural mesothelioma and point to the occupational origin of some asbestos-related pathologies among the maintenance staff of the refineries. Case-control and cohort studies, conducted in Italy and Canada, analysed the subgroup most heavily exposed to asbestos (maintenance staff) and the control groups not exposed (office staff and the general population). Relative risk (RR) and attributable risk (AR) were estimated using Poisson regression. The studies on maintenance staff showed a very high AR for pleural mesothelioma (96-100%) and lung cancer (42-49%), and an excess of mortality due to all neoplastic and non-neoplastic causes.
European Journal of Oncology, Sep. 2006, Vol.11, No.3, p.185-191. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 07-1441 Nivolianitou Z., Konstandinidou M., Michalis C.
Statistical analysis of major accidents in petrochemical industry notified to the major accident reporting system (MARS)
The European Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) was created within the framework of European Union (EU) Directive 82/501/EEC, the so-called "Seveso Directive" (see CIS 83-889), in order to register all the major industrial accidents notified to the European Union authorities from Member States. Statistical analysis of these accidents offers significant data to the understanding and prevention of industrial accidents. This article analyses some characteristics of major accidents in the petrochemical sector included in MARS. The statistical analysis focused on the main fields of the MARS short reports. In addition, a more detailed analysis of the causes of major accidents, with a focus on organizational factors, was attempted using the details available in the full reports of the database.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2006, Vol.137, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 07-903 Konstandinidou M., Nivolianitou Z., Markatos N., Kiradounis C.
Statistical analysis of incidents reported in the Greek petrochemical industry for the period 1997-2003
The European Union has established the Major Accident Reporting System (MARS) for the reporting of major accidents in the Member States. However, the occurrence of major accidents is not the only measure that can characterize the safety status of an establishment; neither are they the only events from which important lessons can be learned. Near misses, industrial incidents without major consequences, as well as occupational accidents also provide useful information. This article analyses all reported accidents and incidents in the Greek petrochemical industry between 1997 and 2003.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, July 2006, Vol.135, No.1-3, p.1-9. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 07-432 Montiel-López M., Corzo-Alvarez G., Chacín-Almarza B., Rojas-González L., Quevedo A., Lubo-Palma A., Rendiles H.
Prevalence and characterization of hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noise in the electricity turbogeneration plant of a petrochemical complex
Prevalencia y caracterización de la pérdida auditiva en trabajadores expuestos a ruido industrial de una planta eléctrica turbogenerada en un complejo petroquímico [in Spanish]
This study investigated the impact of occupational exposure to noise and its relationship with other factors that can induce hearing loss among workers in the electricity generating plant of a petrochemical complex in Venezuela. A cross-sectional study was conducted that involved medical examinations and audiometric tests on 75 workers. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) were quantified at various workplaces. It was found that most of the workers were exposed to high noise levels (>85dBA) and for more than the recommended time. All workers used hearing protectors appropriately. Although the hearing loss prevalence in workers was 16.0%, it was not possible to prove that it was noise induced. The hearing threshold registered in the audiometric tests was diminished, but remained within normal threshold values. Twelve cases of grade I conductive hearing loss were diagnosed, with no sensorial or mixed hearing losses. No relationship was found between the equivalent noise level and hearing loss. Recommendations for workers' protection are made, including the implementation of a hearing protection programme.
Investigación Clínica, June 2006, Vol.47, No.2, p.117-131. 40 ref.

CIS 07-374 Chan C.C., Shie R.H., Chang T.Y., Tsai D.H.
Workers' exposures and potential health risks to air toxics in a petrochemical complex by improved methodology
The objective of this study was to evaluate potential health risks from exposure to 39 airborne toxic substances in a petrochemical complex in Taiwan. The substances included 10 chemicals with acute reference exposure levels, 19 chemicals with chronic reference exposure levels and three chemicals classified by IARC as Class 1 or 2A human carcinogens. Acute reference exposure levels were then used to calculate the hazard index of acute health effects for workers in individual plants, while the hazard index of chronic health effects and cancer risks were calculated for all workers in the entire petrochemical complex. Findings indicate that workers in the petrochemical complex might have excess cancer and non-cancer risks due to acute or chronic exposures to toxic substances in air from multiple emission sources.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2006, Vol.79, No.2, p.135-142. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 06-685 The safe isolation of plant and equipment
This guidance describes procedures for the safe isolation of process plant and equipment in the onshore and offshore oil and gas industry, in chemical manufacturing and in pipelines associated with these industries. The procedures are designed to reduce the risk of releasing hazardous substances during intrusive activity such as maintenance and sampling operations. Contents: management of isolations; safe systems of work for isolation activities; key stages of process isolation; isolation conditions requiring specific considerations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2006. iv, 57p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: GBP 12.95.

CIS 06-83 Ads S.
Petroleum - Health hazards and occupational safety
Al-bitrūl - Maẖātiruhu al-sihhiya wa al-salama al-mihniya [in Arabic]
Contents of this publication on health hazards and occupational safety in the petroleum industries in Egypt: products and processes in the petroleum industries and their effects on workers' health; chemical and other hazards; hazard prevention and protective measures; first aid; protective clothing; industrial safety procedures.
Egypt, c1996. 87p. 9 ref.


CIS 06-1377 Larivé J.F.
European downstream oil industry safety performance: Statistical summary of reported incidents 2004
This report presents data on safety performance and accidents for 2004 in the European downstream oil industry. It includes trends from 1993 and some comparative figures for other industry sectors. Overall, the 2004 performance appears slightly improved compared to previous years and there is a low level of accidents compared to other industries in Europe. The fatal accident rate has, however, been steadily increasing in recent years, road accidents accounting for nearly 50% of all fatalities.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2005. 16p. Illus. 12 ref. [in English]


CIS 06-169 Bahrin J.S., Sajahan M.H., Hamad M.N.
Emergency response programme in a petrochemical company in Malaysia
The control of hazards posed by the petrochemical industry in Malaysia is covered by both the Malaysian Occupational Safety and Health (Control of Industrial Major Accident Hazards) Regulations 1996 and the Responsible Care initiative of the chemical industry. This paper describes elements to be considered in an emergency response programme for industry, such as emergency management, organization, duties and responsibilities, emergency systems, training and mutual aid plans and agreements. Examples based on the practices adopted by a multinational petrochemical company are included.
Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.1, No.1, p.33-38. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 06-101 Concawe Review 13:2
Contents of this review of Concawe's activities: concepts of cost benefit analysis in the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme; cost-effectiveness of NOx abatement in oil refineries; monitoring and reporting of CO2 emissions from oil refineries; implications of EU chemicals control legislation (REACH); gasoline volatility and ethanol effects; motor vehicle emissions and fuel specifications; downstream oil industry safety statistics.
CONCAWE Review, Autumn 2004, Vol.13, No.2, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 05-99 Parra J.G., Ospina Ariza X.
Health hazards faced by workers in the oil industry
Peligros para la salud de los trabajadores de la industria del petróleo [in Spanish]
This article describes the health hazards faced by oil industry workers, in particular as a result of the toxicity of hydrocarbons; it also proposes a hazard evaluation of this industry. Main topics covered: risks to health (chemical, physical, ergonomic and biological hazards); hydrocarbon toxicity and toxicokinetics; toxicodynamics of the main aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, xylene); evaluation and management of the hazards resulting from oil industry activities (exploration, drilling, extraction, pipeline transport, storage, refining and chemical transformation); safety management systems adopted in the Colombian oil industry.
Protección y seguridad, May-June 2004, Vol.50, No.295, p.54-71. Illus.


CIS 05-157 Concawe Review 40 - 1963-2003 - Celebrating 40 years of CONCAWE
On the occasion of CONCAWE's 40th anniversary, this issue is devoted to articles on each of the major fields of its activity. Contents: contributions to air quality; specifications on fuel quality and reduction of emissions; guidance on water and waste management; health aspects; classification, labelling and risk assessment of petroleum products; supporting the oil industry's commitment to safe operations; monitoring the performance of European cross-country oil pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2003, Vol.12, No.2. p.1-25. (whole issue). Illus.

CIS 03-1698 Ferreira L.L., Iguti A.M.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Work in the oil industry - Dangerous, complex, continuous and group work
O trabalho dos petroleiros - Perigoso, complexo, contínuo e coletivo [in Portuguese]
This study of the activities of oil industry workers in Brazil is based on approximately 50 interviews of workers. It analyses the tasks during the various phases from exploration to distribution, through production, refining, transport and storage. Although the tasks are very diverse, the activities of oil industry workers present the following common traits: work with dangerous substances (flammable, explosive or toxic); treatment of large quantities of products; continuous work; processes carried out in closed systems consisting of equipment and piping; indirect process control; network structure of various parts of the system. It is a complex industry, presenting various hazards and requiring high levels of competence and responsibility.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2003. xxi, 156p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 03-736 Concawe Review 12:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to the limitation of CO2 emissions. Contents: the "well-to-wheels" study, aimed at establishing the energy and greenhouse-gas balances for a number of fuel and power train combinations; new technologies for sulfur-free fuels; emissions from modern gasoline-engine vehicles; update of the model of the European refining industry; establishing air quality limit values; oil in water analysis; exposure of asphalt workers to bitumen fumes; trends in the reduction of occupational exposure to gasoline vapours.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2003, Vol.12, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.


CIS 03-1670 Sorahan T., Nichols L., Harrington J.M.
Mortality of United Kingdom oil refinery and petroleum distribution workers, 1951-1998
The mortality experienced by cohorts of 28,630 oil refinery workers and 16,480 petroleum distribution workers has been investigated. Study subjects were all male employees first employed in the period 1946-1974 at one of eight UK oil refineries or at one of 476 UK petroleum distribution centres. When compared with national mortality rates, the resultant standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were significantly below 100 for all causes, in both oil refinery workers (SMR=88) and petroleum distribution workers (SMR=94). Significantly elevated SMRs were shown in oil refinery workers for cancer of the gall bladder (SMR=172), cancer of the pleura (SMR=254) and melanoma (SMR=162). Significantly elevated SMRs were not found in petroleum distribution workers for any site of cancer. SMRs for selected causes of death were calculated by period from commencing employment, by year of hire and by job type. The only findings that suggested the presence of an occupational cancer hazard were an excess of mesothelioma in oil refinery workers and an excess of leukaemia in petroleum distribution workers, both excesses occurring in long-term follow-up for workers first employed >30 years ago.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.52, No.6, p.333-339. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1337 Prasad R.
Fire prevention and protection at the plant level
This article presents the fire prevention efforts undertaken by a major oil products supplier in India, in particular during the design, construction and operation of oil refineries. A box includes the company's safety, health and environmental policy.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.XXXIII, No.3, p.68-74. Illus.

CIS 03-655 Ha E., Cho S.I., Park H., Chen D., Chen C., Wang L., Xu X., Christiani D.C.
Does standing at work during pregnancy result in reduced infant birth weight?
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between infant birth weight and standing at work during pregnancy. 1,222 pregnant women employed at a large petrochemical site in Beijng, China, were enrolled in the study. The subjects were followed up through their entire pregnancy. All subjects delivered at the company staff hospital between 1996 and 1998. Various work-related physical activities during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire, and generalized additive models were performed to examine their association with birth weight. Of the assessed activities, only standing was significantly associated with birth weight. After adjusting for potential confounders, maternal standing hours per day at work was found to be significantly associated with reduced birth weight (-17.7g, P=0.03).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.815-821. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 03-735 Concawe Review 11:2
Contents of this review of CONCAWE's activities: report on progress on key issues in which CONCAWE is currently involved; research on road transport and alternative fuels; aromatics in automotive fuel specifications; AIRNET, a network of researchers and organizations working towards the improvement of air quality in Europe; trends in refinery sulfur emission in Europe; report on the 6th CONCAWE pipeline seminar.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2002, Vol.11, No.2, p.1-21. Illus.

CIS 03-734 Concawe Review 11:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to emission reduction. Contents: economic aspects of biofuel production; SO2 emissions from ships in Europe; the refinery best available technique (BAT) reference document; emissions from modern diesel engines; specifications for non-road diesel fuel use; 30 years of spillage performance monitoring in Western European oil pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2002, Vol.11, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 02-1746 The promotion of good industrial relations in oil and gas production and oil refining
La promotion de bonnes méthodes de relations professionnelles dans le secteur du raffinage du pétrole et de la production de pétrole et de gaz [in French]
El fomento de buenas relaciones laborales en la producción de petróleo y gas y en las refinerías de petróleo [in Spanish]
The aim of this report was to provide background information and a basis for discussions for delegates attending a tripartite meeting on the promotion of good industrial relations in oil and gas production and oil refining held at the ILO in Geneva, Switzerland, 25 February - 1 March 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to review different approaches to promoting good industrial relations in a variety of geographical, cultural, political, economic and technical circumstances, and to adopt conclusions that include proposals for action by governments, by employers' and workers' organizations at the national level and by the ILO. Contents of the report: recent trends in oil and gas production and oil refining industries; freedom and restrictions of association; ILO approach to industrial relations; collective bargaining; social dialogue. As appendices: structure and goals of works councils of selected oil and gas companies; comparison of codes of conduct of four oil and gas companies.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 64p. Illus. Price: CHF 15.00.


CIS 03-733 Concawe Review 10:2
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to improvements of air quality. Contents: future EU air legislation; implications of the revised large combustion plant directive for the EU refining industry; automotive particulate emissions; impact of the use of hydrogen on CO2 emissions; comment on the "whole effluent assessment" concept; downstream industry safety statistics; CONCAWE's role in the reorganization of the European Union.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2001, Vol.10, No.2, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 03-732 Concawe Review 10:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to air quality. Contents: validity of model predictions for air quality confirmed by measurements in London; update of a report on motor vehicle emission regulations and fuel specifications; automotive emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; effect of tougher specifications on diesel supply; health issues of oil industry and products; hearing trends in noise-exposed oil refinery workers; dangerous preparations directive; integrity of pipelines in Western Europe.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2001, Vol.10, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 03-200 Wong O., Harris F., Rosamilia K., Raabe G.K.
Updated mortality study of workers at a petroleum refinery in Torrance, California, from 1959 to 1997
This cohort study involved 3328 workers employed at a refinery for at least one year between 1959 and 1997, with an observation period from 1960 to 1997. Mortality data were analysed in terms of cause-specific standardized mortality ratios with expected deaths based on US national data. The overall mortality of the cohort was significantly lower than expected. Overall cancer mortality was also lower than expected, with significant mortality deficits being observed for certain specific sites. For other diseases, no significant increases were observed, with specific mortality deficits for ischaemic heart disease, chronic endocardial disease and other myocardial insufficiencies, all other heart disease, and influenza and pneumonia. Detailed analysis by length of employment did not reveal any significant mortality excess or upward trend. Analyses of male employees by job classification (process and maintenance) showed significantly elevated mortality from cirrhosis of the liver and suicide among maintenance workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.43, No.12, p.1089-1102. 15 ref.

CIS 02-1685 Fenga C., Loreto C., Spatari G., Guarneri F., Barbaro M., Caltabiano C., Germanò D.
Histopathological changes in the skin of workers employed in the handling of petroleum products
Modificazioni istopatologiche cutanee in lavoratori addetti alla movimentazione di prodotti petroliferi [in Italian]
Cutaneous histomorphological alterations in a group of 10 healthy workers, repeatedly exposed to low amounts of petroleum products over a prolonged period, were monitored. The overall histomorphological and immunological features were not specific, but resembled skin reactions due to various irritants. Such skin alterations can lead to contact dermatitis.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.25-31. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 02-1231 Sathiakumar N., Delzell E., Rodu B., Beall C., Myers S.
Cancer incidence among employees at a petrochemical research facility
Evaluation of cancer incidence at a petrochemical research facility in the state of Illinois (US). The subjects were 5641 people who had worked in the establishment from 1970 through 1996. They had 18% fewer than expected total cancers. However, the incidence of brain cancer was higher than expected in the overall study group; this was restricted to white male scientists and technicians. The subjects also had an increased incidence of thyroid cancer.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.166-174. 62 ref.

CIS 02-843 Fernández-D'Pool J., Oroño-Osorio A.
Liver function of petrochemical industry workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents
Función hepática de trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a solventes orgánicos mixtos en una industria petroquímica [in Spanish]
The aim of this cross-sectional study involving 77 workers of a Venezuelan petrochemical plant exposed to mixed solvents and 91 non-exposed controls was to establish whether liver function changes were caused by exposure or by confounding factors. Blood and urine samples were collected in order to determine hepatic enzyme activity as well as the concentration of serum biliary acids and urinary phenols. Ambient concentrations of benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene and xylene were determined by gas phase chromatography. Hepatic enzyme activity, biliary acid concentration and the urinary phenol level showed no correlation with exposure. However, the increased activity of γ-glutamyl-transferase was related to obesity and alcohol consumption.
Investigación Clínica, June 2001, Vol.42, No.2, p.87-106. 26 ref.

CIS 02-808 Cho S.I., Damokosh A.I., Ryan L.M., Chen D., Hu Y.A., Smith T.J., Christiani D.C., Xu X.
Effects of exposure to organic solvents on menstrual cycle length
To investigate the association between organic solvent exposure and menstrual disturbance, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 1408 women petrochemical workers in China. The workplaces were classified according to the presence or absence of organic solvents (benzene, styrene, toluene or xylene). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for oligomenorrhoea (average cycle length >35 days during the previous year) associated with the exposure. After adjustment for confounders, each additional year of work in an exposed workshop was associated with a 7% increase in oligomenorrhoea (odds ratio 1.07). Compared with no exposure, 3 or more years of exposure was associated with a 53% increase in oligomenorrhoea (odds ratio 1.53). It was concluded that exposure to organic solvents is associated with a trend toward increased frequency of oligomenorrhoea.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.43, No.6, p.567-575. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 02-236 Lo Presti E., Sperati A., Rapiti E., Di Domenicantonio R., Forastiere F., Perucci C.A.
Mortality by cause among workers of a refinery in Rome
Mortalità per causa dei lavoratori della raffineria di Roma [in Italian]
Mortality was evaluated among blue-collar and white-collar workers employed in an oil refinery plant in Rome (Italy). Age- and sex-adjusted comparison was made with mortality data for the general population of the Lazio region. 682 subjects were followed up since their employment in the plant up to July 1999 and for analyses of selected cancer sites. There were 94 deaths (100.8 expected) among blue-collar and 16 deaths (31.7 expected) among white-collar workers. There was a significant increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the lung and the bladder and from tumours of the brain. The lower mortality from cardiovascular disease (SMR 0.60 for blue-collar and 0.18 among white-collar workers) indicates the presence of a strong "healthy worker effect".
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.327-337. 52 ref.

CIS 01-1269 Kletz T.
An engineer's view of human error
Third edition of the manual previously analysed as CIS 92-2098. Human error as a cause of accidents is examined and accidents that have occurred, mainly in the chemical and oil industries, are described. The main thesis of the book is that engineers should concentrate on designing processes and machines which take into account the error-proneness of humans instead of trying to change their behaviour. Numerous examples of human error are given together with an analysis of the causes of the accidents and the preventive measures that should be taken to ensure that they do not happen again. In this third edition, more examples of accidents caused by the various types of human error have been added. Chapters on errors made by managers and designers have been extended and now include errors due to their ignorance of various options such as inherently safer design. The chapter on computer control has been expanded and an appendix on "Some myths of human error'" has been added.
Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 2001. x, 281p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 45.00.


CIS 03-730 Concawe Review 9:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to emissions of petroleum products and their possible adverse effects on human health and the environment. Contents: the complexity of legislation on refineries; carbon, sulfur and hydrogen in oil refineries; estimating the implications of road fuel quality changes on the EU refining industry; the impact of Auto/Oil I and II on refinery costs and global CO2 emissions; trends in European air quality; personal exposure to air pollutants; global harmonized system of hazard communication for chemicals; MTBE in gasoline.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2000, Vol.9, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.

CIS 02-1790 Verma D.K.
Adjustment of occupational exposure limits for unusual work schedules
During the past two decades, unusual work schedules have become widespread in many industries, particularly in the mining and petrochemical sectors, and to a lesser extent in other industries. Workers in such situations no longer work the traditional 8h shifts five days per week that are the basic assumptions of the occupational exposure limit setting process. This article consists of a review of literature relating to the issue of adjustments of exposure limits during unusual work schedules. Various adjustment models are presented and discussed, and a number of conclusions are drawn. Tables of adjustment factors for 34 specific contaminants for two unusual schedules are given, and a simple approach for use by industrial hygienists is proposed.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.367-374. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 02-1232 Huebner W.W., Chen V.W., Friedlander B.R., Wu X.C., Jorgensen G., Bhojani F.A., Friedmann C.H., Schmidt B.A., Sales E.A., Joy J.A., Correa C.N.
Incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancies in a petrochemical industry cohort: 1983-94 follow up
An increased mortality for the period 1970-82 from lymphohaematopoietic (LH) malignancies was previously found in a US petrochemical industry cohort (see CIS 01-1432). This follow-up provides information on cases between 1983 and 1994. 672 cases of cancer were identified, including 59 LH malignancies. Women (n=1169) had four LH malignancies versus 2.28 expected. Among 7773 men, those first employed before 1950 had a significant 1.4-fold increase in overall LH malignancies and four chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cases (CLL) versus 3.27 expected. The findings do not suggest a continuing excess of CLL, but show a small increase in incidence of overall LH malignancy for workers first employed before 1950.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.605-614. 34 ref.

CIS 02-1266 Lewis R.J., Schnatter A.R., Katz A.M., Thompson F.S., Murray N., Jorgensen G., Thériault G.
Updated mortality among diverse operating segments of a petroleum company
A follow-up of an earlier study on 34,560 employees of a Canadian petroleum company. Analyses used standardized mortality ratios to compare cause-specific mortality in the workers with that of the Canadian general population. For the years 1964-94, employees experienced significantly low overall mortality. Acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia was non-significantly increased. The most notable finding was that of increased deaths from mesothelioma among refinery and petrochemical workers, most of them in jobs with presumed exposure to asbestos. Deaths from multiple myeloma and aortic aneurysms among marketing and distribution workers, which were previously increased, remained increased. In conclusion, apart from mesothelioma, no clear work-related increases in mortality were identified.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.595-604. 49 ref.

CIS 02-289 Major J., Jakab M.G., Tompa A.
HPRT mutation frequencies in benzene-exposed oil refinery workers during an eleven-year-long follow-up study
Mutation and variant frequencies (VF) of the hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) loci of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 43 occupationally benzene-exposed, 30-40-year-old workers with increased chromosome aberration frequencies were investigated by autoradiography in an eleven-year-long follow-up study in order to assess the cancer risk. Data were compared to those of 87 age-matched controls. Ambient air benzene concentrations were measured with gas chromatography. Compared to the controls, the values of the labelling indices in PBLs of the exposed donors were decreased indicating a reduced response to lectine stimulation in the genotoxicologically compromised cells. In the years 1992-1993, the mean hprt VFs of the exposed workers were significantly higher than those of the controls, but not in the previous or subsequent years. The distribution of the individual VFs also indicated exposure-related increases in the years 1991-1993. The data indicate that occupational exposure to benzene can increase the cell mutation frequencies.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.288-299. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 02-237 Thurston S.W., Ryan L., Christiani D.C., Snow R., Carlson J., You L., Cui S., Ma G., Wang L., Huang Y., Xu X.
Petrochemical exposures and menstrual disturbances
An exploratory, cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to examine the effects of benzene exposure on menstrual problems. The study was based on a survey administered to more than 3,000 women working in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China. An abnormal menstrual cycle length (AMCL), defined as an average menstrual cycle length of greater than 35 days or less than 21 days, was the major factor observed. After 7 years of benzene exposure, the adjusted odds ratio of having AMCL, for each additional 5 years of exposure was 1.71. Feeling stressed at work was also an important predictor. This study suggests a significant association of benzene exposure and perceived stress with menstrual disturbance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.555-564. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 01-1689 Chen D., Cho S.I., Chen C., Wang X., Damokosh A.I., Ryan L., Smith T.J., Christiani D.C., Xu X.
Exposure to benzene, occupational stress and reduced birth weight
The association between birth weight and exposure to benzene, work stress, and other occupational and environmental hazards was investigated among petrochemical industry workers. 792 pregnant workers were followed up through delivery between May 1996 and December 1998. Exposure to benzene and other solvents was assessed based on job titles and workplace information. Other occupational and environmental exposures and personal information were obtained by interview. Regression models were used to examine the individual and combined associations of occupational and environmental exposures with birth weight. Birth weight was negatively associated with exposure to benzene (-58g) and with work stress (-84g). There was a significant interaction between exposure to benzene and work stress relative to reduced birth weight. Adjusted mean birth weight was 3,445g among those with neither exposure, 3,430g for those with exposure to benzene only, 3,426g for those with work stress only, and 3,262g for those with both exposures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.57, No.10, p.661-667. 40 ref.

CIS 01-1432 Lewis R.J., Gamble J.F., Jorgensen G.
Mortality among three refinery/petrochemical plant cohorts - I. 1970 to 1982 active/terminated workers; II. Retirees
This study updates mortality rates for 19,075 workers at three refinery and petrochemical plants in the United States. Results indicated deficits of deaths for all causes, all malignant neoplasms, and respiratory and prostate cancer. A significant increase in leukaemia among male subjects (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 181) was found for one of the locations, which showed trends of increasing SMRs with increasing tenure. This excess was largely due to increased chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (SMR 351). The rate of kidney cancer also remained elevated among male subjects at one of the locations, but this finding was no longer significant, and there were no patterns in SMRs by tenure and latency. Mesothelioma was increased at two locations (SMR 198 and 246). A second part of the study updates mortality data for 6238 retirees from the same three plants. Almost 90% of the cohort was deceased. Deaths from all causes (SMR 104) and all cancers (SMR 109) were elevated. Increased deaths due to kidney cancer, mesothelioma, and other lymphatic and haemopoietic tissue cancers were also observed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2000, Vol.42, No.7, p.721-729; p.730-736. 53 ref.

CIS 01-799 Downstream oil industry safety statistics: Industry safety performance continues to improve
Oil industry safety statistics over 1993 to 1999 show an improvement in safety performance. The number of lost workdays per 1 million hours worked (4.3) is slightly lower than those recorded for the last four years and the average number of lost days per incidents (severity) has been steadily decreasing. The road accident rate has also improved over the years. The most notable feature of the 1999 statistics is the fatal accident rate which is the lowest ever recorded (1.8), which indicates that oil industry has developed procedures to reduce the risks from flammability and explosions hazards to a low level.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2000, Vol.9, No.2, p.24. Illus.

CIS 01-287 Duljasova M.V., Habibullina Z.I.
Psychological reserves of increase of reliability in oil-processing and petrochemical enterprises
Psihologičeskie rezervy povyšenija nadežnosti neftepererabatyvajuščih i neftehimičeskih predprijatij [in Russian]
This article explores the potential for psychological resources in accident prevention in industries such as petroleum refining and petrochemicals, which involve working with dangerous and toxic materials. Human factors may account for up to 70% of accidents. Therefore, personal traits such as memory, attention, sensorimotor capacity, sense of responsibility, care, competence and self-control are evaluated as to their importance for machine operators, engineers and foremen. Insufficiencies in some of theses traits may lead to occupational diseases and accidents, to poor work achievements and to high staff turnover.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, Mar. 2000, No.3, p.46-47.


CIS 02-381 Tan K.T.
National University of Singapore
Control of fugitive emission losses in the chemical and petroleum industries
Valves, pressure relief devices and flanges are the major common sources of fugitive emissions. This paper provides some examples of engineering measures and technological innovations to control and abate the common sources of leaks from chemical processing plants, petrochemical complex and refineries.
Chemical and Process Engineering Centre News, Oct. 1999, p.1-4.

CIS 01-1088 Güemez Sandoval C.J.
Permanent disability following occupational accidents according to type of injury, affected region and selected risk indicators in Mexican oil industry workers
Incapacidades permanentes secundarias a accidentes de trabajo por tipo de lesión, región afectada y algunos indicadores de riesgo en trabajadores petroleros mexicanos [in Spanish]
Between 1990 and 1993, 8,638 occupational accidents were recorded in the Mexican oil industry and 1,685 workers (19.5%) had some degree of permanent disability. The most frequently injured parts of the body were the hands and wrists, and the main sequela was amputation. The incidence of lesions was higher in men than in women; this can be explained by the fact that women are not assigned to high-risk activities. A linear increase of incidence with age was observed. The study shows a high proportion of injured workers with high degree of disability.
Condiciones de trabajo, Jan.-Apr. 1999, Vol. XXIII, No.1, p.15-20. 7 ref.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 | next >