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Paper and paper products industry - 220 entries found

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CIS 10-0503 Andersson E., Persson B., Bryngelsson I.L., Magnuson A., Westberg H.
Cancer mortality in a Swedish cohort of pulp and paper mill workers
Cancer mortality was examined among Swedish pulp and paper mill workers. A cohort of 18,163 male and 2,290 female workers at four sulfate and four sulfite mills, enrolled from 1939 to 1999, was followed up for mortality from 1952 to 2001. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) relative to the general Swedish population were calculated. There were 1,340 malignant cases out of 5,898 deaths. Total cancer mortality was not increased in either sulfate or sulfite mill workers, or by gender. Lung cancer mortality was increased among female workers (SMR 1.70), especially in paper production, but not among male workers (SMR 0.91). Exposure to wood dust and sulfur dioxide frequently exceeded occupational exposure limits.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2010, Vol.83, No.2, p.123-132. 33 ref.


CIS 09-412 Navia R., Bezama A.
Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: An overview
The new Chilean Hazardous Waste Management Regulation came into force on 12 June 2004. During the next 180 days (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was required to present a Hazardous Waste Management Plan if the facility generated more than 12 tons/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. This article describes three case studies on the hazardous waste management plans carried out in facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood products facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified, minimization measures were implemented, and reuses and recycling options were evaluated.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Oct. 2008, Vol.158, No.1. p.177-184. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 08-1070 Sikkeland L.I.B., Haug T., Stangeland A.M., Flatberg G., Søstrand P., Halvorsen B, Kongerud J.
Airway inflammation in paper mill workers
Paper mill workers are exposed to microorganisms. To study whether inflammatory airway response could be detected in sputum of non-symptomatic workers, 29 healthy nonsmoking men were recruited from four paper mills in Norway; 17 were exposed to high levels of and 12 workers to low levels of microorganisms. A reference group of 22 healthy, nonsmoking, non-exposed men was also studied. Differential cell counts of induced sputum were performed, gene expressions of isolated sputum macrophages were studied and inflammatory parameters were analyzed. Sputum from highly-exposed workers had a significantly higher percentage of neutrophils than that from low-exposed and non-exposed workers. There was also an increased gene expression of various inflammatory parameters in induced sputum from the highly-exposed group. These findings show that paper industry workers exposed to microorganisms develop sub-clinical airway inflammation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2007, Vol.49, No.10, p.1135-1142. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 08-65 Persson B., Magnusson A., Westberg H., Andersson E., Torén K., Wingren G., Axelson O.
Cardiovascular mortality among Swedish pulp and paper mill workers
The present cohort study focuses on cardiovascular mortality in relation to various exposures in the pulp and paper industry. The cohort consisted of 7107 workers, 6350 men and 757 women, from three mills in Sweden. Instead of a healthy-worker effect, a slightly increased risk for death in diseases of the circulatory system was found for male workers. Notably, work with sulfate digestion, steam and power generation and maintenance was associated with significantly increased risks. The differences in risk among various parts of the production are striking although it is hard to pinpoint any specific exposures. Dust and small particles along with sulfur compounds might be suspected.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.50, No.3, p.221-226. Illus. 30 ref.


CIS 08-104 Langseth H., Kjærheim K.
Mortality from non-malignant diseases in a cohort of female pulp and paper workers in Norway
The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of death from non-malignant diseases among female paper industry workers in Norway. A total of 3143 women first employed between 1920 and 1993 were included in the study cohort. Data on job category and employment duration for each cohort member were obtained from enterprise human resources records. Data on cause and date of death were added by linkage with the death register using the unique personal identification number as key. The follow up period was 1951-2000. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated using the national female mortality rates as reference. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine internal relations between the duration of employment in paper mills and the risk of death from selected causes. There were significantly increased risks of mortality from ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2006, Vol.63, No.11, p.741-745. 38 ref.

CIS 07-1370 Chalbot M.C., Vei I., Lykoudis S., Kavouras I.G.
Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in recycled paper processing operations
The aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of dust collected in the vicinity of recycled paper processing operations were analysed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total measured dust concentration (up to 8.73mg/m3) fluctuated substantially in the various steps of paper manufacture. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (from fluorene to benzo[g,h,i]perylene with mean concentrations from 3.8 to 41.4ng/m3) and the mixture of branched, cyclic and unsaturated hydrocarbons were measured in all samples, while n-alkanes from n-C220l to n-C27, were only observed in cutting and packaging areas (180.6 to 4297.9ng/m3). Total benzo[α]pyrene-equivalent concentrations of particulate PAHs, which varied from 323 up to 1104pg/m3, provided evidence that workers were exposed to high quantities of PAHs, posing a long-term threat to their health.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 2006, Vol.137, No.2, p.742-751. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 07-885 Jousserand S.
Accidental pollution in the paper industry
Les pollutions accidentelles dans l'industrie papetière [in French]
On average, one in three accidents in the paper and board industry results in the environmental release of toxic or polluting liquids which reach surface waters or the water table. As an example, decontamination work was necessary following the emission of dioxins and furans caused by a transformer fire in a paper plant. Among the 287 accidents occurring in this sector and listed in the ARIA database, 83 resulted in the environmental release of dangerous substances in water, 29 in air and 9 in soil. This article summarizes the main types of accident and their consequences, provides examples of accident descriptions from the database and underscores the importance of containment systems.
Face au risque, Dec. 2006, No.428, p.21-24. Illus.

CIS 06-1432 Jousserand S.
Fires and explosions in the paper and board industry
Incendies et explosions dans le secteur du papier-carton [in French]
Risk factors for fires and explosions in the paper and board industry include the presence of stocks of papers, reels, inks, solvents, as well as hot processes, ducts and pipes. This article includes a few brief descriptions of fires and explosions in this sector, together with tables summarizing the main types of accidents, their consequences and their causes, drawn from a database of serious accidents occurring in France since 1992.
Face au risque, Apr. 2006, No.422, p.21-25. Illus.


CIS 06-1230 Handling of reels and winders
Manutention des bobines et des enrouleurs [in French]
This recommendation reviews methods for the handling of reels in the papermaking industry and describes hazards and corresponding safety measures: use of handling equipment, storage methods, operator protection, training and information. Replaces recommendation R170 (see CIS 80-1763).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2005. 4p. [in French]

CIS 06-819 Jungbauer F.H.W., Lensen G.J., Groothoff J.W., Coenraads P.J.
Skin diseases in paper mill workers
This cross-sectional study investigated the extent of skin problems in a paper mill and the proportion attributable to contact with allergens. It involved 80 paper mill workers with daily exposure to skin irritants and allergens. They completed a questionnaire and underwent a standard interview and a physical examination. Skin tests were conducted on workers whose history indicated possible contact allergy. Workers reported a high exposure to skin irritants, especially when carrying out tasks that caused the perspiration of hands and feet and contact with water. Atopic dermatitis was seen in 3% of the workers. Contact dermatitis was seen in 26% of the workers and 36% were diagnosed with mycosis of the feet. All cases of contact dermatitis and mycosis could be attributed to occupational exposure to skin irritants. No cases of contact allergy were observed.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.55, No.2, p.109-112. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 05-339 Karlsson B., Alfredsson L., Knutsson A., Andersson E., Torén K.
Total mortality and cause-specific mortality of Swedish shift- and day workers in the pulp and paper industry in 1952-2001
This study investigated the relationship between shift work and mortality, (total mortality and cause-specific mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and diabetes) in a cohort of 2354 shift workers and 3088 day workers in two pulp and paper manufacturing plants. The mortality of the cohort was monitored from 1 January 1952 to 31 December 2001 by linkage to the national Cause of Death Register. Groups of workers defined by different durations of shift work exposure were compared with day workers. Death due to any cause (total mortality) was not higher among the shift workers than among the day workers (standardized relative rate (SRR) 1.02). A longer duration of shift work was associated with an increased risk of CHD, and shift workers with >30 years of shift work had the highest risk of CHD (SRR 1.24). Diabetes was more common as the number of shift years of exposure increased. Compared with day workers, shift workers had a greater risk of death due to stroke (SRR 1.56).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.31, No.1, p.30-35. 15 ref.


CIS 07-864 Korhonen K., et al.
Occupational exposure to chemical agents in the paper industry
As part of an international epidemiological study of workers in the pulp and paper industry undertaken by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), previously unpublished exposure measurements were assembled in a database. This article summarizes the results of 3,873 measurements carried out in the production departments of paper and paperboard mills and recycling plants in 12 countries. In the paper and paperboard mills, most of the agents were measured in the pulping and refining departments and in on-machine coating and winding of paper/paperboard. Exposures to asbestos, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, fungal spores, bacteria, nitrogen dioxide, mineral dusts, paper dust, sulphuric acid and various solvents sometimes exceeded exposure limit values. Other findings in re-pulping and de-inking departments of recycling plants, at coating machines and at newsprint departments are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2004, Vol.77, No.7, p.451-460. 30 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-655 Goyer N., Beaudry C., Bégin D., Bouchard M., Carrier G., Gely O., Gérin M., Lefebvre P., Noisel N., Perrault G.
Impacts of the lowering of the permissible exposure value for formaldehyde - Group 3: Other sectors
Impacts d'un abaissement de la valeur d'exposition admissible au formaldéhyde - Groupe 3: Autres secteurs [in French]
The objective of this study was to assess the number of workers in a variety of industries and sectors in Quebec that would be exposed to excessive formaldehyde concentration levels and the cost of compliance per worker as a function of the various possible threshold limit values under consideration. This specific study was carried out within the framework of a large research programme aimed at evaluating the health and socio-economic impacts of lowering the current maximum permissible exposure value for formaldehyde of 2ppm to one of the values of 1.0, 0.75 or 0.3ppm, either as maximum or 8-hr time-weighted average values. (See also CIS 04-642 to 04-651, CIS 04-653 and CIS 04-654).
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. 97p. 94 ref. Price: CAD 8.56. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 04-329 Szymczak W., Szadkowska-Stańczyk I.
Quantitative assessment of lung cancer risk in men employed in the pulp and paper industry in Poland
To estimate the probability of death from lung cancer in the paper industry, a competing-risk prediction model was developed. The risk assessment was based on the data collected from a cohort of workers at a Polish paper plant. Using the model, it was possible to estimate an additional risk of lung cancer related to a specific period of occupational exposure, adjusted by age of entering the cohort. Thus in the group with first exposure at the age below 29, the risk changed from 2.25x10-7 during the first year of employment to 1.40x10-5 after 10 years, whereas in the group of workers with first exposure at the age of 50 years, the risk changed from 6.42x10-5 to 4.28x10-4. Using the risk model including elements of competing risk, it is possible to provide a more thorough characterization of the relationship between the exposure level and probability of death from lung cancer.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2004, Vol.17, No.2, p.263-272. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 04-225
Health and Safety Executive
Guidance for hauliers and others who transport paper and paper products
This booklet provides practical advice to persons involved in transporting paper or paper products. It seeks to help ensure a safe workplace as well as to minimize the specific risk of on-road vehicle instability that can result in overturning. Contents: materials handling; loading and unloading; steel strapping for vertical reels; strapping of horizontal reels; strapping of bales and waste pulp; palletized and mixed loads; vehicle stability; drivers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2004. 16p. Illus. 12 ref. [in English]


CIS 04-468 Prażmo Z., Dutkiewicz J., Skórska C., Sitkowska J., Cholewa G.
Exposure to airborne Gram-negative bacteria, dust and endotoxin in paper factories
Air samples for determination of the concentration of Gram-negative bacteria, dust and endotoxin were collected at ten sites in two large pulp and paper mills in Poland. Plant "A" was an older facility while the plant "B" was a modern, fully automated factory with an effective ventilation system. The concentrations of Gram-negative bacteria in the air of examined factories were within a range of 11.0-310.0 cfu/m3, being the highest in plant A at the initial stages of the production cycle consisting of wood chip handling and pulp production. Although Gram-negative bacteria were present in the air of paper mills at relatively low concentrations which never exceeded the value of 1000 cfu/m3 proposed as a safe level, they may have adverse effects on exposed workers, as evidenced by high concentrations of airborne endotoxin and the presence of numerous potentially pathogenic species. Thus, these microorganisms pose a potential risk of respiratory disease for the workers of pulp and paper mills, in particular for those engaged in the handling of wood chips and pulp production.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.93-100. Illus. 54 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1632 Andersson E., Olin A.C., Hagberg S., Nilsson R., Nilsson T., Torén K.
Adult-onset asthma and wheeze among irritant-exposed bleachery workers
It is unclear whether new-onset asthma is associated with irritant exposure. This study investigated if occupational exposure to irritant gases, especially repeated peak exposure (gassings), increased the risk of obstructive airways disease. Data on airway symptoms and exposure among 101 bleachery and 314 paper department workers of a pulp mill were collected by a questionnaire. Incidence rates and hazard ratios (HR) (Cox regression) were calculated . The incidence rate for adult-onset physician-diagnosed asthma among bleachery workers reporting gassings giving rise to respiratory symptoms was 7.6/103 person-years and for those without gassings 2.2/103 person-years, compared to 1.0/103 person-years for paper workers. In a Cox regression model for asthma, stratified for sex, HR for gassings were 5.6, for hay fever 3.0, and for ever smoking 0.7. The same model for adult-onset wheeze gave HR of 5.2, 1.7, and 1.1, respectively. Repeated peak exposure to irritant gases in the pulp industry increased the risk for both adult-onset asthma and wheeze.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2003, Vol.43, No.5, p.532-538. 25 ref.

CIS 03-1674 Andersson E., Nilsson R., Torén K.
Testicular cancer among Swedish pulp and paper workers
The incidence of testicular cancer has increased in recent decades. The aims of the present study were to determine whether Swedish paper and pulp mill workers had an increased incidence of testicular cancer, and to investigate whether certain occupational groups within the pulp and paper mill workforce were at increased risk. The study was based on the Swedish Cancer Environment Register, which links the incidence of cancer for the period 1971-1990 with 1960 and 1970 National Census data on specific industries and occupations for all employed subjects in Sweden. It was found that among maintenance workers employed both in 1960 and in 1970 in paper mills, there was an increased risk for testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio (SIR) 7.4), especially for seminomas (SIR 10.1).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2003, Vol.43, No.6, p.642-646. 29 ref.

CIS 03-1227 Recommendations R 394, R 395, R 396, R 397
Recommandations R 394, R 395, R 396, R 397 [in French]
This issue is devoted in its entirety to occupational safety and health recommendations developed by the French association of the paper and pulp industry. Contents: health hazards of chemicals used in pulp, paper and cardboard; work on winding equipment; work on pulpers and associated equipment used in pulp preparation; recommendations with respect to sheet take-up operations in paper machines.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2003, No.632, Part II, p.1-24 (whole issue). Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 03-908 Berrington K., Pitt R., Porteous H.
Health and Safety Executive
Transport at work: Rollover of lorries transporting paper reels
The purpose of this study was to review the rollover risk of trucks carrying paper reels in the light of current regulations and best practice, by theoretical and practical analysis of the operations of a haulage company specializing in paper reels. It focused on the centre of gravity of loads judged to be vulnerable to rollover on the basis of the laws of physics and accident reports. A series of road trials were carried out with laden trucks, during which acceleration vectors and other parameters were measured. The analysis included examining the effect of natural oscillations and identifying instability factors such as load movement. Little evidence was found to support any major change in existing best-practice, except for the highest loads where there was an inherent rollover risk. The rollover risk may be eliminated by good driving augmented by maximum speed recommendations on sharp bends and roundabouts.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 35p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 10.00. [in English]


CIS 04-87 Andersson E., Nilsson R., Torén K.
Gliomas among men employed in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
This study on the risk of gliomas among workers in the Swedish pulp and paper industry is based on data from the Swedish Cancer Environment Register, which links the incidence of cancer from 1971 to 1990 and the 1960 and 1970 census data on codes of occupation and industry for the whole population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were used to estimate the risks for men in different occupations in pulp (N=28,142) and paper (N=39,169) mills in 1960, 1970 or both years as compared with those of all gainfully employed men in Sweden. Maintenance workers employed in pulp or paper mills in 1960, 1970 or both years, as well as pulp workers, showed an increased incidence of gliomas in 1971-1990 (SIR 1.5 for both groups), whereas the incidence among process workers in paper mills was lower than expected (SIR 0.6). Taken together, all employed men in the pulp mill industry had an increased incidence of gliomas (SIR 1.3).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.28, No.5, p.333-340. 40 ref.

CIS 03-1921 Alakomi H.L., Kujanpää K., Partenen L., Suihko M.L., Salo S., Siika-aho M., Saarela M., Mattila-Sandholm T., Raaska L.
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Microbiological problems in paper machine environments
This literature survey compiles the information available about microorganisms present in paper production processes, from raw materials to end products. It discusses the most important factors involved in the build-up of biofilm in papermaking machines and in end-product contamination, the role of spore-forming bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, the migration of microorganisms from packaging materials to foods, offensive odours and quality problems. Microbiological methods used in studying the microbial ecology of paper machine environments were collated. Conventional and novel methods used to reduce or to limit the amount of microbes or microbial activity, especially in circulation waters and raw materials, and to control and prevent deposit formation on paper machines are reviewed.
VTT Information Service, P.O.Box 2000, 02044 VTT, Finland, 2002. 97p. Illus. 206 ref. Price: EUR 35.00 (+8 % VAT) .

CIS 03-1780 Olin A.C., Granung G., Hagberg S., Adriansson M., Brisman J., Dalander O., Karlsson B., Torén K.
Respiratory health among bleachery workers exposed to ozone and chlorine dioxide
A total of 129 bleachery workers in two Swedish pulp mills that use ozone for bleaching were studied together with 80 non-exposed controls. The pulp mills had previously used chlorine dioxide as the bleaching agent. Participants responded to questionnaires and were subjected to spirometry and methacholine challenge testing. Area sampling showed sporadic ozone levels exceeding 0.9ppm. There was a greater prevalence of wheezing (25%) among the bleachery workers with a history of gassings than among the referents (13%). Among current smokers, the proportion with a slightly increased bronchial responsiveness to methacholine was greater among the bleachery workers. For the period from 1992 to 1996 when the mills were using ozone, there was an increased incidence rate of wheezing among the workers in the bleachery. This finding reinforces the view that repeated peak exposures to irritants must be prevented in pulp mills.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2002, vol.28, No.2, p. 117-123. 28 ref.

CIS 02-1938 Haug T., Søstrand P., Langård S.
Exposure to culturable microorganisms in paper mills and presence of symptoms associated with infections
Based on an exposure assessment, workers exposed to culturable bio-aerosols in 11 paper mills were divided into three exposure groups. 781 exposed and 285 unexposed workers completed a questionnaire that provided data pertaining to infections and associated symptoms. Concentrations of culturable bacteria in process waters varied in the range 104-106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and in bio-aerosol concentrations varied typically in the range 104-105 CFU/m3. Operators exposed to bio-aerosols reported higher incidence of symptoms associated with infections compared to the reference population (odds ratio 1.7-5.9), and the group of highest exposed workers reported higher incidence than the lowest exposed group. It is concluded that exposure to bio-aerosols containing culturable microorganisms may induce symptoms associated with infections among operators in paper mills.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.498-505. 32 ref.

CIS 02-1797 Carel R., Boffetta P., Kauppinen T., Teschke K., Andersen A., Jäppinen P., Pearce N., Andreassen Rix B., Bergeret A., Coggon D., Persson B., Szadkowska-Stanczyk I., Kielkowski D., Henneberger P., Kishi R., Facchini L.A., Sala M., Colin D., Kogevinas M.
Exposure to asbestos and lung and pleural cancer mortality among pulp and paper industry workers
The mortality from lung and pleural cancers in a cohort of 62,937 male workers employed for at least one year in the pulp and paper industry was studied in 13 countries from 1945 to 1996. Departments were classified according to probability and level of exposure to asbestos on the basis of available dust measurements and company-specific information on exposure circumstances. 36% of workers were classified as ever exposed to asbestos. Standardized mortality ratios of lung cancer were 0.99 among unexposed and 1.00 among ever exposed workers. The number of pleural cancer deaths among unexposed workers was 10; that among exposed workers was 14, most of which occurred among maintenance workers. In internal analyses, a trend in mortality from either neoplasm was suggested for cumulative exposure to asbestos. This study suggests that the carcinogenic effect of asbestos can be detected among workers employed in industries such as the pulp and paper industry, in which it is not considered to be a major hazard.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.579-584. 33 ref.

CIS 02-1690 Kauppinen T., Teschke K., Astrakianakis G., Boffetta P., Colin D., Keefe A., Korhonen K., Liukkonen T., Nicol A.M., Pannett B., Westberg H.
Assessment of exposure in an international study on cancer risks among pulp, paper, and paper product workers
A data management system and a department-exposure matrix were designed to facilitate exposure assessment for a large multinational study on cancer risks among pulp and paper industry workers. Exposure routes to 25 major carcinogens were described, as well as exposure prevalence and level. For some agents, the assessment could only be made in qualitative terms. The assessment was specific to mill, work department, agent and time period. The results of industrial hygiene measurements, information from detailed company questionnaires, and the professional judgments of the assessment team were the cornerstones of the assessment. Exposure to chemical agents turned out to be widespread and complex with frequent multiple exposures. However, the computer-assisted exposure assessment system greatly facilitated assessment, and such systems are well suited to large epidemiological studies requiring complicated exposure assessment procedures.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.254-261. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 03-1228 Band P.R., Le N.D., Fang R., Astrakianakis G., Eng M., Bert J., Keefe A., Krewski D.
Cohort cancer incidence among pulp and paper mill workers in British Columbia
All male workers with at least one year of employment in 14 pulp and paper mills in 1950-1992 in British Columbia were studied. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were used to compare the cancer incidence of the cohort with that of the Canadian male population. Altogether 1756 cancer cases were observed in the entire cohort. For at least 15 years of work or more, the entire cohort had significantly increased SIR values for pleural and prostate cancer and skin melanoma. There was also a significantly increased risk for skin melanoma among workers in the Kraft process, rectal cancer among workers in the sulfite process, and stomach and prostate cancer and leukaemias among workers in both the Kraft and sulfite processes. Nine of 10 pleural cancers were mesotheliomas, which likely reflect past asbestos exposure. The results suggest that long-term work in the pulp and paper industry is associated with excess risks of prostate and stomach cancers and all leukaemias for work in both Kraft and sulfite processes and of rectal cancer for work in the sulfite process only.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.113-119. 33 ref.

CIS 02-1649 Merler E., Gioffrè F., Rozio L., Bizzotto R., Mion M., Sarto F.
Pleural mesothelioma among women in the Veneto region with past work as rag sorters for textile recycling and paper production
Mesoteliomi pleurici insorti in donne, residenti in Veneto, addette alla cernita di stracci presso "robe vecchie" e cartiere [in Italian]
A report of 9 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed among Italian women, whose only activity that could have involved exposure to asbestos had been as rag sorters. They had worked in textile recycling (8 cases) and in a paper mill (1 case) where cotton was used for paper production.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.181-186. 24 ref.

CIS 02-1252 Band P.R., Le N.D., Fang R., Astrakianakis G., Bert J., Keefe A., Krewski D.
Cohort cancer incidence among pulp and paper mill workers in British Columbia
In a cohort of male pulp and paper workers in British Columbia (Canada), 1756 cancer cases were observed in the period 1950-1992. The results of the analysis suggest that long-term work in the pulp and paper industry is associated with excess risks of prostate and stomach cancers and all leukaemias for work in workers engaged in both the kraft and the sulfite processes, and of rectal cancer for work in the sulfite process only.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.113-119. 33 ref.

CIS 02-1251 Andersson E., Hagberg S., Nilsson T., Persson B., Wingren G., Torén K.
A case-referent study of cancer mortality among sulfate mill workers in Sweden
To investigate whether workers in Swedish sulfate pulp mills have an increased risk of death from certain malignancies, 2480 men aged 40-75 at death during 1960-89 in the parishes surrounding four sulfate mills were studied. Exposure assessment was based on information from the personnel files in the mills. It was observed that among all sulfate mill workers, the odds ratio (OR) for death from lung cancer was 1.6, pleural mesotheliomas 9.5, brain tumours 2.6, and liver or biliary tract cancer 2.3. There was an increased mortality from leukaemia among workers in the soda recovery plant (5.9) and bleaching plant and digester house (2.8). In conclusion, sulfate mill workers were at increased risk of dying from lung cancer and pleural mesotheliomas, probably due to exposure to asbestos. Increased risks of brain tumours and cancers of the liver or biliary tract were also found but the aetiology is not obvious.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.58, No.5, p.321-324. 24 ref.

CIS 02-845 Goyer N., Lavoie J.
Emissions of chemical compounds and bioaerosols during the secondary treatment of paper mill effluents
Measurements were taken in summer in 11 Canadian paper mills during a 2- to 3-day period in each mill and identified and quantified the main chemical compounds and the bioaerosols emitted during the biological treatment of paper mill effluents. Sulfur compounds had the highest concentrations in the air. Next were the carbon and nitrogen oxides, ammonia, some organic acids and terpenes, which come from wood. Odour perception thresholds for most of these substances are much lower than those established to protect the health of workers. Gram-negative bacteria were high at only one site, whereas the mould Aspergillus fumigatus was occasionally present at low concentration. The highest concentrations were measured where there was water or dust aerosolization. Emissions are managed by controlling the operations that lead to the dispersion of water and particles into the air and through the wearing of personal protective equipment. Stringent personal hygiene measures remain the best means of prevention for bioaerosols.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.330-341. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 01-1293 Order No.651 of 29 May 2001 of the Ministry of the Economy concerning occupational safety and health in the production of cellulose, paper and paper products [Poland]
Rozporządzenie Ministra Gospodarki z dnia 29 maja 2001 r. w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy przy produkcji masy celulozowej, papieru i wyrobów z papieru [in Polish]
This order sets basic safety and health requirements for the pulp and paper industry.
Dziennik Ustaw, 23 June 2001, No.64, p.4655-4656. [in Polish]


CIS 01-1075 Langseth H., Andersen A.
Cancer incidence among male pulp and paper workers in Norway
Cancer incidence was investigated among 23,718 male pulp and paper workers employed continuously for at least 1 year between 1920 and 1993 in Norway. Six sub-cohorts were established (sulfite pulp mill, sulfate pulp mill, paper mill, maintenance department, administrative staff and other departments). Data were compared with those of the Norwegian Cancer Register. An excess of lung cancer was found among both short- and long-term employees (Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) 1.5 and 1.2, respectively), especially for workers with the longest latency (SIR 1.3) and for sulfite mill workers (SIR 1.5). There were increased risks for pleural mesothelioma (SIR 2.4), especially among maintenance workers, and for malignant melanoma (SIR 1.3). Almost all the increased risk for lung cancer can be explained by a combination of smoking habits and asbestos exposure, although an effect of other work-related exposures (for example sulfur and chloride compounds or wood dust) cannot be excluded.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.26, No.2, p.99-105. 39 ref.

CIS 00-530
Health and Safety Executive
Noise assessments in paper mills
This information sheet is aimed at helping employers and employees understand their legal duties under the Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (CIS 90-21) for making a noise assessment. Contents: noise levels requiring action as defined by regulations 4 and 5; purpose of a noise assessment; preparing and carrying out the noise assessment; benefits of equipment hiring; calculating daily personal noise exposure; noise assessment records; action plan to introduce noise control measures and implementation; including noise control in the purchasing policy; reassessment and record-keeping.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2000. 4p. 7 ref.


CIS 01-245
Health and Safety Commission
The guide to safe use of power-operated paper-cutting guillotines
Power-operated paper-cutting guillotines are widely used in the paper and printing industries. They have caused serious accidents, including amputation, bruising and crushing. This safety guide contains practical advice on safe working with of guillotines. Topics covered: machine and safeguard types, hazards and accidents; advice for users; guidance on competencies; technical standards; advice for the manufacturers and suppliers of new machines. Replaces CIS 91-317.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Nov. 1999. vi, 74p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 00-1630 Schweigert M.K., House R.A., Holness D.L.
Occupational health and safety management systems in the Canadian pulp and paper industry: Methods of auditing
The Canadian Pulp and Paper Association has developed eight "Guiding Principles for Management of Occupational Health and Safety" (OHS) for its member companies. As part of a study to assess member companies' OHS activities, an on-site audit was performed for 11 sites. The audit assessed five key components of a management system for a number of OHS activities. It was found that management-system components more likely to be in place included goals and procedure definition, whereas measures of performance, review of measures, and corrective action were less well documented. Environmental surveillance and injury reduction were most actively monitored, as indicated by the number of measures of performance relating to these activities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.10, p.857-862. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-804 Majamaa H., Roto P., Vaalasti A.
Airborne occupational hypersensitivity to isothiazolinones in a papermaking technician
Topics: allergens; biocides; case study; dermatitis; eczema; eyes; hypersensitivity; isothiazolinones; pulp and paper industry; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.220. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 99-1985 Teschke K., Ahrens W., Andersen A., Boffetta P., Fincham S., Finkelstein M., Henneberger P., Kauppinen T., Kogevinas M., Korhonen K., Liss G., Liukkonnen T., Osvoll P., Savela A., Szadkowska-Stanczyk I., Westberg H., Widerkiewicz K.
Occupational exposure to chemical and biological agents in the nonproduction departments of pulp, paper, and paper product mills: An international study
Previously unpublished exposure measurements in the pulp and paper industry were assembled in a database. Data cover 147 mills in 11 countries, of which 7,293 measurements are relevant to nonproduction departments. The greatest variety of agents was measured in the maintenance, construction and cleaning department, where high exposures to asbestos, chromium (VI) compounds, copper, mercury, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, styrene, sulfur dioxide, trichloroethylene and welding fumes were observed. Measurements in the storage yard, loading and shipping departments indicated high exposures to asbestos, carbon monoxide, fungal spores, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and total dust. The steam and power generation department had high exposures to methyl mercaptan, silica and total dust. Throughout the nonproduction departments, measurements of pulp-production chemicals such as chlorine and sulfur compounds tended to be low, with many below the detection limit. The data provide new insight into the exposures of nonproduction pulp and paper industry personnel. Topics: chemical products; cleaning; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; harmful substances; job-exposure relation; maintenance; pulp and paper industry.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan./Feb. 1999, Vol.60, No.1, p.73-83. 16 ref.


CIS 02-1191 Brun J.P., Loiselle C.D., Gauthier G., Bégin C.
The job of safety consultant: Between the devil and the deep blue sea
Le métier de prévisioniste: entre l'arbre et l'écorce [in French]
Safety consultants play a complex role. Their work environment is subject to constant change due to technological, economic, legislative, social and cultural factors. Furthermore, they have to interact with a wide variety of participants from different backgrounds: indeed, an important aspect of their job involves convincing managers and workers to take on a larger share of responsibility in occupational safety and health. This publication describes the job of safety consultants in the paper and pulp industry, but is also more generally applicable to all industrial sectors.
Sansectra Inc, Case postale 1089, Napierville, Québec J0J 1LO, Canada; Imact, Division of Editions Héritage Inc., 300 rue Arran, Saint-Lambert, Québec J4R 1K5, Canada, June 1998. 191p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 19.95 + TPS.

CIS 99-1212 Szadkowska-Stańczyk I., Szymczak W., Szeszenia-Dąbrowska N., Wilczyńska U.
Cancer risk in workers of the pulp and paper industry in Poland. A continued follow-up
A mortality cohort study was undertaken among Polish pulp and paper workers. The results of a 23-year cohort observation, published earlier, showed a lowered overall mortality from all causes and from all malignant neoplasms, and a significant excess of death from peritoneum and prostate cancer among pulp mill male subcohort. The conclusion was drawn that a "young" cohort and relatively short follow-up period might have affected the results. The results presented in this paper, obtained after further five years of observation, showed an excess of deaths from cancer of respiratory tract and peritoneum in the male cohort. Only the excess mortality from cancers of the nose, lung and peritoneum was coherent with the exposure to higher concentrations of wood dust, pulp, paper and board dust. The results may support a hypothesis that these factors as well as dust pollutants, not yet identified in this study, may be considered as one of the risk factors contributing to the incidence of neoplasms of these sites. Topics: cancer; cohort study; lung cancer; mortality; nasal cancer; paper and paper products industry; peritoneal mesothelioma; Poland; prostatic cancer; pulp and paper industry; smoking; statistical evaluation.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol. 11, No.3, p.217-225. 20 ref.

CIS 99-932 Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N., Kanceljak B., Kern J., Macan J., Ebling Z.
Respiratory function and immunological status in paper-recycling workers
In a study of 101 paper recycling workers, significantly higher prevalences of all chronic respiratory symptoms were found in these workers compared with controls. Maximum expiratory flow rates were significantly decreased. 15.8% of workers had positive skin-prick reactions to at least one of the paper extracts and 21% had increased serum IgE levels. Work in the paper recycling industry is associated with respiratory impairment and sensitive workers may be at particular risk of developing chronic respiratory abnormalities. Topics: allergy tests; asthma; chronic bronchitis; chronic respiratory diseases; dyspnoea; epidemiologic study; immunoglobulins; paper and paper products industry; pulmonary function; recycling of materials; respirable dust; respiratory diseases; respiratory impairment; smoking; ventilatory capacity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.40, No.11, p.986-993. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 99-513
Health and Safety Commission, Paper and Board Industry Advisory Committee
Manual handling in paper mills. Ionising radiations in the paper and board industry
Topics: back disorders; emergency organization; ergonomic evaluation; glossary; hazard evaluation; health hazards; information of personnel; ionizing radiation; legislation; manual handling; paper and paper products industry; paper ream handling; radiation monitoring; radiation protection; radiation shielding; radioactive sources; reeled materials handling; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; risk factors; safety by design; safety guides; United Kingdom; warning notices.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. Two booklets sold as a single item: vii, 28p. and iii, 27p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 99-592 Astrakianakis G., Svirchev L., Tang C., Janssen R., Anderson J., Band P., Le N., Fang R., Bert J.
Industrial hygiene aspects of a sampling survey at a bleached-kraft pulp mill in British Columbia
Personal exposure measurements were collected for 46 job titles at a bleached-kraft pulp mill. Overall results indicated low levels of exposure with a few exceptions. Although chlorine dioxide was the exclusive bleaching agent, area samples indicated that chlorine, not chlorine dioxide, was present in all areas except the chemical preparation area and during a pulp spill. The highest shift-long exposures to chlorine were measured in the chip yard and were attributed to uncontrolled stack emissions. Wood dust samples collected from several labourers significantly exceeded regulatory limits. Results from data-logging equipment in the chemical preparation area showed several peak exposures to chlorine dioxide that exceeded the short-term exposure limit. The peaks were correlated with tasks and upset conditions and could not have been detected using shift-long average-based sampling devices. Data-logging instruments are necessary to characterize exposures in the pulp and paper industry. Topics: air sampling; bleaching; chlorine dioxide; calcium oxide; carbon monoxide; hydrogen sulfide; electrochemical gas sensors; exposure evaluation; harmful substances; job-exposure relation; occupational health survey; personal sampling; pulp and paper industry; pulp refiners; short-term exposure; wood dust.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1998, Vol.59, No.10, p.694-705. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 98-781 Rix B.A., Villadsen E., Lynge E.
Hodgkin's disease, pharyngeal cancer and soft tissue sarcomas in Danish paper mill workers
Topics: epidemiologic study; length of service; sex-linked differences.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1998, Vol.40, No.1, p.55-62. 49 ref.


CIS 99-1902 Rix B.A., Villadsen E., Engholm G., Lynge E.
Risk of cancer among paper recycling workers
In an historical cohort study of employees in five Danish paper recycling plants, there was significantly more pharyngeal cancer among male workers than expected from national rates. This increase may be influenced by confounders such as smoking and alcohol intake. Among male production workers, there was slightly more lung cancer than expected and the risk of Hodgkin's disease was doubled. This excess risk is in accordance with some studies in traditional paper mills. Topics: cancer; cohort study; Hodgkin's disease; latency; length of exposure; lung cancer; morbidity; paper and paper products industry; pharyngeal cancer; recycling of materials; smoking.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1997, Vol.54, No.10, p.729-733. 43 ref.

CIS 99-1671 Payot L., Meyer J.P., Didry G.
Physical and thermal stress experienced by operators of paper mill drying units
Les contraintes physiques et thermiques des opérateurs en sécherie de papeterie [in French]
Topics: anthropometry; arterial blood pressure; drying; exposure evaluation; heat load; hot workplaces; medical supervision; paper and paper products industry; paper making machines; physical workload; questionnaire survey; subjective assessment.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 1997. 46p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 99-1211 Rix B.A., Villadsen E., Lynge E.
Cancer incidence of sulfite pulp workers in Denmark
The overall cancer risk among workers in two Danish sulfite pulp mills was close to the expected. The risk of stomach cancer was doubled, as was the risk of pancreatic cancer. For men with known pulp exposure, the risk of lung cancer was slightly increased. Other cancers with elevated risks were leukaemia and soft-tissue sarcomas. The excess risks observed in this study are in accordance with those of other studies from sulfite pulp mills. Topics: cancer; cohort study; gastrointestinal cancer; leukaemia; long-term study; lymphoma; morbidity; pulp and paper industry; sarcomas; sulfites; tumour of the pancreas.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1997, Vol.23, No.6, p.458-461. 23 ref.

CIS 99-223 Kauppinen T., Teschke K., Savela A., Kogevinas M., Boffetta P.
International data base of exposure measurements in the pulp, paper and paper product industries
Topics: aerosols; Canada; comparative study; computerized data bases; determination in air; determination in biological matter; Europe; exposure evaluation; gases; harmful substances; Japan; list of chemical substances; metals; microorganisms; mineral dust; organic compounds; organic solvents; personal sampling; pulp and paper industry; USA.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 1997, Vol.70, No.2, p.119-127. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 98-782 Torén K., Brisman J., Meding B.
Sensitization and exposure to methylisothiazolinones (Kathon®) in the pulp and paper industry - A report of two cases
Topics: asthma; case study; dermatitis; eczema; fungicides; isothiazolinones; paper and paper products industry; sensitization dermatitis; skin tests; Sweden; transfer to other work.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1997, Vol. 31, No.5, p.551-553. 11 ref.

CIS 98-201 Estlander T., Jolanki R., Kanerva L.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTMAC) and Kathon® LX in a starch modification factory
Topics: glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride; eczema; Finland; fungicides; pulp and paper industry; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests; starch.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1997, Vol.36, No.4, p.191-194. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 97-1552 Process industry
These nine chapters in a major new survey of OSH examine health and safety issues in various process industries: power generation; chemical industry; polymers and rubbers; paint industry; pharmaceutical industry; biotechnology industry; food processing industry; paper, pulp and chloralkali industry; tobacco industry.
In: The Workplace (by Brune D. et al., eds), Scandinavian Science Publisher as, Bakkehaugveien 16, 0873 Oslo, Norway, 1997, Vol.2, p.297-433. Illus. Bibl.ref.

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