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Livestock rearing - 310 entries found

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CIS 11-0817 Heathcote K., Harris E.C., Brewster V., Nevel M.A., Coggon D.
Skin disease in sheep farmers
An unusual inflammation of the pinna has been reported to occur in some sheep farmers at the time of lambing. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of this disorder and its possible causal associations. While on attachment to sheep farms during lambing, veterinary students used a standardized questionnaire to interview a sample of farmers about their work and about symptoms of skin inflammation in their hands, face and ears. Interviews were completed by 76 (67%) of the farmers approached. Among 74 farmers who had carried out lambing, 3 had experienced temporally related ear symptoms, all on multiple occasions. No farmers with ear symptoms had ever been involved in calving or farrowing, and no ear symptoms were reported in relation to shearing or dipping sheep. There was also an excess of hand symptoms related to lambing outdoors (24% of those who had done such work) and indoors (also 24%) compared with other farming activities. The findings suggest that temporally related ear inflammation occurs in at least 1% of farmers who carry out lambing but not in association with the farming activities. Lambing appears to be associated also with hand inflammation, but the pathology may differ from that in the pinna.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.515-517. 3 ref.


CIS 11-0872 Létourneau V., Nehmé B., Mériaux A., Massé D., Duchaine C.
Impact of production systems on swine confinement buildings bioaerosols
In this study, bioaerosols were characterized in 18 modern swine confinement buildings, and the differences in bioaerosol composition in the three different production systems were evaluated. Total dust, endotoxins, culturable actinomycetes, fungi, and bacteria were collected. The total DNA of the air samples was extracted, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to assess the total number of bacterial genomes as a total (culturable and non-culturable) bacterial assessment. The measured total dust and endotoxin concentrations were not statistically different in the three studied production systems. In buildings with sawdust beds, actinomycetes and moulds were found in higher concentrations than in the conventional barns. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Scopulariopsis species were identified in all the studied swine confinement buildings. A. flavus, A. terreus and A. versicolor were abundantly present in the facilities with sawdust beds. Thermotolerant A. fumigatus and Mucor were usually found in all the buildings. The culturable bacteria concentrations were higher in the barns with litters than in the conventional buildings, while real-time PCR revealed non-statistically different concentrations of total bacteria in all the studied swine confinement buildings. In terms of workers' respiratory health, barns equipped with a solid/liquid separation system may offer better air quality than conventional buildings or barns with sawdust beds.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2010, Vol.7, No.2, p.94-102. Illus. 39 ref.
Impact_of_production.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0377 ASHCA/NIOSH Conference - Be safe, be profitable: Protecting workers in agriculture
This full issue includes the papers presented at a conference on protecting workers in agriculture, held on January 27-28 2010 in Dallas-Fort Worth, USA. Contents: global view of issues affecting United States production agriculture; perspectives of hired workers; overview of safety and health in the United States; preventing heat-related illness; respiratory issues; minimizing worker injuries in livestock handling; overcoming language barriers; safe tractor operations; aging agricultural workers; safety performance metrics; minimizing exposures to pesticides; pre-harvest food safety; musculoskeletal disorders; preventing injuries to reduce cost; zoonotic influenza and its implications for agricultural workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.15, No.3, p.17-329 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.


CIS 10-0409 Kawakami T., Ratananakorn L.
Protecting your health and business from animal influenza: Action manual for farmers and workers
Protéger votre santé et votre entreprise de la grippe animale: manuel d'actions pour éleveurs et travailleurs [in French]
Cómo proteger su salud y su negocio de la gripe animal: manual de acción para granjeros y trabajadores [in Spanish]
Outbreaks of avian influenza in the recent past, and the current spread of Influenza A (H1N1) stemming from swine, have prompted worldwide concern. This training manual has been developed to promote safe practices in farms raising animals, particularly poultry and pigs. The manual is user-friendly and practical, providing an action checklist of various prevention measures, including explanations and descriptions. Also published in Thai.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. 24p. Illus.
Protecting_your_health.pdf [in English]
Protéger_votre_santé.pdf [in French]
Cómo_proteger_su_salud.pdf [in Spanish]
Protecting_your_health.pdf [in Thai]

CIS 09-1376 Heutelbeck A.R.R, Junghans C., Esselmann H., Hallier E., Schulz T.G.
Exposure to allergens of different cattle breeds and their relevance in occupational allergy
Cattle are an important source of allergens in the working area of farmers. Asthma caused by cow allergens is a significant occupational health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate commercial cow allergen extracts and to compare them with extracts supplied by 42 farmers with asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis caused by cattle contact. The commercial extracts investigated in this study showed only minor differences in protein pattern. Serum immunoblotting resulted in distinct bands for all symptomatic farmers, even in the 13 farmers with a negative result in commercial allergen extracts. It is concluded that test results with commercial extracts should be supplemented by skin tests using extracts of the hair of the farmers' own cattle.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2009, Vol.82, No.9, p.1123-1131. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 09-1341 Schmid K., Jüngert B., Hager M., Drexler H.
Is there a need for special preventive medical check-ups in employees exposed to experimental animal dust?
In Germany, employers of workers exposed to experimental animal dust are required by law to provide preventive medical check-ups. This article reports first experiences with these medical check-ups conducted since 2005 at a university hospital among 132 workers in contact with experimental animal dust. Participants responded to a questionnaire on their symptoms and were subjected to respiratory function tests, whole-body plethysmography, skin prick tests, a bronchial provocation test with methacholine, and serological examinations for total IgE and specific IgE. Findings are discussed. The results confirm the need of regular check-ups for workers in contact with experimental animal dust.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2009, Vol.82, No.3, p.319-327. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 09-1395 Cohidon C., Morisseau P., Derriennic F., Goldberg M., Imbernon E.
Psychosocial factors at work and perceived health among agricultural meat industry workers in France
The objective of this study was to describe the perceived health status of meat and poultry industry employees, and its relation to their organizational and psychosocial constraints at work. It was carried out in the form of a postal questionnaire survey of all 3,000 employees of the meat industry (beef, pork and poultry) in Brittany, France. Questions addressed social and demographic data, as well as information pertaining to the job and work organization. Overall, there was a high prevalence of poor health, worse among women and increasing regularly with age. Psychosocial risk factors included high quantitative and qualitative demands, inadequate resources for good work and to a lesser extent, inadequate prospects for promotion.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2009, Vol.82, No.7, p.807-818. 33 ref.

CIS 09-1163 Langley R., Morris T.
That horse bit me: Zoonotic infections of equines to consider after exposure through the bite or the oral/nasal secretions
Injuries from horses are responsible for over 100,000 emergency room visits each year in the United States. Although various types of traumatic injuries related to direct contact with horses are generally well described, roughly 3% to 4.5% of all reported injuries are due to bites. Besides injuries, the bite may also cause the transmission of a microbial agent that can lead to a zoonotic infection. This review focuses on those zoonoses that have been reported in the literature, including those that may in theory be transmitted from equine to human by direct inoculation or exposure to oral or nasal secretions from horses and other equine species.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.370-381. 68 ref.

CIS 09-1153 Sheldon K.J., Deboy G., Field W.E., Albright J.L.
Bull-related incidents: Their prevalence and nature
Bulls continue to contribute to an unacceptable number of serious injuries and deaths. The objective of this literature survey was to gain a better perspective of bull-related incidents. Analysis of the literature and data indicates that: the risk of injury associated with hours of exposure to bulls is higher than that of working around cows; the risk of a bull-related fatality, based upon the hours of exposure, appears to be higher than other known hazards, such as tractor operation; victims generally appeared to have had considerable experience with handling bulls; bulls raised from calves on-site appeared more aggressive; most of the incidents involved the victim being inside the bull holding area. Recommendations are presented for reducing the potential of bull attacks on humans.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.357-369. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-1161 Kayali G., Ortiz E.J., Chorazy M.L., Gray G.C.
Lack of evidence of avian adenovirus infection among turkey workers
Although there are many animal-specific adenoviruses and occasionally they have been noted to infect man, rarely have they been studied as potential zoonotic pathogens. In this study, it was hypothesized that the hemorrhagic enteritis virus (HEV), an avian adenovirus that causes illness among turkeys, might infect humans. Using an enzyme immunosorbent assay, the authors compared sera from 95 turkey-exposed individuals with sera from 82 nonexposed controls. Multivariate modeling revealed no statistical difference in anti-HEV antibodies between the two groups.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.299-305. 24 ref.

CIS 09-1033 Everts R., Lloyd A., Meech R., Speers D.
Chronic fatigue syndrome complicating leptospirosis
A link between acute leptospirosis and subsequent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been alluded to by several sources but not specifically reported or discussed in the scientific medical literature. This study discusses 12 cases of occupationally acquired acute leptospirosis, complicated by CFS. The apparent link between these two diseases deserves further epidemiological investigation, because if confirmed, it has implications for both prevention and compensation of occupationally acquired leptospirosis.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.209-212. 22 ref.

CIS 09-813 Dosman J.A., Chenard L., Rennie D.C., Senthilselvan A.
Reciprocal association between atopy and respiratory symptoms in fully-employed female, but not male, workers in swine operations
Women account for a sizeable proportion of the workers in swine operations. A total of 240 men and 134 women swine barn workers, together with 184 men and 227 women non-farming rural dwellers completed questionnaires on respiratory symptoms and underwent skin prick tests. Findings indicate that atopy in exposed female workers may be protective of symptoms suggestive of chronic bronchitis but that atopic women workers may be more susceptible to the development of asthma, and that exposures to the various inhaled substances at the workplace may be mediated differently in men and women.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.270-276. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 09-842 Myers M.L., Cole H.P.
Simple solutions for reduced fish farm hazards
The fish farming sector presents many of the same hazards as other types of farming, but also poses additional hazards associated with water impoundments and night-time work. This article describes some simple measures to reduce or eliminate hazards on fish farms, based on interviews of personnel working on the farms and workplace inspections. The measures address the main hazards encountered on fish farms, namely electrical shocks, drowning, slips, trips and falls and sprains, as well as chemical, fire and explosion hazards.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.150-156. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-872 An overview of safety and health for workers in the horse-racing industry
Between 1993 and 1996, 6,545 injuries occurred among jockeys during horse races in the United States, an injury rate of 606 per 1,000 jockeys years. In 1987, it was reported that more than 100 jockeys had been killed in work-related incidents since 1950. Numerous studies in the published scientific literature conclude that the low body weight requirement for jockeys increases the risk of acquiring eating disorders in order to control weight. These concerns about potential work-related hazards for jockeys and other employees in the horse racing industry were raised at a Congressional hearing in 2005. This guide is intended for all workers associated with the horse-racing sector. It summarizes NIOSH's efforts in responding to the Congressional inquiry and provides recommendations for reducing the number of injuries and improving the health among workers in the sector.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2009. vi, 20p. Illus. 53 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-710 Elfman L., Riihimäki M., Pringle J., Wålinder R.
Influence of horse stable environment on human airways
This study examined seasonal differences in indoor air quality in a horse stable and assessed whether air quality was associated with respiratory signs or selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and 13 stable workers were investigated three times, in winter, in late summer and the third time in the following winter. Measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergens, microorganisms, endotoxins and glucans. Workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Findings are presented and discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, May 2009, Vol.4, No.10, 7p. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 09-263 Kawakami T., Ratananakorn L.
Protecting your health and business from avian influenza: Action manual for farmers and poultry workers
The outbreak of avian influenza and the ongoing incidences of infected cases have prompted worldwide concern. This training manual is developed to promote safe practices. The manual is user-friendly and practical, providing an action checklist on various prevention measures including explanations and descriptions. The participatory training methods of the ILO, Work Improvement in Neighbourhood Development (WIND) and Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE), were used to promote understanding and encourage improvements in the actions of farmers and poultry workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2009. 24p. Illus. 7ref. [in Thai] [in English]

CIS 09-310 Suarthana E., Malo J.L., Heederik D., Ghezzo H., L'Archevêque J., Gautrin D.
Which tools best predict the incidence of work-related sensitization and symptoms
This study used information from questionnaires alone or in conjunction with skin tests and bronchial responsiveness tests to develop models for estimating the probability of specific IgE-sensitisation and respiratory symptoms among workers in contact with animal allergens. The models were derived from a cohort of Canadian animal health technology apprentices. The models' internal validity and diagnostic accuracy were evaluated and compared. Findings are discussed. Questionnaires were found to give accurate prediction of the incidence of occupational sensitisation and symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2009, Vol.66, No.2, p.111-117. 26 ref.


CIS 09-561 Zachou K., Papamichalis P.A., Dalekos G.N.
Severe pharyngitis in stockbreeders: An unusual presentation of brucellosis
Brucellosis is a known occupational hazard for shepherds, abattoir workers, veterinarians, dairy industry workers and personnel in microbiological laboratories. Two cases in stockbreeders who presented with high-grade fever and severe exudative pharyngitis, accompanied by severe odynophagia in the first and a history of relapsing tonsillitis in the second are recorded. It is therefore recommended to include brucellosis in the differential diagnosis of febrile patients suffering from unexplained pharyngitis or tonsillitis who belong to high-risk occupational groups.
Occupational Medicine, 2008, Vol.58, No.4, p.305-307. 8 ref.

CIS 09-445 Dogan K.H., Demirci S., Erkol Z., Sunam G.S., Kucukkartallar T.
Injuries and deaths occurring as a result of bull attack
Persons whose occupations are in animal husbandry may be seriously injured or killed while tending to animals. Bulls are among the most dangerous of these animals. In this study, seven deaths and 23 traumatic injury cases caused by bull attacks and treated in a hospital in Turkey are presented. Of the 30 total cases, 24 were men and 6 were women. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that caution is required while feeding and working with bulls. Risk can be reduced by chutes, gates, restraints, special housing and confinement facilities. Also, wearing protective helmets would be useful especially for preventing head injuries.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.3, p.191-196. 24 ref.

CIS 09-218 Kolstrup C., Lundqvist P., Pinzke P.
Psychosocial work environment among employed Swedish dairy and pig farmworkers
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychosocial work environment for dairy and pig farmworkers in southern Sweden and to identify potential risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Thirty-seven workers on 10 dairy farms and 30 workers on 10 pig farms participated in the study. Data on self-perceived psychosocial work environment and MSDs were collected by means of questionnaires. In general, the psychosocial work environment was assessed as being good by both the dairy and pig farmworkers. However, the dairy and pig farmworkers experienced lower work demands, poorer general and mental health, and poorer vitality compared to other occupations. Furthermore, the results indicated that the quality of leadership and social support at work were poorer at the dairy farms than at the pig farms. No significant risk factors related to the psychosocial work environment were identified for MSDs of the back and upper extremities. The study suggests the probability that physical factors are more likely to lead to MSDs among employed livestock workers than factors related to the psychosocial work environment.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2008, Vol.13, No.1, p.23-36. 53 ref.

CIS 09-197 Brasseur G., Vaudoux D.
Zoonoses - From animal to man, multiple hazards
Zoonoses - De l'animal à l'homme, un risque pluriel [in French]
Zoonoses are diseases that are transmissible from animals to men. In occupational settings, risks of zoonoses exist for activities that involve contact with animals in nature or in captivity. This special feature on occupational zoonoses addresses the following topics: problems faced in proving the occupational nature of zoonoses; risks from rats and ticks in natural environments; personal protective equipment; occupational safety and health approach adopted by a French veterinary school; risks related to imported animals; risks in pet shops; protection measures for pregnant women; occupational safety and health in a Parisian zoo.
Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2008, No.686, p.22-35. Illus.$File/TS686page22.pdf?OpenElement [in French]


CIS 09-83 Beaver R.L., Field W.E.
Summary of documented fatalities in livestock manure storage and handling facilities - 1975-2004
Frequency and characteristics of deaths related to on-farm manure storage and handling facilities in the United States for the period of 1975 through 2004 were analyzed using data from published government reports, national and local media, on-line searches, published farm fatality reports and prior litigation. Analysis of the 77 identified fatalities showed that victim characteristics and causative factors did not reflect previously reported patterns, namely over half of the fatalities involved dairy operations and 21% involved persons under the age of 16. The largest percentage (34%) of deaths occurred to persons conducting repair or maintenance activities on manure handling equipment, while the second largest group (22%) was attempting to perform a rescue of another person. The most frequently-identified cause of death was asphyxiation, with elevated blood sulfide levels noted in some cases. Recommendations to avoid such accidents are proposed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2007, Vol.12, No.2, p.3-23. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 08-1211 Heutelbeck A.R.R., Janicke N., Hilgers R., Kütting B., Drexler H., Hallier E., Bickeböller H.
German cattle allergy study (CAS): Public health relevance of cattle-allergic farmers
This study involved farmers from all regions of Germany who were reported to the Agricultural Institutions for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention (Landwirtschaftliche Berufsgenossenschaften) between 1990 and 2002 with a suspected occupational cattle-allergic airways disease. A total of 513 patients were identified considering following parameters: age, gender, onset of airways symptoms related to contact with cattle, beginning of employment disability, total and specific Immunoglobulin E against cattle allergens, and lung function.. Of these patients, 24.8% showed cattle-related symptoms of asthma, 11.7% of rhinitis, and 60% of both asthma and rhinitis. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2007, Vol.81, No.2, p.201-208. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 08-1187 Cowley S., Bowman B., Lawrance M.
Safety in the Victorian thoroughbred horseracing industry
Employees in the horseracing sector who work closely with horses are exposed to a significant risk of traumatic injury. Although jockeys are the main focus of attention, a large number of injuries are sustained by track drivers and stable attendants. Investigations by means of literature surveys and focus groups reveal that in this sector, there is greater emphasis on horses and their performance rather than on the health, safety and well-being of employees. Several recommendations are made in view of improving the safety performance in this sector.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2007, Vol.23, No.5, p.421-431. 40 ref.

CIS 08-593 Krakowiak A., Krawczyk P., Szulc B., Wiszniewska M., Kowalczyk M., Walusiak J., Pałczyński C.
Prevalence and host determinants of occupational bronchial asthma in animal shelter workers
This study examined the risk factors of airway allergy in 88 animal shelter workers in Poland, occupationally exposed to cats and dogs, who responded to a questionnaire concerning the history of exposure to animal allergens and job characteristics. They were subjected to skin prick tests for cat, dog, rat and mouse allergens, and determinations of total serum IgE and specific IgE levels. Bronchial hyperreactivity and peak expiratory flow rate were measured at work and off work only in workers with symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma (OA). The prevalence of OA was 9.1%. Sensitization to dog allergens was higher than to cats. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant role of a family history of atopy, having a dog as pet in the past and growing up in the country (odds ratios of 5.9, 6.47 and 7.59 respectively).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2007, Vol.80, No.5, p.423-432. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 08-659 Lavoie J., Beaudet Y., Lemay S., Belzile M., Côté C., Godbout S., Roseberry K.
Air quality in veal calf barns
Qualité de l'air dans les étables de veaux de lait [in French]
It is now recognized that the air quality in buildings used for animal production can affect the workers' quality of life and health as well as the productivity of the animals. Although this situation is well understood in the context of swine production, no study deals with veal calf breeding, which is expanding. The aim of this project was to characterize and quantify, by season, the chemical substances and biological agents present in the air of veal calf production buildings, to determine the risks to human health in relation to standards and guidelines, and to propose simple guidelines enabling facility managers to improve air quality, if needed. Results of the measurements show that there is no serious air quality issue in veal calf barns.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. 102p. Illus. 76 ref. Price: CAD 10.50. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-612
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Panorama of occupational hazards in the agricultural sector
Panorámica de los riesgos laborales en el sector agrario [in Spanish]
Agricultural activity involves important health and safety hazards for workers. In Argentina in 2005, the incidence rate of occupational accidents and diseases in this sector was 113.96 per thousand insured workers. This document presents the statistical trends for accident indicators in agriculture, fishing, hunting and livestock rearing for the period from 2000 to 2005, together with trends in the number of workers and employers covered by the insurance scheme.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, [2007?]. 16p. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-210 Price L.B., Roess A., Graham J.P., Baqar S., Vailes R., Sheikh K.A., Silbergeld E.
Neurologic symptoms and neuropathologic antibodies in poultry workers exposed to Campylobacter jejuni
The objective of this case-control study was to examine associations between occupational exposure to live poultry with exposure to Campylobacter jejuni, campylobacter-associated neurological symptoms and neuropathological antibodies. Subjects included 20 poultry workers and 40 community referents. Campylobacter exposure was evaluated by stool culture and serum antibodies, neurological symptoms were assessed by questionnaire and neuropathological antibodies were measured by serum anti-glycolipid antibody concentrations. It was found that poultry workers had significantly higher anti-campylobacter compared with that of referents, and they were significantly more likely to report multiple campylobacter-associated neurological symptoms.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2007, Vol.49, No.7, p.748-755. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 08-167 Korpi A., Lappalainen S., Kaliste E., Kalliokoski P., Reijula K., Pasanen A.L.
A multi-faceted approach to risk assessment of laboratory animal allergens at two facilities
This article describes a versatile approach to assessing the risks posed by laboratory animal allergens (LAAs) which was implemented at two laboratory animal facilities in Finland. The approach includes questionnaires for management and employees, a hazard identification visit, measurements at the workplaces and the creation of a list of recommended procedures to reduce allergen exposure. The prevalence of work-related allergic symptoms was found to be 17%. Recommendations included changes in ventilation, changes in work practices, the reduction of unnecessary exposures, more comprehensive use of personal protective equipment and wider communication about LAA risks.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.50, No.2, p.127-135. 30 ref.

CIS 07-1432 Preventing worker deaths and injuries when handling Micotil 300®
Prevención de muertes y lesiones de trabajadores por el uso de Micotil 300® [in Spanish]
Cattle farmers, veterinarians and other workers in contact with animals may be exposed to the animal antibiotic Micotil 300® through skin injuries from needlestick accidents, cuts or bites, as well as from contact with animal skin and biological matter. Cardiotoxic effects of Micotil 300®, including a reduced cardiac contractility and tachycardia, can be severe enough to cause death. It is recommended that extreme care be given to following safe drug handling and injection procedures to avoid the possibility of self injection. Although no antidote exists for Micotil 300®, exposed persons should seek immediate medical intervention as the drug's cardiotoxic effects may be reversed.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Apr. 2007. 4p. 6 ref. [in Spanish] [in English]

CIS 07-1152
Health and Safety Executive
Veterinary medicines - Safe use by farmers and other animal handlers
This leaflet provides guidance for farmers and other people who use veterinary medicines (including medicated feeds) as part of their work. It sets out practical steps for the protection of workers' health and safety and for compliance with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023). Update of document abstracted under CIS 98-1425.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev. ed., July 2007. 12p. 9 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1151
Health and Safety Executive
Sheep dipping: Advice for farmers and others involved in dipping sheep
Trochi defaid: Cyngor i ffermwyr ac eraill sy'n ymwneud â throchi defaid [in Welsh]
Topics covered in this brochure on health protection during sheep dipping: procedure for risk assessment required by the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023); choice of treatment; design of dip facilities; engineering controls; personal protective equipment; good working practice; disposal of harmful waste; health surveillance. Update of document abstracted under CIS 98-1424.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., July 2007. 16p. Illus. 6 ref. [in English] [in Welsh]


CIS 07-1206 Rylander R., Carvalheiro M.F.
Airways inflammation among workers in poultry houses
This study evaluated the usefulness of airway responsiveness measurements to diagnose the presence of airways inflammation and relate this to occupational exposure among poultry workers. The group studied comprised 42 non-smoking poultry workers and 40 non-smoking controls unexposed to organic dusts. The presence of symptoms was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire for organic dust exposures. Airway responsiveness was measured using the methacholine challenge test. The concentrations of airborne endotoxin and (1-3)-β-D-glucan were measured. Exposure levels were in excess of those expected to cause effects in the airways. Compared to controls, exposed workers had significantly higher airway responsiveness and a higher prevalence of toxic pneumonitis, airways inflammation and chronic bronchitis. Endotoxin levels in the poultry buildings exceeded those suggested in earlier studies as the threshold value for airways inflammation.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2006, Vol.79, No.6, p.487-490. 26 ref.

CIS 07-460 Sundblad B.M., Sahlander K., Ek A., Kumlin M., Olsson M., Larsson K., Palmberg L.
Effect of respirators equipped with particle or particle-and-gas filters during exposure in a pig confinement building
This study compared the protective effect of two respiratory protection devices during exposure in a pig confinement building. Thirty-six healthy workers were exposed for three hours in the building, 12 without any protection, 12 with a particle-filter mask and 12 with a mask filtering both particles and gases. Symptoms, body temperature, nasal lavage fluid, exhaled nitric oxide and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were assessed before and after the exposure. Pre- and post-exposure urine and blood samples were collected. Findings indicate that wearing a respirator in a pig confinement building reduces the inflammatory reaction but does not influence bronchial responsiveness. There was no difference between the use of a particle-filter mask and a mask with a particle-gas filter combination.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.32, No.2, p.145-153. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 07-179 Lavoie J., Beaudet Y., Létourneau C., Godbout S., Lemay S., Belzile M., Lachance I., Pouliot F.
Evaluation of the air quality in pig housing facilities equipped with a liquid-solid manure separation system
Evaluation de la qualité de l'air dans les porcheries équipées d'un système de séparation liquide-solide des déjections [in French]
This project involved the evaluation of a system consisting of the separation of solid and liquid manure in a pig facility and its effects on odour, toxic gas emissions and bioaerosol formation. Air samples were collected twice a week during 16 weeks, and concentrations were measured for the following pollutants: bacteria, moulds, endotoxins, ammonia, methane, hydrogen sulphide and nitrous oxide. Other data collected included ventilation throughputs and a subjective evaluation of smell. Findings are discussed. The separation had little effect except for ammonia emissions, that were reduced by half.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iv, 35p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: CAD 5.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 07-115 Quandt S.A., Grzywacz J.G., Marín A., Carrillo L., Coates M.L., Burke B., Arcury T.A.
Illnesses and injuries reported by Latino poultry workers in western North Carolina
Many workers in the poultry industry in the USA are immigrants. Few data exist on their occupational disease and accident rates in relation to the workplace safety environment. In this study, interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 200 Latino poultry workers employed by three companies in North Carolina. Topics included symptoms, illnesses, injuries and plant safety climate. Most respondents were under 35 years of age and had been in the USA for less than ten years. Frequency of self-reported symptoms was high, particularly for musculoskeletal symptoms. Despite symptoms, few workers reported missing work or seeking medical care. Occupational injuries and illnesses and symptoms varied by company. Company-to-company differences in injury and illness rates were consistent with perceived safety climate and provision of personal protective equipment. Findings suggest policy changes and research are needed to reduce the high rates of occupational illnesses and injuries in this vulnerable population.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2006, Vol.49, No.5, p.343-351. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 06-1475 Avian influenza information for bird owners
This Internet document provides guidance for poultry producers and bird keepers on measures for the prevention of an outbreak of avian influenza.
Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia, 2006. Internet document, 2p. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-1472 Brasseur G.
Flu - Preparing for a pandemic
Grippe - Préparer l'épreuve d'une pandémie [in French]
Since the emergence of the highly-infectious H5N1 bird flu virus at the end of 2003, 150 million poultry and other birds died or were intentionally eliminated in Asia. Hundreds of thousands or possibly millions of humans were infected, among whom approximately a hundred died. Fortunately, the transmission to humans is rare, but a pandemic remains possible. Contents of this special feature on the precautions to be taken against a possible pandemic: description of the bird flu pandemic threat; types of flu viruses; collective and personal protective measures following suspected contamination on a farm; medical prevention; setting-up an emergency plan; precautions to be taken when handling dead birds.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2006, No.661, p.23-32. Illus. 4 ref.$file/ts661page23.pdf?openelement [in French]


CIS 08-656 Cherry N.M., Durrington P.N., Mackness B., Mackness M.I., Smith A.E., Dipnall M., Povey A.C.
Health and Safety Executive
Genetic variation in susceptibility to chronic effects of organophosphate exposure
A case-control study was carried out to investigate whether the ability to metabolize and detoxify organophosphorus compounds differed between sheep dippers with self-reported chronic ill-health (cases) and healthy dippers (referents) of similar age and with a similar dipping experience. A total of 175 cases and 235 controls were interviewed by a nurse and information on their current health and occupational history obtained. Blood samples were also taken, DNA was extracted and polymorphisms in genes associated with organophosphorus compound metabolism were determined. Cases were more likely to have at least one R allele at position 192 and both alleles of type LL at position 55 of the paraoxonase gene, and to have diazoxonase activity below the median. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 116p. Illus. 25 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-653 Povey A.C., Mackness M.I., Durrington P.N., Dippnall M., Smith A.E., Mackness B., Cherry N.M.
Paraoxonase polymorphisms and self-reported chronic ill-health in farmers dipping sheep
Serum paraoxonase (PON1) provides protection against organophosphate-induced toxicity. It has been reported that the frequency of paraoxonase polymorphisms in sheep dippers with self-reported chronic ill-health differed from that in dippers with no self-reported ill-health. The aim of this study was to examine whether the risk associated with PON1 polymorphisms varied using homogenous case and referent populations. Each subject completed a detailed symptom questionnaire and their general practitioner was asked whether there was any history of neurological disease that could be confused with the effects of organophosphate poisoning. Some subjects were then excluded both on clinical grounds and where identified as atypical on discriminant analysis. Risk associated with the PON1 192 and 55 genotypes altered little with these changes in the population. These findings support the hypothesis that organophosphates contribute to the self-reported ill-health of sheep dippers.
Occupational Medicine, June 2005, Vol.55, No.4, p.282-286. 27 ref.

CIS 06-714 Ruoppi P., Koistinen T., Pennanen S.
Sensitisation to mites in laboratory animal workers with rhinitis
This study examined the frequency of sensitization to mites among rhinitic laboratory animal workers and investigated whether sensitization could be work-related. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed in 40 subjects who were working with laboratory animals and who were diagnosed with rhinitis. Positive SPT results were found in 35 out of 40 workers: in 14 for storage mites, four for house dust mites, 25 for other common aeroallergens and 19 for laboratory animals. Furthermore, a guanine test indicated the presence of mite-derived material in 21 out of 22 dust samples collected in the work premises. This study suggests that subjects who are occupationally exposed to laboratory animals are also exposed to mite-derived allergens. Sensitization to mites is common and may be work related.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.62, No.9, p.612-615. 32 ref.

CIS 06-368 Uitti J., Nordman H., Halmepuro L., Savolainen J.
IgG4 response to fur animal allergens among fur workers
The aim of this study was to determine whether IgG4 antibodies to allergens in urine extracts from fur animals were associated with positive prick tests to the same allergens and with the occurrence of respiratory symptoms among fur workers. IgG4 antibodies to mink and silver fox urine were analysed in fur farmers and three referent groups from the plastics industry. The fur workers had higher IgG4 values than other groups and also had urinary IgG4 antibodies more frequently than the other groups. Among the exposed subjects, IgG4 antibodies correlated with positive skin prick tests to the same allergens and were associated with symptoms among the exposed workers. Results indicate that IgG4 antibodies are a good indicator of exposure to these allergens in fur workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2005, Vol.78, No.1, p.71-74. 18 ref.


CIS 05-464 Andersen C.I., Von Essen S.G., Smith L.M., Spencer J., Jolie R., Donham K.J.
Respiratory symptoms and airway obstruction in swine veterinarians: A persistent problem
This cross-sectional study was conducted during the American Association of Swine Veterinarians annual meeting. The 122 subjects (median age 42.5 years) completed a respiratory symptom and work history questionnaire and performed spirometry. Work-related symptoms included rhinitis (69%), cough and chest tightness (53%) and wheezing (31%). Airway obstruction was seen in 24% of participants. Veterinarians with airway obstruction reported working more hours per week in hog barns than did practitioners with normal pulmonary function.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.386-392. 49 ref.

CIS 05-463 Palmberg L., Larsson B.M., Sundblad B.M., Larsson K.
Partial protection by respirators on airways responses following exposure in a swine house
Exposure to swine dust leads to intense airway inflammation and increased bronchial responsiveness. This study evaluated the effect of respirator use during exposure in a swine confinement building. 22 subjects, of whom 11 wore respirators, were exposed. Before and seven hours after exposure, symptoms and body temperature were recorded, and a nasal lavage and a bronchial methacholine challenge were performed. For exposure assessment, a nasal sampler was evaluated. The subjects wearing respirators showed an attenuated inflammatory nasal response. An increase in bronchial responsiveness was observed in both groups, significantly greater in the unprotected group. The use of respirators reduced endotoxin exposure by more than 90% (assessed by nasal samplers).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.363-370. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 05-304 Radon K., Ehrenstein V., Praml G., Nowak D.
Childhood visits to animal buildings and atopic diseases in adulthood: An age-dependent relationship
Several studies have reported protective effects of farming environments against atopic diseases. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a rural town. 3112 inhabitants aged 18-44 responded to a postal questionnaire on atopic diseases, life-time exposure to farming environments, and potential confounders. Respondents with regular childhood exposure to animals had a significantly reduced risk of nasal allergies. The greatest reduction in risk was seen for respondents starting regular visits to animal stables during the first year of life or between the ages of three and five. Participants reporting start of exposure after age of five remained at a lower risk for nasal allergies. Findings indicate that the preventive effect of animal exposure against atopic respiratory diseases continues into adulthood.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.4, p.349-356. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 04-226 Shvartsblat S., Kochie M., Harber P., Howard J.
Fatal rat bite fever in a pet shop employee
Rat bite fever is a zoonotic disease that has been described in laboratory personnel as well as the general population. A 24-year-old male pet shop employee contracted the disease through a minor superficial finger wound during a contact with a contaminated rat cage. The disease progressed from a flu-like illness to endocarditis involving first the aortic valve and then the mitral valve and septum. Despite aggressive therapy including two surgical procedures, the patient died from sepsis and multi-organ system failure 59 days after initial injury. This is the first reported case of rat-bite fever in a pet shop work setting. Zoonotic infections may present a significant hazard to workers handling animals. Education on hazards of animal contact and other preventive measures are needed in small business such as pet shops.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2004, Vol.45, No.4, p.357-360. 5 ref.

CIS 03-1710 García Puente N.E., Carro Martínez P.
Prevention of occupational hazards in aquaculture
Prevención de riesgos laborales en acuicultura [in Spanish]
This information note lists the various hazards present in aquaculture together with the preventive measures for reducing these hazards. Contents: definitions of aquaculture in general and of its constituent sectors; specific hazards (handling of loads, falls on the level, risks due to hot working climates, to diving activities and to boats, risks to health due to poor hygiene and insalubrious workplaces, general risks) and corresponding preventive measures.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 6p. Illus. 6 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 06-298 Portengen L., Hollander A., Doekes G., de Meer G., Heederik D.
Lung function decline in laboratory animal workers: The role of sensitization and exposure
The relation between exposure and sensitization to laboratory animal allergens and changes in lung function was investigated in a longitudinal study (median follow up 2.0 years) among 319 laboratory animal workers. A total of 102 subjects who had been working with laboratory animals for less than four years were analysed separately, since an earlier cross sectional analysis had suggested a strong healthy worker effect in more experienced workers. In multiple regression analyses, both sensitization and exposure appeared to contribute independently to lung function decline, after adjusting for gender, age, smoking and atopy. Lung function decline was most pronounced in sensitized subjects who continued to be in contact with the animals to which they were sensitized.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.60, No.11, p.870-875. 33 ref.

CIS 05-122 Rantanen J., Valkeapää L., Maltsev O., Maltseva E., Pekkarinen A., Pyy L., Lehtinen S.
Occupational health and safety of indigenous people in the Nordic countries and Russia
Collection of articles on occupational safety and health among indigenous populations in the Nordic countries and Russia. Topics covered: reindeer husbandry as the main livelihood of indigenous populations of Northern Finland; training for jobs in state and municipal administrations among indigenous minorities in the North of Murmansk region; research needs to improve the working conditions of reindeer herders; review of the ICOH conference held in Iguassu, Brazil, 23-28 February 2003.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2003, Vol.6, No.1, p.3-27 (whole issue). Illus. 7 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-564 Radon K., Winter C.
Prevalence of respiratory symptoms in sheep breeders
The European Farmers' Study has indicated that sheep farmers might be at risk for the development of respiratory symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in sheep breeders and potential work-related risk factors. On the basis of the responses to a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, work-related respiratory symptoms (WRS), and details of farming, 325 sheep breeders of two regions of South Germany keeping at least 10 sheep could be included in the survey. The prevalences were compared to the results of the European Farmers' Study. Sheep breeders showed a significantly higher prevalence of asthma-related symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 2.1), chronic phlegm (OR 4.0) and WRS (OR 1.7) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking habits and full time farming. In the multiple logistic regression model, the risk for asthma-related symptoms was doubled in full time farmers. The major predictor of WRS was full time farming and the use of chemical footbaths. It is concluded that sheep breeders might be at high risk for the development of respiratory symptoms, which may be associated with work intensity and chemical exposure during work.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.770-773. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 04-361 Hoffmann H.J., Iversen M., Brandslund I., Sigsgaard T., Omland Ø., Oxvig C., Holmskov U., Bjermer L., Jensenius J.C., Dahl R.
Plasma C3d levels of young farmers correlate with respirable dust exposure levels during normal work in swine confinement buildings
Work in swine confinement buildings may lead to an inflammatory response and may be associated with increased levels of acute phase proteins. This study compared the inflammatory response of former farm workers who had previously developed respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, tightness of the chest during work in swine confinement buildings and had stopped work because of these symptoms, with that of age-matched former farm workers who were known not to have developed such symptoms. Both groups were subjected to an experimental exposure in a swine confinement building for three hours. Complement activation and acute phase proteins were measured in blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage. Plasma C3d levels correlated significantly with respirable dust. There was complement activation in response to respirable dust, more so among cases than in the control group. It is concluded that acute occupational exposure to organic dust containing endotoxin leads to a weak systemic inflammatory response.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 48 ref. [in English]

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