Iron and steel industry - 375 entries found
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Chen M., Ho C.W., Huang Y.C., Wu K.Y., Wu M.T., Jeng H.A., Chen C.J., Shih T.S., Lai C.H., Pan C.H., Chen Y.M.
Glycine N-methyltransferase affects urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels after PAH exposure
The objective of this study was to assess the modulating effects of genetic polymorphisms of glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) genotypes on 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine from coke-oven workers, consistently exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The study participants included 289 coke-oven workers from a steel company in Taiwan. Personal air samples, spot urine samples, peripheral blood samples, and questionnaires were used to quantify PAH exposure, oxidative DNA damage, GNMT gene polymorphisms, demographic data, and environmental pollutants. Urinary 1-OHP level, GNMT STRP1 genotype, and worksite were significant predictors of urinary 8-OHdG levels after adjustments were made for covariates. This study suggests that GNMT STRP1 could modulate urinary 1-OHP and 8-OHdG levels in coke-oven workers exposed to PAHs.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.53, No.7, p.812-819. 39 ref.
Glycine_N-methyltransferase_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
ILO_LABORDOC_[INTRANET_ACCESS] [in English]
Jeng H.A., Pan C.H., Diawara N., Chang-Chien G.P., Lin W.Y., Huang C.T., Ho C.K., Wu M.T.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in relation to immunological alteration
This population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and immunological measurements using blood samples from coke oven workers exposed to high and low PAH levels. It was conducted from 2008-2009 with coke oven workers and steel-rolling workers as the exposed and control groups, respectively. Questionnaires on basic demographic information were administered. Personal breathing zone and urine samples were collected to quantify personal PAH intake and biological response doses. Immunological and cytokine parameters in serum were analysed. Urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were analysed to determine oxidative stress induced by PAHs in relation to altered humoural immunological status. Results were subjected to statistical evaluation. It was found that coke oven workers with chronic exposure to PAHs may develop immunological alteration. Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation induced by PAHs may partly explain the alteration in immunological parameters.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.68, No.9, p.653-658. 31 ref.
Polycyclic_aromatic_hydrocarbon-induced_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]
Bestratén Bellovi M.
Integrating occupational safety and health as a strategic value of customer service
Integrar la prevención como valor estratégico de servicio [in Spanish]
Interview of the head of a family enterprise involved in the manufacture, erection and maintenance of industrial installations, having implemented OSH and quality management systems.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Mar. 2010, No.56, p.26-33. Illus.
Integrar_la_prevención.pdf [in Spanish]
Suwazono Y., Uetani M., Oishi M., Tanaka K., Morimoto H., Nakada S., Sakata K.
Estimation of the benchmark duration of alternating shift work associated with increased total cholesterol levels among male Japanese workers
The aim of this study was to estimate the benchmark doses and their 95% lower confidence limits for the threshold number of years of alternating shift work associated with a relative increase in serum total cholesterol level (T-Cho), as an index of lipid metabolism. A 14-year prospective cohort study was conducted among 6886 male workers at a Japanese steel company who had received annual health check-ups between 1991 and 2005. The endpoints were either a 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 or 45% increase in T-Cho levels during the observation period, compared to T-Cho at baseline. The associations between the years of alternating shift work and the relative increases in T-Cho were investigated using pooled logistic regression, adjusted for other potential covariates. The threshold number of years of alternating shift work that caused a 5% increase in T-Cho among middle-aged workers was shown to be 21 years or more. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2010, Vol.36, No.2, p.142-149. 28 ref.
Steelworks: When safety and health goes hand in hand with technology
Aciérie - Quand prévention va de pair avec technologie [in French]
This article describes the various process steps in a steel mill in Northern France, and presents the new curved apron continuous casting technology adopted in the mill, together with its positive effects on working conditions, safety and health.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2010, No.708, p.2-11. Illus.
Fire protection in steel constructions
Brandschutz im Stahlbau [in German]
La protection incendie par intumescence dans la construction métallique [in French]
This article presents the advantages of intumescent fire protection systems compared to other systems in steel structures, as well as the disadvantages and limits of this method.
IZA - Sicherheit und Gesundheit, 2009, No.3, p.44-45. Illus.
Andersson L., Bryngelsson I.L., Ohlson C.G., Nayström P., Lilja B.G., Westberg H.
Quartz and dust exposure in Swedish iron foundries
Occupational exposure to respirable dust and quartz were determined in 11 Swedish iron foundries. Some 400 breathing atmosphere samples associated with all job titles were analyzed for respirable dust and quartz, and expressed as time-weighted averages. The sampling strategy enabled evaluating use of respirators in certain jobs, thus determining actual exposure. For respirable quartz, 23% of all the measurements exceeded the European occupational exposure limit (EU-OEL), and 56% exceeded the ACGIH-TLV. Estimations of exposure levels for various categories of workers (fettlers, furnace and ladle maintenance and repair workers) are given, together with the effect of using respirators.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2009, Vol.6, No.1, p.9-18. Illus. 39 ref.
Bourgkard E., Wild P., Courcot B., Diss M., Ettlinger J., Goutet P., Hémon D., Marquis N., Mur J.M., Rigal C., Rohn-Janssens M.P., Moulin J.J.
Lung cancer mortality and iron oxide exposure in a French steel-producing factory
A total of 16,742 men and 959 women ever employed for at least one year in a French steel mill between 1959 and 1997 were followed up for mortality from 1968 to 1998. Occupational exposures were assessed by a factory-specific job-exposure matrix validated with atmospheric measurements. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using local death rates (external references). Poisson regressions were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) for occupational exposures (internal references), adjusted on potential confounding factors. Among men, mortality was lower than expected for lung cancer compared to the local population (SMR 0.89) and higher than expected compared to the French population (SMR 1.30). A significant bladder cancer excess was observed among workers exposed to oil mist (RR 2.44). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.66, No.3, p.175-181. 32 ref.
Bourgkard E., Wild P., Courcot B., Diss M., Ettlinger J., Goutet P., Hemon D., Marquis N., Mur J.M., Rigal C., Rohn-Janssens M.P., Moulin J.J.
Lung cancer mortality and iron oxide exposure in a French steel-producing factory
Mortalité par cancer du poumon et exposition aux oxydes de fer dans une usine sidérurgique française [in French]
The objective of this study was to highlight a possible relationship between exposure to iron oxides and the risk of lung cancer among workers of a French steel mill producing carbon steel. A historical cohort comprising all workers having ever worked for at least a year between 1959 and 1997 was constituted. Causes of death were determined from death certificates, while occupational exposures were evaluated with the help of a plant-specific job-exposure matrix developed by a panel of eight experts and validated by atmospheric sampling. The cohort consisted of 16,742 men and 959 women, followed-up for mortality from 1968 to 1998. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using local death rates. Poisson regressions were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) for occupational exposures, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among men, mortality was lower than expected for lung cancer compared to the local population (SMR 0.89) and higher than expected compared to the French population (SMR 1.30). A significant bladder cancer excess was observed among workers exposed to oil mist (RR 2.44). Other findings are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2009, No.118, p.209-220. 32 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TF%20180/$File/TF180.pdf [in French]
Soleo L., Gigante M.R., Antelmi A., Lovreglio P., Drago I., Gagliardi T., Sannelli G., Schiavulli N., Conversano M., Bailardi F., Greco L., Persechino B., Iavicoli S.
Exposure assessment of carcinogenic metals (Cr, As) in steel foundry workers and in the general population in Taranto (Italy)
Valutazione dell'esposizione a metalli cancerogeni (Cr, As) nei lavoratori dello stabilimento siderurgico e nella popolazione generale di Taranto (Italia) [in Italian]
Steelworks can expose workers to low concentrations of chromium and arsenic, both carcinogenic metals. These metals can also be released into the environment surrounding the industrial plants and expose the general population living near them. Non-occupational exposure to these metals also exists through the ingestion of certain foods. A total of 195 workers at an Italian steel plant with possible exposure to inorganic arsenic and chromium and two control groups consisting of 105 subjects living near the foundry, and 144 subjects living approximately 20km away, were examined. A questionnaire was administered to acquire data on personal factors, health, lifestyle and occupational and non-occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic and chromium. Urinary inorganic arsenic and chromium were tested by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic and chromium was found to be markedly below the environmental threshold limit values indicated by international organizations. No significant differences emerged among the three groups. Other findings are discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, 3rd quarter 2007, Vol.3, No.3, p.37-56. Illus. 36 ref.
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2007_03_3_it.pdf [in Italian]
http://prevenzioneoggi.ispesl.it/pdf%5Cric2007_03_3_en.pdf [in English]
Formento H.R., Abrevaya C., Senen González C, Braidot N., Suárez P.
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Working conditions and competitiveness. A study of the Argentine steel sector
Condiciones de trabajo y competitividad. Un estudio en la trama siderúrgica argentina [in Spanish]
This document presents the findings of a survey on working conditions and competitiveness in the steel industry in Argentina. The survey involved two large steel companies together with 43 of their suppliers. Various indicators of quality, the preventive measures implemented and human resources were analysed. Findings are discussed. Appendices include the questionnaires that were used as a basis for the survey.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2007. 160p. Illus. 88 ref.
Ahn Y.S., Park R.M., Stayner L., Kang S.K., Jang J.K.
Cancer morbidity in iron and steel workers in Korea
Cancer morbidity at two Korean iron and steel complexes was analyzed using Poisson regression methods. Work histories were merged with the national cancer registry for 44,974 workers who were followed from 1988 to 2001. Four hundred and sixty-four cancers were diagnosed over 14 years. Based on national cancer rates, the cohort exhibited a healthy worker effect for all cancers (standardized incidence rate SIR=0.87) reflecting relative good health, particularly for lung cancer (SIR=0.58), stomach cancer (SIR=0.78) and liver cancer (SIR=0.83). Lung cancer morbidity was significantly elevated at the affiliated plants versus the parent plants (standardized risk ratio SRR=2.35), and all-cancer morbidity was significantly elevated for maintenance workers compared to office and production workers (SRR=1.27). Lymphohaematopoietic cancer incidence was higher in the coke plants (SRR=3.46) and stomach cancer incidence was higher in the maintenance departments (SRR=1.66). Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.49, p.647-657. 46 ref.
Chen P.C., Doyle P.E., Wang J.D.
Respirable dust exposure and respiratory health in male Taiwanese steelworkers
This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and the determinants of lung function and examined their association with occupational dust exposure in Taiwanese steelworkers. Participants included 1,339 male workers. Data on respiratory symptoms were collected by means of questionnaires, and their lung function was assessed using spirometry. Dust exposure was measured using personal air sampling. Prevalences of frequent cough, chronic cough, frequent phlegm, chronic phlegm, wheezing and breathlessness were 11.4%, 9.3%, 14.6%, 11.9%, 2.6%, and 6.5%, respectively. Duration of employment, smoking, dustiness and past respiratory illnesses could predict these respiratory symptoms. Average respirable dust exposure significantly decreased the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second among smokers, while a lesser effect was also observed for non-smokers.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2006, Vol.44, No.1, p.190-199.32 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2006/pdf/indhealth_44_1_190.pdf [in English]
Hoshuyama T., Pan G., Tanaka C., Feng Y., Yu L., Liu T., Liu L., Hanaoka T., Takahashi K.
Mortality of iron-steel workers in Anshan, China: A retrospective cohort study
Foundry workers have increased mortality and morbidity risks from numerous causes, including various cancers. A retrospective Chinese iron-steel cohort study was conducted to examine the mortality effects of exposure to foundry work. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized rate ratios (SRRs) were calculated to evaluate mortality risks among male workers with exposure to 15 hazardous factors, adjusting for confounders. During 14 years of follow-up, 13,363 out of 121,846 male workers died. SMR analysis showed a healthy-worker effect in comparison with the general population. SRR analysis showed increased risks for all causes, all neoplasms, and others among the exposed workers compared with non-exposed blue-collar workers. Combined exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two or more dusts increased the risks of lung cancer (SRR=654; 95% CI: 113-3,780) and other malignancies. Foundry work has adverse health effects, including carcinogenic risks. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.193-202. 30 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1203_Hoshuyama.pdf [in English]
Code of practice on safety and health in the iron and steel industry
Zdravoslovni i bezopasni uslovija na trud v čugunodobivnata i stomanodobivnata promišlenost - Vtoro izdanie [in Bulgarian]
Bulgarian translation of the document indexed under CIS 06-604. This code of practice on safety and health in the iron and steel industry was drawn up at a meeting of government, employer and union experts in Geneva, 1-9 February 2005. Part I covers the national framework (responsibilities of employers, workers and others, OSH management systems). Part II describes safety measures during the various processes involved in iron- and steel-making and provides guidance on training requirements, personal protective equipment, contingency and emergency preparedness, work organization, special protection (hours of work, alcohol, drugs, smoking, HIV/AIDS) and personal hygiene.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. xix, 220p. Bibl. ref.
Kasperczyk S., Przywara-Chowaniec B., Kasperczyk A., Rykaczewska-Czerwińska M., Wodniecki J., Birkner E., Dziwisz M., Krauze-Wielicka M.
Function of heart muscle in people chronically exposed to lead
The effects of lead exposure on heart function were investigated in workers potentially exposed to lead at a steelworks in the south of Poland. Blood lead concentrations were measured and echocardiograms were performed in 88 exposed workers and in a non-exposed reference group. Results indicated a decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction, enlargement of the left ventricle and raised left ventricular mass in exposed workers. These effects may be the result of raised arterial blood tension.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2005, Vol.12, No.2, p.207-210. 28 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/12207.pdf [in English]
Ologe F.E., Akande T.M., Olajide T.G.
Noise exposure, awareness, attitudes and use of hearing protection in a steel rolling mill in Nigeria
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 116 workers in a steel rolling mill in Nigeria to collect information on their knowledge and attitudes towards hazardous occupational noise and preventive measures. Noise mapping of the factory was also performed. Average noise levels ranged from 49dB(A) in the administrative area to 93dB(A) at the steel finishing stage. There was high awareness of noise hazards (93%) and methods of prevention (92%) but only 27% of workers possessed hearing protectors and only 28% of these stated that they used them all the time. Initiatives are required to increase the use of effective preventive measures.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.55, No.6, p.487-489. 10 ref.
Code of practice on safety and health in the iron and steel industry
Recueil de directives pratiques sur la sécurité et la santé dans l'industrie du fer et de l'acier [in French]
Repertorio de recomendaciones prácticas sobre seguridad y salud en la industria del hierro y el acero [in Spanish]
Revised code of practice on safety and health in the iron and steel industry drawn up at a meeting of government, employer and union experts in Geneva, 1-9 February 2005. Part I covers the national framework (responsibilities of employers, workers and others, OSH management systems). Part II describes safety measures during the various processes involved in iron- and steel-making and provides guidance on training requirements, personal protective equipment, contingency and emergency preparedness, work organization, special protection (hours of work, alcohol, drugs, smoking, HIV/AIDS) and personal hygiene. Replaces CIS 84-240.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, rev. ed. 2005. x, 106p. Bibl. ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/french/index.htm [in French]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/english/index.htm [in English]
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/spanish/index.htm [in Spanish]
Park R.M., Ahn Y.S., Stayner L.T., Kang S.K., Jang J.K.
Mortality of iron and steel workers in Korea
The mortality of a cohort of 44,974 workers hired from 1968 and followed from 1992 to 2001 at two Korean iron and steel manufacturing complexes was analysed. 806 deaths were observed during 10 years of follow-up, showing a large healthy worker effect for all causes (standardized mortality ratio SMR=0.59) and for cancer (SMR=0.79). Mortality at subsidiaries was considerably higher than at the parent plants (standardized relative rate SRR=1.71). Relative mortality rates declined with employment duration. Fatal injury deaths in the first year were highly elevated (SMR=3.10) declining to less than that expected after five years. Cancer mortality was elevated in stainless steel production (SRR=3.26) and overall mortality was elevated for work in plant maintenance departments (SRR=1.17), particularly for fatal injuries (SRR=1.67). All-cause mortality increased with employment duration in the steel-production departments, as did fatal injuries in material handling and construction.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.48, No.3, p.194-204. 30 ref.
van Vuuren B.J., Becker P.J., van Heerden H.J., Zinzen E., Meeusen R.
Lower back problems and occupational risk factors in a South African steel industry
The objective of this study was to identify occupational risk factors associated with the prevalence of low back (LB) problems in a semi-automated South African steel plant. The design consisted of an analytical cross-sectional epidemiological study among a group of 366 workers. Outcome of LB problems were determined using a guided questionnaire and a functional rating index; exposure to occupational risk factors was determined using a self-reported questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated significant adjusted odds ratios (OR) for twisting and bending (OR 2.81), bulky manual handling (OR 5.58), load carriage (OR 7.20), prolonged sitting (OR 2.33), kneeling and squatting (OR 4.62) and working on slippery and uneven surfaces (3.63). The findings confirm the multifactorial etiology in idiopathic LB problems, and emphasize the importance of multiple intervention strategies in industrial settings.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2005, Vol.47, No.5, p.451-457. 53 ref.
Cohen P., Darling C., Hampson A., Downs K., Tasset-Tisseau A.
Influenza vaccination in an occupational setting: Effectiveness and cost-benefit study
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination in reducing influenza-like illness and absenteeism among workers of a large steelworks. The study was a prospective, randomized trial conducted during the 2000 influenza season. Healthy adults aged 18-64 years were randomized into two groups: 270 received parenteral influenza vaccine (VAXIGRIP) and 270 had no intervention. Data were collected using self-reporting questionnaires for a total period of six months. This study suggests that influenza vaccination programs for healthy, working-age adults may represent a cost-effective intervention strategy from the employer's perspective during the influenza season, especially during the peak period of the disease.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2003, Vol.19, No.2, p.167-182. Illus. 34 ref.
Mizoue T., Miyamoto T., Shimizu T.
Combined effect of smoking and occupational exposure to noise on hearing loss in steel factory workers
This study was carried out to examine the possible synergy of smoking and exposure to noise on hearing loss. Data from periodic health examinations for 4624 steel company workers and they included audiometry testing and information on smoking habits. Occupational exposure to noise was estimated from company records. Logistic regression was used to examine the dose-response association between smoking and hearing loss. The prevalence rate ratio (PRR) of hearing loss was calculated for each combination of smoking level and noise exposure factor, taking non-smokers not exposed to occupational noise as a reference population. It was found that smoking was associated with increased odds of high-frequency hearing loss. The PRR for high-frequency hearing loss among smokers exposed to occupational noise was 2.56, while the PRR for smokers not exposed to noise was 1.57 and the PRR for non-smokers exposed to noise was 1.77. The synergistic index was 1.16. Smoking was not associated with low-frequency hearing loss.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.60, No.1, p.56-59. 23 ref.
Pandya G.H., Dharmadhikari D.M.
A comprehensive investigation of noise exposure in and around an integrated iron and steel works
An environmental noise exposure study was carried out at a major iron and steel plant surrounded by residential and commercial areas. Traffic activity near the plant was significant and added to the background noise level. Considering the variety of noise sources in the plant area and in the neighbourhood, a practical approach to measure noise equivalent level in the plant and in the residential, commercial, industrial, and silence zone was adopted. Worker exposure was assessed by determining the speech interference level (SIL), loudness level, and noise rating level at one of the major sources located in the power plant of the steel works. The results indicate that SIL was 94dBA, loudness level was 112 phons, and the noise rating was in the range of 85-95dbA. A traffic noise index also was determined near the plant gates and was in the range of 68-96dBA. The impact on the community is significant. Some mitigation measures for noise control are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2002, Vol.63, No.2, p.172-177. Illus. 7 ref.
Hoyle J., Cherry N., Pickering C.A.C., Burgess G., Smedley J., Dippnall M., Niven R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Occupational lung disease in ferrous foundry workers
In a study of workers in ten ferrous foundries, it was found that the 509 men exposed to chemical binders were more likely (16.1%) to complain of chest tightness than the 402 non-exposed men (7.7%), an odds ratio of 2.32 after allowing for confounders. Of the 170 exposed men complaining of at least one chest symptom, 144 underwent histamine challenge testing. 20 were positive in the exposed group, while in the non-exposed group, only eight were positive. No difference was seen between exposure groups in the small number of cases diagnosed as occupational asthma. No evidence of major differences in health were found between exposed and non-exposed ex-employees. The most notable finding was the low reactivity in the histamine challenge test of workers with symptoms from both the exposed and non-exposed cohorts. Although there was only weak evidence of respiratory ill health associated with foundry work in this study, the potential exists where exposures to chemicals binders are high.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 26p. 4 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr022.pdf [in English]
Langhoff T., Lang K.H., Schmidt J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Inclusion of safety and health protection during the planning and implementation of investment projects - A report based on practical experience
Einbeziehung von Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Planung und Durchführung von Investitionsvorhaben - ein Bericht aus der Praxis [in German]
The objective of this project was to understand the factors behind the good safety performance of a steel company, which had in particular been able to achieve low rates of occupational injury during the planning and implementation phases of investment projects. Approaches based on European Foundation for Quality Management models were applied to the evaluation of excellence during the design, planning, and building phases of a galvanization unit within the steelworks site. Three factors were found to be responsible for the good safety performance of the company: "contextual conditions for occupational safety and health" (including the early involvement of external authorities and departments); "central processes of occupational safety and health" (in particular the selection and qualification of external contractors); "assessment dimensions pertaining to the investment" (including controlling of the benefits of occupational safety and health). These factors are considered applicable to other sectors and to firms of various sizes.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 103p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: EUR 11.00.
Ibrahim K.S., El-Attar M.S., El-Din El-Anwar Amin H., El-Mishad A.M., Abd-Alla H.M.
Some health hazards of manganese exposure among Egyptian workers
Health hazards due to manganese exposure were examined in 69 male workers employed in the iron and steel industry (mean duration of exposure 18.42±6.6 yr) and in 31 healthy workers as a control group. Both groups underwent full clinical examination. Blood analyses comprising haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red and white blood cell counts, differential leukocyte cell count, determination of manganese and the determination of IgG and IgM, as well as pulmonary ventilatory function tests were performed. In the exposed group, blood cell counts and Hb levels showed a statistically significant reduction as compared to the control group, while serum immunoglobulin levels showed a statistically significant elevation. There was no correlation between the blood manganese concentration and any of the other parameters mentioned above. The values of the pulmonary ventilatory function tests (FEV1, FVC/VC%, FEV1/FVC%) were significantly reduced in the exposed workers.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.3-4, p.228-236. 35 ref.
Chaloyard G., Petit J.M.
Hot mass blasting - Safety techniques and development of a pyrotechnic system
Tirs en masses chaudes - Techniques de sécurité et mise au point d'une chaîne pyrotechnique [in French]
During furnace maintenance operations, it is often necessary to eliminate deposits on the inner walls before they have a chance to cool down. Explosives are generally used for this purpose. They are subjected to high temperatures since the installations are generally not shut down or are shut down for very short periods. This study was carried out for the purpose of developing an explosive and pyrotechnic system designed to prevent accidents. The experimental study enabled the development of numerous improvements with respect to the behaviour of the explosives at high temperatures, optimization of the initiation mode and stabilization of the ageing process. It resulted in the production and commercialization of a pyrotechnic system for hot mass blasting.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.35-47. Illus. 8 ref.
An ergonomic evaluation of job stress in a typical hot industry
24 foundry plant workers were randomly selected to study the impact of occupational workload on the physiological functions during routine tasks. Environmental heat load was assessed from measurements of ambient air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and radiant heat. The physiological demand was evaluated in terms of energy cost, heart rate and oral temperature. Findings reveal that the environmental heat load in the forge shop (expressed as corrected effective temperature) was severe (32.0°C). Extreme conditions were observed at 38.9°C, well above the current permissible limit of 29.5°C for industrial work. From the consideration of the energetic workload, the jobs were rated "moderate" to "heavy", while based on the circulatory stress, they rated between "heavy" and "very heavy". Several suggestions are made for improving working conditions.
INDOSHNEWS, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.6, No.1, p.9-14. 17 ref.
Moulin J.J., Clavel T., Roy D., Dananché B., Marquis N., Févotte J., Fontana J.M.
Risk of bronchopulmonary cancer in a stainless and alloyed steels plant
Risques de cancers bronchopulmonaires dans une usine sidérurgique produisant des aciers inoxydables et des aciers alliés [in French]
The mortality of workers involved in the production of stainless and alloyed steel in France from 1968 to 1992 was studied. The study design was a historical cohort mortality study and a nested case-control study concerning lung cancer. Relative risk was expressed in the form of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). The cohort comprised 4,288 male and 609 female workers. The observed overall mortality was significantly lower than expected (649 deaths; SMR = 0.91). No significant SMR was observed for mortality from bronchopulmonary cancer (54 deaths; SMR = 1.19). The case-control study was based on 54 cases and 162 individually matched controls. No bronchopulmonary cancer excess was observed for exposure to iron (OR = 0.94), chromium and/or nickel (OR = 1.18), cobalt (OR = 0.64), acid mists (OR = 0.43) and asbestos (OR = 1.00). However, high and statistically significant bronchopulmonary cancer excesses were observed for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica which are often found together in workplaces, the ORs being 1.95 and 2.47 respectively.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.180, p.49-59. 49 ref.
Schoemaker M.J., Barreto S.M., Swerdlow A.J., Higgins C.D., Carpenter R.G.
Non-fatal work related injuries in a cohort of Brazilian steelworkers
Non-fatal work related injuries from January 1977 to September 1992 were analysed in a cohort of 21,732 male workers in a steel plant in Brazil. Overall there were 14,972 non-fatal injuries during this follow up: the majority of them in the workplace and the rest during travel to and from work. The most common injuries were to the hands, arms and eyes, with 90% of the latter caused by a foreign body. Labourers were most at risk of workplace injury, with about 8 injuries per 100 person-years. Prevention of eye injury needs special attention in steelworks
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.555-562. Illus. 34 ref.
Rodrígez V., Tardón A., Kogevinas M., Prieto C.S., Cueto A., García M., Menéndez I.A., Zaplana J.
Lung cancer risk in iron and steel foundry workers: A nested case-control study in Asturias, Spain
To examine the risk of lung cancer among iron and steel workers, a nested case-control study was conducted involving 144 male lung cancer cases and 558 controls, selected from a study base of 24,400 workers employed in a large foundry between 1952 and 1995. Workers were, on an average, heavy smokers and a very strong relation was observed for smoking (OR for "ever smoker" = 32.4). Workers having ever been employed in the blast furnace had an excess lung cancer risk (OR = 2.55) compared to a reference group of workers not employed in metal producing departments. A similar excess was observed for workers having their longest held job in the blast furnace. A two-fold risk was also observed for workers in the main foundry. A high risk was observed for workers employed in departments with high exposure to crystalline silica, PAHs, and various other carcinogenic chemicals.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.38, No.6, p.644-650. 41 ref.
Sheu J.J., Hwang J.S., Wang J.D.
Diagnosis and monetary quantification of occupational injuries by indices related to human capital loss: Analysis of a steel company as an illustration
New indices of human capital loss from occupational injury, including cumulative injury rate, proportion of potential workdays lost, and potential salary lost were applied to occupational injury data from 1986 to 1994 at a steel company in Taiwan. Results show that the average disabling frequency rate and cumulative injury rate of the whole company were 4.12 and 0.41, respectively, and the average disabling severity rate and proportion of potential workdays lost of the whole company were 563 and 229 x 10-6, respectively. The average potential salary lost of the whole company was more than USD 2 million per year with a discount rate of 0.04, which was equivalent to 92 times of average annual income of a worker. The major monetary losses were due to non-traffic injuries of operators and traffic injuries of non-operators, which amounted to USD 145 and 152 per person per year. The new indices are useful supplementary tools for monitoring and analysing occupational injury data in a company.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, May 2000, Vol.32, No.3, p.435-443. Illus. 12 ref.
Production economics analysis of investment initiated to improve working environment
The results of an evaluation of a new workplace for ladle preparation are described. A Swedish steel company initiated a development project related to ladle service work in order to come to grips with the difficult working environment and problems associated with absenteeism due to illness and occupational injuries. The evaluation was performed for the first three years after implementation of the project and shows that the new workplace considerably improved working conditions and increased both the quality and efficiency of production. Calculations show that an investment initiated to improve the working environment can be profitable.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 2000, Vol.31, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 4 ref.
Health and safety in the steel industry - A workers' handbook
Aimed at safety representatives, labour inspection services and steel and foundry workers, this guide is designed to improve working conditions in the industry. It provides guidance on the best standards of safety and health worldwide. A first section describes safety and health issues associated with various phases of the steel production process and the manufacture of steel products; a section on occupational diseases describes the main health problems of steel and foundry workers; finally, a section on hazards explains the physical, chemical and psychological causes of steelworkers' health problems, and proposes appropriate methods of prevention. Internationally-accepted exposure standards are presented.
International Metalworkers Federation, 54bis route des Acacias, 1227 Carouge, Genève, Switzerland, 1999. 148p. Illus. 48 ref. Index.
Infra-red radiation and occupational cataracts
Topics: cataract; exposure evaluation; fuel burning equipment; glass industry; heat reflective glass; infrared radiation cataract; infrared radiation; iron and steel industry; limitation of exposure; retinal damage; risk factors; safety spectacles; tank furnaces.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 1999, Vol.17, No.8, p.28-32. Illus. 8 ref.
Pan G., Takahashi K., Feng Y., Liu L., Liu T., Zhang S., Liu N., Okubo T., Goldsmith D.F.
Nested case-control study of esophageal cancer in relation to occupational exposure to silica and other dusts
In a nested case-control study of a cohort of industrial workers, 125 oesophageal cancer cases and 250 controls were identified from the death registry file. History of occupational exposure to various dusts was estimated. Occupational exposure to silica dust was the most important risk factor among all the variables investigated, with a 2.8-fold risk and a clear dose-response by length of exposure. Ingestion of silica particles after lung clearance may increase the risk of oesophageal cancer among workers exposed to silica. Topics: alcoholism; case-control study; coal dust; diet; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; mortality; oesophageal carcinoma; respirable dust; silica; steelworks.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.272-280. 33 ref.
Deckers B., Josis C., Klein F.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Technical control of nuisances and pollution at the place of work and in the environment of iron and steelworks - Final report and Summary report of studies completed on 31 May 1994
The strategic objectives of this research programme on the control of nuisance and pollution at the place of work and in the environment of iron and steelworks conducted between 1984 and 1994 were to: support directives, regulations, action programmes, protocols of agreements and international agreements concerning industrial hygiene and protection of the environment in the European Union; to promote cleaner manufacturing technologies in the ECSC industries; to enhance the cost efficiency and reliability of measures to clean up workplaces and end-of-pipe techniques for purifying effluent; to combat transfer of pollution from one environment to another. Summary reports of 68 research projects funded by the programme are included.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1998. 2 vols. (114p.+104p.). Illus. Price: EUR 13.50 each.
Grimsrud T.K., Langseth H., Engeland A., Andersen A.
Lung and bladder cancer in a Norwegian municipality with iron and steel producing industry: Population based case-control studies
To investigate the influence of occupation on lung and bladder cancer among men in a Norwegian municipality where an iron and steel plant constitutes the major industry, a population-based case-control study was performed based on lung and bladder cancer cases. Information on occupations and smoking habits was collected through interviews and from personnel files. An odds ratio for lung cancer of 2.9 was associated with exposure to PAHs. Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with work experience in the pig iron department at the ironworks. A non-significant OR of 1.8 was associated with exposure to asbestos. Bladder cancer was not associated with exposure to PAHs at the iron, steel and coke plant, or with experience at any of the production departments at the plant. One fifth of the lung cancer cases were attributed to exposure to PAHs or asbestos. More than 80% of the cases of lung cancer were attributed to tobacco smoking. The cancer risk in the pig iron department may have been due to a combination of exposures to PAH, asbestos and dust of mixed composition.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1998, Vol.55, No.6, p.387-392. Illus. 38 ref.
Yoopat P., Vanwonterghem K., Intaranont K.
An assessment of workload in the Thai steel industry
Three different types of industrial activities in a steel plant in Thailand were studied and workload assessed by means of an ergonomics approach encompassing task, organisation and environment, as well as by physiological reactions and the subjective appreciation of exposed workers. Results were evaluated in relation to ISO Standard 7243 on Heat Stress (WBGT-Index) and by cardiovascular load. Important basic physiological differences between Thai workers and Western data were found. This questions the use of the ISO standard for the studied activities in Thailand, and a proposal for adaptation of the WBGT-Index is formulated.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1998, Vol.29, No.4, p.267-271. Illus. 10 ref.
Reim O., Schuman J., Schnauber H.
Evaluation of exposures and stress factors at the workplace
Verfahren zur Belastungsbeurteilung [in German]
A procedure for the determination of various exposures and stress factors in the workplace is outlined. For each type of work 46 features are evaluated and ranked by an expert panel. The features used to evaluate lighting as well as the responsibilities and physical requirements of a specific type of work are presented as examples. The procedure was developed for an investigation of the causes of sickness absenteeism in three steel plants in Germany. A comparison of the results obtained with this method and subjective assessments by the workers showed agreement with regard to physical workload and work organization. Topics: description of technique; ergonomic evaluation; illumination design; mental stress; occupation disease relation; occupational diseases; physical workload; responsibilities; sickness absenteeism; steelworks; stress factors.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Mar. 1998, Vol.29, No.3, p.16-19. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Myers W.R., Zhuang Z.
Field performance measurements of half-facepiece respirators: Steel mill operations
Ambient and in-facepiece air samples were collected in different areas of a steel mill. Protection was assessed by workplace protection factors (WPF). All the in-facepiece concentrations were considerably less than the corresponding ambient concentration levels or permissible exposure limits. Mean ambient and in-facepiece concentrations of iron varied among tasks. Significant differences in respirator performance as measured by WPF or in-facepiece iron concentration were observed among the different brands of respirators. Topics: air sampling; airborne dust; iron; determination in air; evaluation of equipment; exposure evaluation; iron and steel industry; job-exposure relation; particulate removing respirators; personal sampling; protection criteria; respirators; steelworks; threshold limit values.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1998, Vol.59, No.11, p.789-801. Illus. 27 ref.
Laraudogoitia Zaldumbide P., Dalmau Meñica J.
Implementation of a prevention management system in a newly established steel plant
Implantación de un sistema de gestión de la prevención en una empresa siderúrgica de nueva creación [in Spanish]
Topics: hazard evaluation; information of personnel; inspection; iron and steel industry; job study; plant safety and health organization; role of management; safety and health training; Spain.
Prevención, Apr.-June 1998, No.144, p.26-31. Illus.
Bisio G., Rubatto G., Piromalli W.
Acoustical emissions and immissions of the iron and steel industry
Topics: acoustic enclosure; blast furnaces; electric arc furnaces; iron and steel industry; neighbourhood populations; noise control; noise level; ore sintering plants; oxygen converters.
Noise Control Engineering Journal, Jan.-Feb. 1998, Vol.46, No.1, p.5-9. Illus. 18 ref.
Van Wingerden S.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Quantification of back stress tolerance
The validity of attempts to quantify back pain tolerance was examined in steel-plant workers with severe low back pain and in workers who had never had any complaints. Trunk muscle strength measurements and isometric lifting tests were performed and posture and movements were recorded. Work-related stress was estimated by questionnaire. There was no difference between healthy workers and workers who had low back complaints. Results show that the methodology used to quantify and qualify the workload is not sufficiently valid.
European Commission, Directorate General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1997. iv, 33p. Illus. 42 ref.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Research to standardize exercice tests for early detection on respiratory and cardio-respiratory impairments in coal and steel workers of the ECSC
This document presents the results of the research on exercise tests for the early detection of respiratory and cardio-respiratory impairments in coal and steel workers, the aim of the project beeing to investigate the possibility of defining basic, practical criteria for a homogenous utilization of the methods in different laboratories. Tests were performed on steel and coal workers and control groups, who performed exercises on a bicycle ergometer. Lung function parameters, blood pressure and electrocardiometric measurements were conducted. A computer-controlled device simulating ventilatory volumes and different values for VO2-VCO2 was also tested.
European Commission, Directorate General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1997. vi, 244p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Hutchinson P.A., Cowie H.A., Donnan P.T., Hurley J.F., Taylor C.F., Pilkington A.
5th ECSC Medical research programme
Mortality of British steel workers over an extended follow-up period
This study analyses the deaths from 1974 to 1993 in a cohort of 17,718 steelworkers employed for 10 years or more in the early 1970s. Deaths in the study group were compared with those expected based on death rates among the general population of the same age, in the same regions and over the same time-period. There were overall 6,006 deaths (79% of the general population death rates). Deaths due to cancer, non-malignant respiratory diseases (including bronchitis and emphysema) and all cancers were not higher than those in the general population. There was no evidence of higher death rates from heart disease in younger workers. In specific occupations, however, such as working with blast furnaces and sinters, higher death rates from particular causes were found. Summaries in French, German and Italian.
European Commission, Directorate General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational Health and Hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1997. 6, xvii, 75p. Illus. 23 ref.
Elsner G., Hedden I.
Increasing occupational health by better planning of shift work
Mehr Gesundheitsschutz durch bessere Schichtplanung [in German]
Topics: foreign workers; Germany; night work; questionnaire survey; shift work; social aspects; steelworks; work organization; work study; work time schedules.
Arbeit und Ökologie-Briefe, 1997, No.1, p.7-9. Illus.
Harland A., Delzell E., Lally C., Rotimi C., Oestenstad K.
A case-control study of lung cancer at a foundry and two engine plants
Topics: carcinogens; case-control study; dose-response relationship; foundries; iron and steel industry; job-exposure relation; length of service; long-term exposure; lung cancer; machinery industry; mortality; smoking; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1997, Vol.31, No.4, p.414-421. 23 ref.
Elevated serum liver enzymes in coke oven and by-product workers
Blood levels of two liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), were measured for 213 steel workers employed for at least three months in two coke-operation work areas, and for 131 unexposed controls. Each work area contained a coke oven and a by-product plant. Airborne levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were also measured. Workers from Area I (shown to have high PAH levels) had significantly higher AST and ALT levels than the control group. Workers from Area II (lower PAH levels) had slightly, but not significantly, elevated AST and ALT levels. Results indicate that heavy exposure to coke oven emissions has adverse effects on the liver.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1997, Vol.39, No.6, p.527-533. Illus. 22 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Longitudinal occupational health study of special steel production workers
Arbeitsmedizinische Längsschnittstudie bei Beschäftigten der Edelstahlproduktion [in German]
Topics: air sampling; nickel; chest radiography; chronic bronchitis; determination in blood; determination in urine; dust; exposure evaluation; Germany; medical supervision; metal fumes; pulmonary infection; respiratory diseases; steelworks.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. 176p. Illus. 168 ref.
Brandenburg U., Kuhn K., Marschall B., Verkoyen C.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Health promotion at the enterprise level
Gesundheitsförderung im Betrieb [in German]
Topics: conference; cost of accidents; cost of diseases; cost-benefit analysis; design of equipment; economic aspects; Germany; health programmes; iron and steel industry; motor vehicle industry; occupational medicine; older workers; plant health organization; quality control; role of insurance institutions; safety and health committees; safety programmes; social aspects; supply of information; women; work design; workers participation.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1996. viii, 581p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DM 81.00.
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