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Forestry and logging - 445 entries found

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CIS 12-0307 Giraud L., Gagné N., Ait-Kadi D., Hastey P., Koutchouk M., Tanchoux S., Vezeau S.
Safety of multifunctional harvester heads
La sécurité des têtes d'abattage multifonctionnelles [in French]
Fellers are off-road vehicles designed for forestry work and that can be equipped with a feller-buncher head or a multifunctional head. In the last few years, this latter use has become widespread in Québec. This study was carried out to better understand the hazardous phenomena and hazardous situations that can result in accidents, document the operators' activity when they carry out operations on the felling head, analyze the risks for the pressure adjustment operation, and finally, propose means of risk reduction. The study involved measuring the variety and frequency of interventions on the felling head. The impact, on worker safety, of the sequence of operations necessary during these interventions was quantified. The operations leading to hazardous situations for the operators when they are outside the cabin were also defined. This study produced the most accurate portrait possible of the different interventions on a felling head and provided an understanding of the technical, human or organizational reasons. The report proposes solutions for eliminating the risk at source, or for reducing it, by using protective devices or safe procedures.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. vii, 60p. Illus. 23 ref.
La_sécurité_des_têtes_d'abattage_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 11-0874 Hodges A.N., Kennedy M.D.
Physical exertion and working efficiency of reforestation workers
The purpose of this study was to quantify the physical exertion during tree planting work and to examine the relationships between exertion, task efficiency and productivity. Heart rate (HR) was monitored on 34 tree planters while they worked. HR data was collected for a complete working day on 19 subjects and for shorter periods of time on 15 subjects. Video of work tasks was recorded on 22 subjects (video was recorded on seven of the subjects for whom HR was monitored through a full working day) and analyzed for working pace and proportion of time spent on each task. Significant positive correlations were found between work pace and experience level, and between work pace and working HR, and a significant negative correlation was found between experience level and HR for a given work pace. No significant relationships were found between experience level or work pace and the proportion of time spent planting each tree. Tree planters work at approximately 65% of age-predicted HRmax, and maintain HR at approximately 59% of HRmax throughout the entire working day. Productivity in these workers appears to be related to effort rather than to experience or task efficiency per se.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2011, 6:20, 7p. Illus. 14 ref.
Physical_exertion.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0328 Campe J., Hoare L., Hagopian A., Keifer M.
Using community-based methods and a social ecological framework to explore workplace health and safety of bloqueros on the Olympic peninsula
Occupational safety and health issues among Latino immigrants are increasingly important as increased immigration has led to a burgeoning workforce with limited English language skills or lack of documentation status. Foreign-born Latino immigrants are consistently the ethnic group with the highest occupational mortality rates in the United States. This study aimed to understand and document the occupational safety and health hazards faced by a particularly at-risk Latino immigrant workforce, cedar block cutters (bloqueros) in a region of Washington State, USA. Key informant interviews were conducted using community-based participatory methods. Three prominent findings arose: bloqueros face occupational risks similar to those found in other forestry occupations; they face unexpected risks that are likely unique to block cutting; they face four overlapping marginalization forces (societal, economical, political, and occupational) that undermine workplace safety and health. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.438-449. 32 ref.

CIS 11-0360 Kurnatowski P., Warpechowska M., Kurnatowska A.J.
Knowledge on Lyme disease among foresters
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge on Lyme disease among people whose profession involves working in the forest in Poland. The study was performed on 159 subjects. Only 15% were aware of the etiological factor of disease, while 98% were aware of the main cause of infection and route of pathogen transmission. It is concluded that information on Lyme disease, particularly among highly-exposed workers, is not satisfactory. Little knowledge on tick risk among secondary school students highlights the need for cooperation between teachers, epidemiologists, and health service providers in order to propagate the knowledge on parasites, symptoms, disease propagation and methods of prevention.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.24, No.1, p.78-93. 24 ref.

CIS 11-0117 Carlier A.
Arborists - Happiness is in the tree
Grimpeurs-élagueurs - Le bonheur est dans l'arbre [in French]
This richly-illustrated article describes the work of arborists employed by the City of Paris. Topics addressed: harnesses; anchoring devices; aerial baskets; protective clothing; helmets; earmuffs; chain saws; night work; work organization.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2011, No.715, p.2-13. Illus.
Grimpeurs-élagueurs.pdf [in French]


CIS 11-0505 Bovenzi M
A prospective cohort study of exposure-response relationship for vibration-induced white finger
The objective of this study was to investigate prospectively the relation between vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and measures of cumulative (lifetime) exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV). Two hundred and forty-nine HTV workers and 138 control men of the same companies participated in a three-year follow-up study. The diagnosis of VWF (Raynaud's phenomenon in the controls) was based on the medical history, the administration of colour charts and the results of a cold test. Tool vibration magnitudes were expressed as root-mean-square acceleration, frequency-weighted according to international standard ISO 5349-1 and also unweighted over the frequency range 6.3-1250 Hz. From the vibration magnitudes and exposure durations, alternative measures of cumulative vibration dose were calculated for each HTV worker. The incidence of VWF varied from 5 to 6% in the HTV workers versus 0 to 1.5% in the controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, measures of cumulative vibration dose derived from total operating hours and high powers of unweighted acceleration gave better predictions of the occurrence of VWF than dose measures calculated from frequency-weighted acceleration. These findings were observed in the entire sample of HTV workers, in those with no VWF at the initial investigation, and in those with normal cold test results at baseline. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2010, vol.67, No.1, p.38-46. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 11-0275 Imbeau D., Dubé P.A., Dubeau D., LeBel L.
Feasibility study on an approach for measuring the effects of pre-season physical training on brush cutters' work and safety
Les effets d'un entraînement physique pré-saison sur le travail et la sécurité des débroussailleurs - Etude de faisabilité d'une approche de mesure [in French]
A previous study demonstrated that brush cutters handle a heavy physical workload and that they must have good cardiorespiratory capacity to do it safely. Some of them are inactive during the off-season and begin the work season in reduced physical condition that could lead to excessive fatigue. A direct link between excessive fatigue and reduced productivity, deterioration in health and increased work accidents has already been established. The objective of this case-control study was to verify the feasibility of an approach consisting of measuring the effects of pre-season physical training on physical condition and strain, productivity, and accidents. It was found that the cardiorespiratory capacity of the intervention group was much improved compared to that of the control group. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2010. x, 61p. Illus. 36 ref. Price: CAD 8.40. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
R-664.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0716 Montorselli N.B., Lombardini C., Magagnotti N., Marchi E., Neri F., Picchi G., Spinelli R.
Relating safety, productivity and company type for motor-manual logging operations in the Italian Alps
This study compared the performance of four logging crews in an Alpine region of Italy with respect to productivity, organization and safety. Crews from public companies showed a significantly lower frequency of risk-taking behaviour. The best safety performance was offered by the crew that had received formal safety training. Furthermore, the study negated the common prejudice that safety practice is inversely proportional to productivity. Instead, productivity was increased by introducing more efficient working methods and equipment. Implications of these findings ar discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Nov 2010, Vol.42, No.6, p.2013-2017. Illus. 31 ref.


CIS 11-0572 Ravallec C.
Forestry work - Interventions that avoid pitfalls
Exploitation forestière - Pour des interventions sans embûche [in French]
This richly-illustrated article addresses the safety aspects of a forestry intervention following a storm that struck a forestry region of France in January 2009.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2009, No.699, p.2-11. Illus. 6 ref.
Exploitation_forestière.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-1273 Ruchti B.
Good forestry workers are old forestry workers
Holzfällen als Massarbeit [in German]
Sempre un po' allerta [in Italian]
Les bons bûcherons durent [in French]
This article discusses safety in the forestry sector in Switzerland around the example of the work of a team of forestry workers assigned to felling trees near a railway track. Topics addressed: frequency of accidents; safe working methods; Swiss national occupational safety and health institution (SUVA) campaign for the prevention of occupational accidents.
Beobachter - Arbeit/Travail/Lavoro, 2009, No.24, p.13-17. Illus.

CIS 09-1145 Davies H.W., Teschke K., Kennedy S.M., Hodgson M.R., Demers P.A.
Occupational noise exposure and hearing protector use in Canadian lumber mills
In this study, a comprehensive noise survey of four lumber mills in British Columbia, Canada, using a randomized sampling strategy was carried out, resulting in 350 full-shift personal dosimetry measurements. Sound frequency spectrum data and information on hearing protector usage were also collected. A determinants-of-exposure regression model for noise was developed. The mean exposure level was found to be 91.7 dBA, well above the exposure British Columbia limit of 85 dBA. Of 52 jobs for which more than a single observation was made, only four were below the exposure limit. Twenty-eight jobs had means over 90 dBA, and four jobs had means over 100 dBA. Although the use of hearing protectors is high, it is unlikely that this provides complete protection against noise-induced hearing loss at the observed exposures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Jan. 2009, Vol.6, No.1, p.32-41. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 09-962 Burt C.D.B., Chmiel N., Hayes P.
Implications of turnover and trust for safety attitudes and behaviour in work teams
This study investigated the safety-specific trust which team members place in their organization's selection and induction processes for new hires, and related this to the perceived risk from new employees. The research was conducted with teams working in forest harvesting, an occupation which has high-turnover, high risk and a high accident rate. Results indicate that trust in induction processes was negatively correlated with perceived risk from a new employee. Team members also engaged in a number of safety ensuring behaviours when a new individual joined the team, and these were related to the level of perceived risk, and how much they cared about their team members' safety. It is argued that trust in the safety-specific characteristics of an organization's selection and induction process may have negative consequences for safety.
Safety Science, Aug. 2009, Vol.47, No.7, p.1002-1006. 44 ref.


CIS 11-0571 Detter A., Cowell C., McKeown L., Howard P.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of current rigging and dismantling practices used in arboriculture
Arboricultural work is physically demanding. It is often carried out at height and carries a high risk of injury. It is estimated that fatal and major injury incidence rates for arboriculture are at least double those of the construction industry. Recent analysis of arboricultural accidents has shown that 10% are due to high falls, a further 6% to low or unspecified falls and another 6% to uncontrolled swings in the tree. This report presents the results of a comprehensive study into a number of safety and health issues related to rigging operations used in the dismantling of trees in the United Kingdom. The information it contains should enable the arboriculture sector to determine good practices in carrying out risk assessments prior to dismantling a tree, planning and organizing rigging operations, and selecting measures to mitigate risks and accidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 361p. Illus. 36 ref.
RR_668.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0112 Pitts P.
Health and Safety Executive
Whole-body vibration of ground-preparation activities in forestry
This report examines exposures to high levels of whole-body vibration during ground preparation activities in forestry work, where vehicles are used on a variety of off-road surfaces and where exposures are likely to be high. A sample of whole-body vibration exposure data was collected to indicate likely daily vibration exposures of drivers carrying out ground-preparation activities in forests, for comparison with the action and limit values given in the Control of Vibration at Work Regulations 2005. Measurements of vibration were made at five forestry sites, chosen as being representative of the main ground types available and the various ground preparation techniques in use. Findings are discussed and recommendations aimed at reducing exposure levels are proposed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008, ii, 74p. Illus. 10 ref.
HSE_RR636.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0870 Giraud L., Chinniah Y., Burlet-Vienney D., Paques J.J., Koutchouk M., Daigle R.
Fellers - Safety-related devices and control circuits
Abatteuses forestières - Dispositifs et circuits de commande relatifs à la sécurité [in French]
Fellers are off-road vehicles used for moving a multifunctional felling head in forests. They offer several advantages for forestry work and are therefore now widely used in Quebec. However, serious accidents can occur during their use. This exploratory study involved collecting information on the safety devices available on fellers and analyzing this information according to the safety principles used at the IRSST, which are based on international standards relating to machine safety. A questionnaire was developed and field visits were conducted, allowing establishing an exhaustive list of the safety measures related to the mechanized fellers used in Québec. It was noted that these machines did not comply with all the recommended principles. An increasing use of programmable electronics for safety functions on this type of equipment was also observed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. viii, 70p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: CAD 9.45. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-593.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-672 Davies H., Marion S., Teschke K.
The impact of hearing conservation programs on incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in Canadian workers
The effectiveness of hearing conservation programmes in preventing occupational noise-induced hearing loss was examined in a group of Canadian lumber mill workers, using annual audiogram series obtained from the Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia for the period 1979-1996 and subjecting the data to Cox proportional hazard models. Mean cumulative noise exposure was 98.1 dB-years. The audiograms from 22,376 individuals, among whom there were 2,839 threshold shifts of 10 dB or greater were retained in multivariable analyses. After adjusting for potential confounders, continuous use of hearing protection, and initial hearing tests later in the study period, the risk of a 10-dB threshold shift was reduced by 30%. Risk remained high, however, among those with the highest noise exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2008, Vol.51, No.12, p.923-931. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 09-455 Fagrell B., Jörneskog G., Salomonsson A.C., Larsson S., Holm G.
Skin reactions induced by experimental exposure to setae from larvae of the northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora)
This study aimed to evaluate the skin reactions following exposure to setae from larvae of the northern pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pinivora, TP). A drop of setae suspension was applied on the forearm of six volunteers. The local skin reactions were studied by microscopy and skin perfusion using laser Doppler (LD) scanning. Setae penetrated into the skin, and LD scanning showed a marked increase in blood perfusion in all subjects. In two subjects, having a history of severe symptoms, microscopic vacuoles developed around setae, followed by desquamation and severe symptoms. In the remaining individuals with only light symptoms during previous exposure, there were only mild reactions that disappeared within three weeks. No immunoglobulin (Ig) E or IgG4 antibodies to larval antigens were found in any of the volunteers.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2008, Vol.59, No.5, p.290-295. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 08-878 Imbeau D., Dubeau D., Farbos B.
Ergonomic study of a new procedure used in forest management
Etude ergonomique d'un nouveau traitement sylvicole [in French]
This study compared two procedures used to control plant competition in plantations of young conifers: conventional brush clearing and the same activity carried out using a biological agent. The cardio-respiratory capacity and metabolism of forestry workers participating in the study were evaluated, together with the productivity and quality of the work carried out. It was found that both treatments lead to the same workload for the workers, but that using a biological agent is two times less effective than the conventional technique. In both cases, the workers' heart rates reached levels considered potentially hazardous. Heart rate monitoring is the most reliable method for establishing an acceptable alternating work-rest rhythm depending on climatic conditions.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. vi, 29p. Illus. 40 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-647 Gaudin R., Marsan P., Baty G., Orivelle D.
Forestry and exposure to benzene - Survey findings
Bûcheronnage et exposition au benzène - Résultats d'une enquête [in French]
Benzene is a chemical agent that is potentially responsible for increased risks of leukaemia among certain categories of workers exposed to engine fuels. This article describes a study aimed at evaluating the exposure to benzene among loggers and forestry workers, using a biological sampling method. A total of 55 volunteers were subjected to urine sampling before and after a day of work. They also answered a questionnaire on their work and several personal factors, including their smoking habits. It was found that exposures were very moderate, well within permissible levels. This was equally true for smokers, despite the strong effect of smoking on biological markers of benzene exposure.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2007, No.209, p.89-93. Illus. 9 ref.$File/pr32.pdf [in French]


CIS 08-129 FORWORKNET update - Focus on: Labour inspection in forestry
Launched in 1993, FORWORKNET is an international network of some 300 individuals and institutions in 70 countries interested in forestry workforce issues. The primary functions of FORWORKNET are to enable its members to communicate directly with each other and to open new opportunities for international exchange and cooperation. These functions are mainly achieved by helping members to locate sources of information, advice or assistance. The network regularly publishes relevant news and information updates. Main topics addressed in this update: labour inspection in forestry; ILO guidelines for labour inspection in forestry; gender issues in forestry; review of conferences on competitive forestry operations in Europe and on forestry training centres; contractor issues in South Africa and Eastern Europe.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, June 2006. 20p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-115 Neely G., Wilhelmson E.
Self-reported incidents, accidents, and use of protective gear among small-scale forestry workers in Sweden
Self-reported data were collected from 156 self-employed forestry workers regarding their work, including use of safety gear and number and type of incidents and accidents to which they were exposed. A quarter of the respondents reported at least one work-related accident or a close call during the previous 24 months. Of those injured or involved in an accident, 50% reported that they were not fully using their protective equipment. Compared to earlier surveys of Swedish forestry workers, consistent use of all required safety gear was down by 10%. Protective pants and gloves were the items least likely to be used while ear, eye and foot protection were most likely to be used. The results indicate that better planning during felling processes may be the key to reducing the number of accidents for this population.
Safety Science, Oct. 2006, Vol.44, No.8, p.723-732. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 07-1449 Sutinen P., Toppila E., Starck J., Brammer A., Zou J., Pyykkö I.
Hand-arm vibration syndrome with use of anti-vibration chain saws: 19-year follow-up study of forestry workers
In this follow-up study of a cohort of 52 forestry workers in Finland initiated in 1976, the prevalence of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and cumulative exposure to vibration were evaluated, with special emphasis given to numbness and musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities and the neck. Total exposure of hand-arm vibration was recorded during 11 cross-sectional surveys, the last of which was carried out in 1995. The lifetime dose of vibration energy was calculated. As a result of the increased use of anti-vibration chain saws, the prevalence of active vibration white finger (VWF) decreased significantly. However, that of numbness increased. Numbness did not follow the vibration exposure profile. Neck pain was present in 38% of workers and associated with low back pain. The effect of smoking on WWF was significant. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2006, Vol.79, No.8, p.665-671. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 07-727 Gallis C.
Work-related prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among Greek forest workers
The aims of this study were to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among forestry workers in Greece and to recommend practical preventive actions. Seventy-eight workers were interviewed using the Nordic standardized questionnaire. During the previous twelve months, eight out of ten forestry workers had reported complaints in the lower back area, seven in the hands/wrists, six in the knees, five in the neck, five in the shoulders and three in the elbows, hips and thighs, ankles and feet, and upper back. At least once in their working lives 17.9% of the subjects had been hospitalized because of lower back problems. The proportion of subjects consulting a doctor in the previous 12 months was 42.3%, 24.3% and 16.6% because of problems in the lower back, neck and shoulder, respectively. The highest rate for subjects being prevented from doing their normal work was for hand/wrist problems, with 64.1%, followed by lower back and neck, each 50%. Preventive measures such as improved vocational training and the adoption of new techniques, and work organization systems including job rotation and active rest breaks were recommended.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, August 2006, Vol.36, No.8, p.731-736. 55 ref.

CIS 07-337 Bell J.L., Grushecky S.T.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a logger safety training program
Logger safety training programmes are rarely, if ever, evaluated as to their effectiveness in reducing injuries. In this study, workers' compensation claim data were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a logger safety training programme in the State of West Virginia. No decline in claim rate was detected in the majority (67%) of companies that participated in all four years of the programme. Furthermore, their rate did not differ from the rest of the West Virginia logging industry. Companies with higher turnover of employees had higher claim rates. Companies using feller bunchers to harvest trees at least part of the time had a significantly lower claim rate than companies not using them. Companies that had more inspections per year had lower claim rates. It was concluded that high injury rates persist even in companies that receive safety training. Possible reasons are discussed.
Journal of Safety Research, 2006, Vol.37, No.1, p.53-61. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 06-1226
Health and Safety Executive
Excavators in tree work
This leaflet provides guidance on safe working practices to be followed when operating excavators in forestry and other tree work.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. Folded sheet. [in English]

CIS 06-1225
Health and Safety Executive
Flails and mulchers in tree work
This leaflet provides guidance on safe working practices to be followed when operating flails and mulchers in forestry and other tree work.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. Folded sheet. [in English]

CIS 06-1215
Health and Safety Executive
LOLER: How the regulations apply to arboriculture
This revised data sheet provides advice on the application of the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER) in arboriculture. Contents: other safety and health legislation; strength and stability of lifting equipment; equipment for lifting persons; positioning and installation; safe working load; organization of lifting operations; equipment inspection. Replaces CIS 00-852.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev.ed. 2006. 4p. 9 ref. [in English]


CIS 06-1459 Stryjewski L.
Transportation safety of forestry workers
Bezpieczeństwo przewozu pracowników leśnych [in Polish]
The transportation of persons employed in forests is discussed. The poor technical state of the vehicles is a serious hazard to the life and health of forestry workers. The correct means of transport and the proper equipment necessary to guarantee safe conditions of transportation of persons and tools during forestry works are described.
Przyjaciel przy Pracy, 2005, No.7-8, p.18-20. Illus.

CIS 06-526 Guidelines for labour inspection in forestry
Principes directeurs pour l'inspection du travail dans la foresterie [in French]
Directrices sobre la inspección del trabajo en la silvicultura [in Spanish]
These guidelines describe international labour standards in forestry and provide guidance for labour inspectors on organizing an inspection, the inspection in practice, assessing working conditions and labour practices, feedback of results and follow-up. Introductory chapters cover the management of labour standards in forestry and the implementation of international labour conventions, including those relating to the prohibition of forced labour, child labour and occupational safety and health. Annexes include sample checklists for forestry management and inspectors.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. xiii, 104p. Price: CHF 30.00.

CIS 06-322 Veiersted K.B., Vik T.
Working conditions and health complaints among forest machine operators in north compared to central Europe
Sravnitel'nyj analiz uslovij truda i sostojanija zdorov'ja operatorov mašin v lesnoj promyšlennosti severnoj i central'noj Evropy [in Russian]
This article summarizes the main findings of a European Union funded project aimed at analysing the working conditions and the state of health of machinery operators in the logging industry. It focuses on comparing the findings for a cross-sectional sample of 129 operators in Nordic countries with those of 229 operators in France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Poland. The most common musculoskeletal complaints in both groups were neck and low back pain. Topics addressed: workers' age and years of work; working conditions; health aspects; sickness absenteeism and sick presence; future plans for improving working conditions.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2005, Vol.8, No.1, p.13-16 (English); p.16-19 (Russian). Illus. 6 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-187 Bentley T.A., Parker R.J., Ashby L.
Understanding felling safety in the New Zealand forest industry
This article reports findings from a safety analysis of the chainsaw tree felling task in New Zealand, together with data from the New Zealand Accident Reporting Scheme for logging injuries for 1996-2000. Key safety factors were determined from the task and job safety analysis, along with possible adverse consequences and potential solutions for reducing injury risk. The analysis of 351 reported felling injury cases allowed the identification of high-risk task elements, common injury initiating events and temporal and logger population injury patterns. The potential risk associated with inexperienced employees, who incurred a high proportion of felling injuries, and the need for good judgment and decision-making for various aspects of the felling task were particularly noted.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2005, Vol.36, No.2, p.165-175. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 05-708 Giraud L., Massé S., Vigneault S.
The maintenance of tree felling equipment - Identifying risks and exploring improvement possibilities
L'entretien des têtes d'abattage - Identification des risques et exploration des possibilités d'amélioration [in French]
Serious and even fatal accidents regularly occur with tree felling equipment, and more precisely with equipment using a mechanized head. Very little information is available for making these machines safe in a simple and rapid way. This study documents the ways in which operators and mechanics intervene on multifunctional felling heads. Information was collected on maintenance, existing safety devices, available training and accidents that have occurred. Analysis of the data identified possible solutions and research scenarios for making the maintenance of these machines safer and for making recommendations to the Quebec Commission for Occupational Safety and Health (Commission pour la santé et la sécurité du travail - CSST) joint sector-based committee for the forestry sector. These recommendations are included in the report.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. ix, 43p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 05-633 Aalto-Korte K., Lauerma A., Alanko K.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from lichens in present-day Finland
Lichens are abundant in forests, living on trees, soil, stones and rocks. They contain usnic acid and other lichen acids that are contact allergens. Lichens and liverworts cause woodcutter's dermatitis, a form of eczema that appears in the forest on the bare skin areas, especially in cold and wet weather. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from lichens occurs in forestry and horticultural workers and among pickers of lichens used in fragrances. Lichens can cause immediate allergy, contact urticaria, rhinitis and asthma and probably also photo-allergic contact dermatitis. Lichens are used for the manufacture of oak moss absolute, a fragrance constituent that is one of the commonest contact allergens. Four cases of occupational allergic contact dermatitis from lichens in Finland during the past decade, two in farmers and two in gardeners, are described.
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2005, Vol.52, No.1, p.36-38. 15 ref.

CIS 04-504 The Labour Protection Council in session: Exposure to carcinogenic agents, psychosocial hazards, occupational safety in forestry work and in the road transport of dangerous substances
Obradowała Rada Ochrony Pracy przy Sejmie RP: Narażenie na czynniki rakotwórcze, zagrożenia psychospołeczne, bezpieczeństwo przy pracach w lesie i w transporcie drogowym towarów niebezpiecznych [in Polish]
The meeting held on 29 and 30 November 2004 focused - among others - on the impact of carcinogenic agents on cancer incidence, psychosocial hazards at work, occupational safety in forest and during road transport of dangerous substances. The aim of the meeting was to publicize the fact that the working conditions in Poland still depart from European standards. In this article different hazards are described, and statistical evidence concerning these hazards is presented.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Jan. 2005, Vol.402, No.1, p.8-10. Illus.


CIS 08-128 FORWORKNET update - Focus on: Ergonomics in mechanized harvesting
Launched in 1993, FORWORKNET is an international network of some 300 individuals and institutions in 70 countries interested in forestry workforce issues. The primary functions of FORWORKNET are to enable its members to communicate directly with each other and to open new opportunities for international exchange and cooperation. These functions are mainly achieved by helping members to locate sources of information, advice or assistance. The network regularly publishes relevant news and information updates. Main topics addressed in this update: research, practice, ergonomics and working conditions related to mechanization; brief reports from several countries (USA, Poland, Germany, Switzerland); research in the field of forestry machine cab glazing; reviews of conferences (safety and ergonomics, gender and forestry); informal work in the forestry sector.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Dec. 2004. 24p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 04-112
Health and Safety Executive
Fatal injuries in farming, forestry and horticulture 2003-2004
Contents of these statistics on fatal injuries in the agricultural sector (comprised of agriculture, horticulture, forestry and associated industries) in the United Kingdom: summary of fatal injuries having occurred in the agricultural sector from April 2003 to March 2004; summary of reportable fatal injuries in the agricultural sector for the ten year period from 1993-1994 to 2002-2003; summary of non-fatal injuries in the agricultural sector for the ten year period 1993-1994 to 2002-2003; estimated number of accidents having occurred within the agricultural sector during 2003-2004, and their costs; case studies describing some of the key causes of fatal and major accidents in the agricultural sector.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. vi, 66p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-1942 Wästerlund D.S., Chaseling J., Burström L.
The effect of fluid consumption on the forest workers' performance strategy
The heart rate and fluid consumption of four Zimbabwean forest workers engaged in manual harvesting were studied. Each worker was studied during eight consecutive working days. They consumed either 0.17L or 0.6L of water each half hour with one fluid scheme assigned to each day according to a randomized block design. All four workers were found to harvest large trees at the start of the working day and small trees at the end. All took longer to complete their task when on the low fluid scheme. However, the effect on the heart rate development varied for the individual workers as the strategies adopted to accommodate the stress inflicted by the low fluid scheme varied for the individual workers. It is recommended that sufficient fluid supply during work be accompanied by information of the workers on the needs and benefits of sufficient fluid consumption.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2004, Vol.35, No.1, p.29-36. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 03-1099 Personal protective equipment of forestry workers - Example of cost calculations - 2004 edition
Equipements de protection individuelle du personnel forestier - Exemple de calcul des coûts - édition 2004 [in French]
Persönliche Schutzausrüstung für das Forstpersonal - Kostenbeispiel - Ausgabe 2004 [in German]
Dispositivi di protezione individuale per il personale forestale - Esempio di calcolo dei costi - Edizione 2004 [in Italian]
Swiss law specifies that the employer has to provide personal protective equipment and ensure that it is in always in perfect condition. Aimed at employers in the forestry sector, this booklet lists the costs of new equipment for newly hired workers, as well as the annual replacement costs of the equipment based on its average lifetime. The following protective equipment is considered: helmets with built-in earmuffs, face shields and neck protection; ear muffs; jackets; trousers; gloves; boots; weatherproof coats. Update of CIS 02-598.
Suva, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 10th ed., 2004. 4p. [in German] [in French] [in Italian]

CIS 03-1446 Okumoto Y., Taruoka M.
Physical load analysis of bush cutting work using a biomechanical load model
Seirikigaku-moderu ni yoru kusakari-sagyōji no jintai-fuka-kaiseki [in Japanese]
Reducing physical work load in forestry work is important in Japan, where the majority of forestry workers is quite old (70% are above 50 years of age). This report concerns a study of forestry workers engaged in bush cutting. Physical exertions for lower-level cutting and for work on a slope were difficult to sustain for a long time. It is recommended to limit the duration of continuous cutting work in order to avoid excessive fatigue due to unnatural work postures.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 2004, Vol.80. No.2, p.49-56. Illus. 8 ref.


CIS 08-356 Strehlke B.
How we work and live - Forest workers talk about themselves - A global account of working and living conditions in the forestry sector
Forestry work is characterized by heavy workloads, dangerous working conditions and low pay. An important step towards improving the conditions of forestry workers was to find out who these forest workers are and what are their problems, concerns and frustrations. This booklet tells the stories of 55 forest workers from around the world. It captures the diversity of situations spanning different climates, cultures and national economies. The youngest worker interviewed was a 25-year old Brazilian and the oldest was a Swede in his nineties. Manual work, mechanized work and the whole range of forestry activities are represented. Collected over a period of two years, these stories reflect the current conditions of work in the forestry sector. Accounts from retired workers reveal how forestry work has evolved over many decades.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. vii, 115p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-127 FORWORKNET update - Focus on: Safety and health
Launched in 1993, FORWORKNET is an international network of some 300 individuals and institutions in 70 countries interested in forestry workforce issues. The primary functions of FORWORKNET are to enable its members to communicate directly with each other and to open new opportunities for international exchange and cooperation. These functions are mainly achieved by helping members to locate sources of information, advice or assistance. The network regularly publishes relevant news and information updates. Main topics addressed in this update: decent work in forestry; findings of a survey on retirement age, workload and working conditions of forestry workers in six European countries; analysis of accident causes; findings of an ergonomic study of forest firefighters; safe tree harvesting in storm damaged forests; brief reports from several countries (Switzerland, Guyana, Chile, Sweden, Germany, Slovakia); cancer among women forestry workers in Germany; forestry machine operator training; labour inspection; review of a conference on landscape protection.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Dec. 2003. 20p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 06-95 Jokić V., Borjanović S.
Neural conduction impairment in forestry workers exposed to vibration and in lead-exposed workers
This study examines the effects of two different adverse factors, lead and local vibration, on the peripheral nervous system in the upper and lower limbs. Detailed neurophysiological investigations were performed in 40 chainsaw workers, 26 lead-exposed workers, and 36 healthy male controls. Among the chainsaw operators, the maximal motor conduction velocity (51.4±5.6 m/s) was significantly lowered in the right and left median nerves (in 27-45% of subjects), compared to that in controls (58.2±6.1 m/s). In the lead-exposed group, slowing sensory nerve conduction velocity (54.0±10.6 m/s) was the most frequent pathological pattern.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.13-22. 28 ref.

CIS 05-209 Bell J.L., Helmkamp J.C.
Non-fatal injuries in the West Virginia logging industry: Using workers' compensation claims to assess risk from 1995 through 2001
The logging industry has a high rate of both fatal and non fatal injuries in comparison to other industries, and plays a vital role in the economy of West Virginia. Workers' compensation (WC) injury claims and employment data were examined to highlight patterns and rates of non-fatal logging injuries in West Virginia from 1995 through 2001. The average annual rate of injury claims was 16.0 per 100 workers per year with rates remaining relatively steady over the 7-year period. The highest rates of injury were a result of being struck by an object, typically trees, snags, or logs. Assessment of risk is a critical component in helping regulators, researchers and the logging industry develop viable prevention strategies to reduce the incidence and severity of occupational accidents.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.44, No.5, p.502-509. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 04-465 Niścigorska J., Skotarczak B., Wodecka B.
Borrelia burgdorferi infection among forestry workers - Assessed with an immunoenzymatic method (ELISA), PCR, and correlated with the clinical state of the patients
Borreliosis or Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by the introduction of one of a class of spirochetes (the most common being Borrelia burgdorferi) into the blood stream. It is spread through the bite of the common European tick Ixodes ricinus. The most frequent occurrence is found among forestry workers and inhabitants of wooded areas. Diagnosis is based on immunoserologic tests. This study involved 52 forestry workers in Poland who responded to a questionnaire and were subjected to medical examinations. 61% were found to be seropositive. Possible correlations between the results of serological and polymerase chain reaction tests with the clinical state of the patients were investigated. Despite finding IgM antibodies in 10 persons tested, which would indicate recent infection, no DNA of B. burgdorferi was detected in their blood. Also, no DNA of this bacteria was present in 8 persons with IgM and IgG antibodies. The clinical data suggested past symptomatic infection, or even more often, asymptomatic infection with B. burgdorferi
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.15-19. 41 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-100 Laing R., McDouall J., Stephenson S., Niven B., Parker R., Ashby L.
Better protection for the upper limb in New Zealand forestry workers is warranted
The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of work-related injury to the upper limb of forestry workers in New Zealand, to identify factors contributing to those injuries and if appropriate, to suggest modifications of the existing code of practice for the protection for the upper limb against injury. Several sets of injury data were examined, including data collected by the Centre for Human Factors and Ergonomics (1989-1999 for loggers; 1993-1999 for silviculture workers), and New Zealand public hospital discharge data from the New Zealand Health Information Service for 1989-1994. Estimates for the relevant New Zealand workforce were used to calculate injury rates. Body sites most often injured were the hand, digits and forearm. Lacerations and fractures were common, typically caused by plants, bushes, branches and cutting or piercing instruments. Revised codes of practice for various parts of the forestry sector are recommended.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2003, Vol.19, No.4, p.359-369 Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 04-218 Lamoureux P.
Non-portable rotor or rosser-head debarkers
Ecorceuses stationnaires à rotor ou à fraise [in French]
Aimed at all persons involved in safety in the woodworking sector, this safety information sheet examines the hazards linked to debarkers and their means of prevention. Contents: function; description; main features; conditions of acquisition, reception, layout and installation; conditions of use of existing machines; guidance on the safe start-up, use and maintenance.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2003, No.191, p.75-93. Illus. 26 ref.$FILE/nd2193.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1447 Laing R., Holland E., Niven B., Webster J.
General adult male population limited for sizing occupational protective clothing
The objectives of this research were to describe the body size and shape of New Zealand forestry workers in order to provide the basis for sizing protective clothing and other products; to identify any differences in dimension between the two main ethnic groups employed in the forestry sector; and to ascertain whether body dimensions of the comparable general New Zealand population (that is, males aged 16-65 years) differ significantly from those of forestry workers and of active firefighters. Sixty-five body measurements were obtained from a sample of 377 New Zealand forestry workers using direct measurement. Comparisons were made with body dimensions of sections of the general New Zealand population, and with body dimensions of active firefighters. It was found that the body dimensions of forestry workers more closely matched those of the general population of males matched by age than did those of active firefighters.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2003, Vol.19, No.5, p.477-487. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 03-1241
Health and Safety Executive
Fatal injuries in farming, forestry and horticulture 2002-2003
This is a report on the 38 fatal injuries that occurred in the agricultural sector (comprising farming, forestry, horticulture and associated industries) in Great Britain from April 2002 to March 2003. Contents: general statistics; causes and types of fatal injuries; analysis by employment status, month of the year and age of the victim. It also summarizes the reportable fatal injuries in the agricultural sector for the ten year period 1992/1993 to 2001/2002, and the non-fatal injuries, indicating points of interest and trends in fatal accidents involving employees, the self employed and members of the public during this period. Case studies are included showing what went wrong and how the accident could have been avoided. Previous report: see CIS 02-249.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 58p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 03-1399 Jones B.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Use and effectiveness of mobile elevating work platforms (MEWPS) for tree work
This report examines the use of mobile elevated working platforms (MEWPS) in the tree nursery sector. Various MEWPS designs were evaluated at different sites in order to assess the potential benefits of MEWPS over manual climbing and the factors which affect the performance of MEWPS in tree work. The report includes guidance on the selection of MEWPS for particular types of sites, operations and working practices in arboriculture. It was found that MEWPS offer a range of advantages including safer working environments, reduced efforts of the operator when gaining access to the working position and potential increases in efficiency and productivity.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 66p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1252
Health and Safety Executive
Managing health and safety in forestry
This booklet is an update of an earlier version (see CIS 99-1549) which successfully improved safety and health standards in the forestry industry. This revised version also clarifies the roles and tasks in relation to timber haulage to successfully manage safety and health in forestry and associated haulage. Contents: definition of management roles; the landowner role; the forestry work manager role; the contractor role; the subcontractor role. An appendix shows four examples of situations involving different relationships in the contract chain.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev.ed., Sep. 2003. 18p. Illus. 14 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1484 Kalimo R., Pahkin K., Mutanen P., Toppinen-Tanner S.
Staying well or burning out at work: Work characteristics and personal resources as long-tem predictors
The aim of this longitudinal study was to recognize the work characteristics and personal resources that are associated with burnout symptoms in the long term. The empirical analyses are based on questionnaire responses of a sample of 174 workers of a forestry enterprise at two 10-year intervals. Participants were classified according to the degree of their burnout symptoms. Four job-related factors, five factors relating to organizational culture, 10 work environment hazards and three individual variables were used as predictors. All the significant changes in work and personal resources during 10 years had shifted to the positive direction among workers with no burnout symptoms, and to the negative direction among those with serious burnout. Both the cross-sectional and the longitudinal predictors showed that factors related to the social processes at work seem to be crucial to burnout. Of the individual resources, a strong sense of coherence appears to be of particular importance.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2003, Vol.17, No.2, p.109-122. Illus. 40 ref.

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