ILO Home
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us Français | Español
view in a printer-friendly format »

Nickel and compounds - 215 entries found

Your search criteria are

  • Nickel and compounds


CIS 11-0675 Boffetta P., Fontana L., Stewart P., Zaridze D., Szeszenia-Dabrowska N., Janout V., Bencko V., Foretova L., Jinga V., Matveev V., Kollarova H., Ferro G., Chow W.H., Rothman N., van Bemmel D., Karami S., Brennan P., Moore L.E.
Occupational exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel, and renal cell carcinoma: A case-control study from Central and Eastern Europe
The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Central and Eastern Europe in relation to exposure to known and suspected carcinogenic metals. During 1999-2003, a hospital-based study was conducted in the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia, including 1097 cases of RCC and 1476 controls. Occupational exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel was assessed by teams of local industrial hygiene experts, based on detailed occupational questionnaires. The odds ratios (ORs) for RCC were 1.55 for exposure to lead and 1.40 for exposure to cadmium. No clear monotonic exposure-response relation was apparent for either duration of exposure or cumulative exposure to either metal, although the OR for the highest category of cumulative exposure to lead was 2.25. Exposure to other metals did not entail an increased risk of RCC.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.68, No.10, p.723-728. 37 ref.

CIS 11-0345 Goodman J.E.
Nickel metal not associated with lung cancer risk
This letter to the Editor consists of a critique to an article published in the journal in 2010 (see ISN 111556), which concluded that workers exposed to nickel, chromium and cadmium were at an increased risk of lung cancer. The letter focuses on nickel and contests the conclusions drawn concerning the carcinogenicity of the metallic form, citing various inconsistencies and lack of evidence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.419. 4 ref.


CIS 11-0519 Phillips J.I., Green F.Y., Davies J.C., Murray J.
Pulmonary and systemic toxicity following exposure to nickel nanoparticles
Nanoparticles are being used in ever increasing numbers in a range of industrial and medical products. Questions surrounding their potential to cause toxic effects in humans have been raised. Although animal experiments predict that nanoparticles are more toxic than their larger counterparts there are few descriptions in the literature of human exposure. A case described in 1994 has been re-examined from a pathology perspective. The subject, a 38-year-old previously healthy male, inhaled nanoparticles of nickel while spraying nickel using a metal arc process. He died 13 days after being exposed and the cause of death at autopsy was adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Nickel particles <25 nm in diameter were identified in lung macrophages using transmission electron microscopy. High levels of nickel were measured in his urine and his kidneys showing evidence of acute tubular necrosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.763-767. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 11-0239 Grimsrud T.K., Andersen A.
Evidence of carcinogenicity in humans of water-soluble nickel salts
Respiratory cancer risks in Welsh, Finnish and Norwegian nickel refiners add to the evidence of carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel. In Norwegian refiners, the first epidemiological study in 1973 identified high risks of lung cancer and nasal cancer among long-term electrolysis workers. Risk analyses based on exposure estimates developed in the 1980s supported the view that water-soluble nickel compounds were central in the development of cancer. Recently, new exposure estimates were worked out for the same cohort based on personal monitoring of total nickel and chemical determination of four forms of nickel. Additional data have been collected on life-time smoking habits and on exposure to arsenic, asbestos, sulphuric acid mists, cobalt, and occupational lung carcinogens outside the refinery. After adjustment for these potential confounding exposures in case-control analyses, the risk pattern added to the evidence of an important role of water-soluble nickel compounds as causes of lung cancer. These Norwegian cancer studies rely on national Cancer Registry data, considered close to complete from 1953 onwards and on National Population Register data continuously updated with mortality and emigration. Canadian mortality studies, perceived to offer the strongest support to the industry position not to recognise carcinogenicity of water-soluble nickel, appear to suffer from limitations in follow-up time, loss to follow-up, absence of risk analysis with individual exposure estimates, no confounder control, and a likely underestimation of cancer mortality. Rejection to recognise water-soluble nickel as a human carcinogen seems to contradict material epidemiological evidence that demonstrates a strong association between water-soluble nickel compounds and risks of lung cancer and nasal cancer. Independent international scientific bodies have classified nickel compounds as carcinogenic to humans, inclusive of water-soluble nickel.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, No.5:7. 6p. 38 ref.
Evidence_of_carcinogenicity.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0232 Beveridge R., Pintos J., Parent M.E., Asselin J., Siemiatycki J.
Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case-control studies in Montreal
Nickel, chromium VI and cadmium have been identified as lung carcinogens in highly exposed cohorts. The purpose of this study was to examine the etiological link between lung cancer and these metals in occupations that usually entail lower levels of exposure than those seen in historical cohorts. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal, from 1979 to 1986 and from 1996 to 2001, comprising 1,598 cases and 1,965 controls. A detailed job history was obtained to evaluate lifetime occupational exposure to many agents, including nickel, chromium VI and cadmium compounds. Lung cancer odds ratios were increased only among former or non-smokers: 2.5 for nickel exposure, 2.4 for chromium VI and 4.7 for cadmium. The metals did not increase risk among smokers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.476-485. 45 ref.

CIS 11-0219 Crépy M.N.
Occupational allergic skin diseases to metals. First part: contact allergies to nickel
Dermatoses professionnelles allergiques aux métaux. Première partie: allergie de contact au nickel [in French]
Occupational allergic skin diseases to nickel are mainly allergic contact dermatitis. Metallic nickel is present in the composition of many alloys and is widely used in industry. Exposed occupations include metalworkers, hairdressers, motor mechanics, cashiers, shopkeepers in contact with coins, construction workers and workers in the healthcare, food and cleaning sectors. Nickel metal and its salts are allergenic. The risk of sensitization depends on the amount of nickel ion released into the environment and the skin concentration of nickel. It is the allergen with the highest prevalence of positive patch tests. The etiological diagnosis is based on history, physical examination and testing for suspected allergy. Professional relevance of positive patch tests to nickel should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Prevention involves implementing all possible measures to reduce exposure. There exists a EU directive limiting the release of nickel from alloy objects: this includes jewellery, some personal items but it does not include coins or work tools. Occupational allergic skin diseases to nickel are compensated in France under Table 37 of occupational diseases in the general system of Social Security and under Table 44 for the agricultural system.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Mar. 2010, No.121, p.91-103. Illus. 80 ref.
TA_84.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0383 Rui F., Bovenzi M., Prodi A., Belloni Fortina A., Romano I., Peserico A.,, Corradin M.T., Carrabba E., Larese Filon F.
Nickel, cobalt and chromate sensitization and occupation
Exposure to nickel, cobalt and chromate are important causes of occupational contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of nickel, cobalt and chromate allergy in a population of consecutive patients of an occupational health clinic in Italy, and to investigate the possible association with individual and occupational risk factors. A total of 14,464 patients (67.6% women and 32.4% men) with suspected allergic dermatitis underwent patch tests. The associations between patch test results and occupations were studied by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Positive reactions to nickel sulfate were observed in 24.6% of the patients, while 10.2% reacted positively to cobalt chloride and 8.7% to potassium dichromate. Nickel sensitization was higher in women aged 26-35 years in comparison with the youngest group (15-25 years) and the older group (> 45 years). In women, the prevalence of positive reactions to nickel was positively associated with metal and mechanical work. Chromate sensitization was more prevalent in building trade workers for both women and men. Cobalt sensitization was associated with textile and leather work in women.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2010, Vol.62, No.4, p.225-231. 39 ref.

CIS 10-0362 Härenstam A., Kauppinen K., Solonin Y.G., Bojko E.R., Tevlina V., Syurin S., Tarnovskays Y., Sallinen M., Petruk Y., Butenko T., Milutka E., Lindbohm M.L., Helaskoski E., Retnev V.M., Grebnkov S.V., Lehtinen S.
Women and work
Collection of articles on women and work of relevance to Baltic and Nordic countries. Contents: progress and challenges of research on women and work; gender sensitivity with respect to women, work and health; women's work in the Komi Republic of the Russian Federation; specialists needed in the social institutions of the Archangelsk region; special features of respiratory pathology in female nickel electrolysis production workers; women and shift work; health status and working conditions of tram drivers in Saint Petersburg; role of occupational health services in the protection of pregnant workers; women's work from the occupational medicine viewpoint; revitalizing Finnish-Karelian collaboration in occupational health.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 2004, Vol.13, No.1, p.1-43 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Women_and_work.pdf [in English]
Zhenshchiny_i_trud.pdf [in Russian]

CIS 10-0083 Thyssen J.P., Skare L., Lundgren L., Menné T., Johansen J.D., Maibach H.I., Lidén C.
Sensitivity and specificity of the nickel spot (dimethylglyoxime) test
The EN 1811 European standard describes a sensitive reference method to estimate nickel release from products with direct and prolonged skin contact. Because assessments according to EN 1811 are expensive to perform, time consuming and possibly destructive of the test item, a non-destructive screening test such as the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) nickel spot could be useful. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the DMG test, spot testing, chemical analysis according to EN 1811 and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy were performed on 96 metallic components from earrings recently purchased in San Francisco. The DMG test was found to have a high specificity but a modest sensitivity. It may serve well for screening purposes.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2010, Vol.62, No.5, p.279-288. Illus. 40 ref.


CIS 09-1342 Thyssen J.P., Milting K., Bregnhøj A., Søsted H., Duus Johansen J., Menné T.
Nickel allergy in patch-tested female hairdressers and assessment of nickel release from hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks
The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of hairdressers' scissors and crochet hooks that released an excessive amount of nickel and to determine the prevalence of nickel allergy among patch-tested female hairdressers. Random hairdressers' stores in Copenhagen, Denmark, were visited and samples of tools were collected and analyzed. The prevalence of nickel allergy among female hairdressers was determined from the database of a Danish dermatology clinic. One of 200 pairs of scissors and seven of thirteen crochet hooks released an excessive amount of nickel. The prevalence of nickel allergy was lower among young hairdressers in comparison to older hairdressers. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2009, Vol.61, No.5, p.281-286. Illus. 38 ref.


CIS 09-644 Vaktskjold A., Talykova L.V., Chashchin V.P., Odland J.Ö., Nieboer E.
Maternal nickel exposure and congenital musculoskeletal defects
The objective of this study was to investigate whether women occupationally exposed to nickel in the nickel and copper refineries in the Kola region of Russia in early pregnancy were at elevated risk of delivering a newborn with a malformation or deformation of the musculoskeletal system. Data were obtained from the Kola Birth Register. Each record was assigned a categorical nickel exposure rating according to the occupation the delivering woman had at the time of becoming pregnant. Based on 22,965 births, 304 infants (13.3/1,000 births) were diagnosed with musculoskeletal defects at birth, especially for feet deformities. The incidence was high, but unrelated to maternal exposure to nickel. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2008, Vol.51, No.11, p.825-833. 47 ref.

CIS 09-144 Lidén C., Skare L., Nise G., Vahter M.
Deposition of nickel, chromium, and cobalt on the skin in some occupations - Assessment by acid wipe sampling
Nickel, chromium, and cobalt are important skin sensitizers. In this study, a previously-developed acid wipe sampling technique for assessment of skin exposure to metals was applied in some occupations where intense contact with metallic items occurs to gather experience for the design of future workplace studies. 18 volunteers (carpenters, locksmiths, cashiers, and secretaries as controls) participated. They performed their normal tasks during a job session for exposure. Samples were taken from fingers and palms by acid wipe sampling, and analysis of metals was performed by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The metals were detected in all samples, and the amount of nickel was larger than that of chromium and cobalt. Fingers were more exposed than palms. 8-h exposure to nickel was highest in locksmiths (mean 3.784µ/cm2) followed by carpenters, cashiers and secretaries. The acid wipe sampling technique appears to be suitable for studies of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt in the workplace. The amount of nickel deposited on skin in carpenters, locksmiths and cashiers is judged capable of eliciting allergic contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2008, Vol.58, No.6, p.347-354. Illus. 27 ref.


CIS 08-511 Hoet P.
Nickel and compounds
Nickel et composés [in French]
This review article on nickel (Ni) and its compounds covers the following aspects: routes of entry (ingestion from the consumption of food, skin exposure, inhalation exposure in occupational settings); toxicity (allergic dermatitis, possible nasal cavity and lung cancer). Exposure to metallic nickel has not been found to cause cancer in workers. There is a lack of evidence of a carcinogenic risk from oral exposure to nickel. The acute toxicity of nickel carbonyl is particularly high.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2007, No.154, 9p. 65 ref.


CIS 07-1112 Fernández-Nieto M., Quirce S., Carnés J., Sastre J.
Occupational asthma due to chromium and nickel salts
Exposure to chromium and nickel salts is a poorly characterized cause of occupational asthma. This article describes four patients with work-related asthma due to metallic salts. Skin tests to potassium dichromate and nickel sulfate were performed. The patients also underwent methacholine inhalation tests and specific inhalation challenges (SIC) with chromium and nickel salts. Two patients showed positive skin tests to potassium dichromate and nickel sulfate. All patients had bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, which increased 24h after SIC with metallic salts. SIC with potassium dichromate elicited late asthmatic reactions in two workers, one subject had an early asthmatic reaction, and another subject showed a dual asthmatic reaction. SIC with nickel sulfate induced a dual asthmatic reaction in one subject and a late asthmatic reaction in another. Chromium and nickel salts can give rise to occupational asthma in exposed workers. The underlying mechanism may be IgE-mediated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2006, Vol.79, No.6, p.483-486. 16 ref.

CIS 07-386 Lidén C., Skare L., Lind B., Nise G., Vahter M.
Assessment of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt by acid wipe sampling and ICP-MS
This article describes a technique developed for the assessment of skin exposure to nickel, chromium and cobalt based on sampling with cellulose wipes impregnated with 1% nitric acid. Chemical analysis was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recovery of nickel, chromium and cobalt from arms and palms was 93%. The analytical result is expressed in terms of mass per unit area (µg/cm2). The developed acid wipe sampling technique was found to be suitable for determination of nickel, chromium and cobalt deposited on the skin. The technique may be used in workplace studies, in studies of individuals in the general population, in dermatitis patients, in identification of risk groups, as well as in developing preventive strategies and in follow-up after intervention.
Contact Dermatitis, May 2006, Vol.54, No.5, p.233-238. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 07-384 Nieboer E., Thomassen Y., Chashchin V., Odland J.Ø.
Occupational exposure assessment of metals
Ocenka professional'noj vrednosti metallov [in Russian]
The main hazards resulting from occupational exposure to inorganic nickel compounds are respiratory cancers (nasal and lung) and hypersensitivity (contact dermatitis). Following a literature review of toxicological and epidemiologic studies relating to nickel and its compounds, this article describes ongoing work on the monitoring of workers' exposure to nickel in a nickel refinery in the Kola peninsula in the Murmansk region of Russia.
Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2006, Vol.9, No.1, p.6-10 (English); p.12-16 (Russian). Illus. 40 ref. [in English]


CIS 06-137 Gawęda E.
Occupational exposure to carcinogenic metals and metalloids in refining of heavy metals
Narażenie zawodowe na rakotwórcze metale i metaloidy w procesach rafinacji metali ciężkich [in Polish]
Concentrations of carcinogenic metals (cadmium, nickel) and metalloids (arsenic) were measured in workplace air during heavy metals refining processes. The tests were conducted in two large Polish plants, a copper smelter and a non-ferrous metals smelter, at workstations for the refining of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and silver and the production of nickel sulfate and selenium. The presence of arsenic in the workplace air was found in both plants. Exposure to cadmium occurred only in the non-ferrous metals smelter. The highest exposure was found at workstations in the lead and cadmium refining processes. The presence of nickel was found only at workstations with nickel sulfate production. The results highlight the need for routine measurements of arsenic concentrations at all workstations in the production of metals with a high degree of purity.
Medycyna pracy, 2005, Vol.56, No.2, p.161-165. 8 ref.


CIS 07-880 Stridsklev I.C., Schaller K.H., Langård S.
Monitoring of chromium and nickel in biological fluids of stainless steel welders using the flux-cored-wire (FCW) welding method
This study investigated exposure to chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in flux-cored wire (FCW) welding of stainless steel. Seven FCW welders were monitored by measuring Cr and Ni in the workplace atmosphere, blood and urine. The welders were also questioned about exposure to Cr and Ni, the use of personal protective equipment and their smoking habits. The mean workplace air concentrations were 200µ/m3 for total Cr, 11.3µ/m3 for Cr(VI) and 50.4µ/m3 for Ni. For Cr in whole blood, plasma and erythrocytes, the mean levels after work were 1.25, 1.68 and 0.9µ/l respectively. For Ni, most of the measurements in whole blood and plasma were below the detection limits. Mean levels for Cr and Ni in the urine after work were 3.96 and 2.50 µ/g creatinine, respectively. Correlations between the Cr(VI) levels measured in air and the levels of total Cr in the measured biological fluids were found. Monitoring of Cr in the urine may be a versatile method for evaluating the exposure of FCW welders to Cr(VI) in air. The results seem to suggest that external and internal exposure to Cr and Ni in FCW welders welding stainless steel is low in general.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2004, Vol.77, No.8, p.587-591. 12 ref. [in English]


CIS 03-1295 Peltier A., Elcabache J.M.
Used battery waste processing: A study in specialized undertakings
Traitement des déchets des piles et accumulateurs usagés - Enquête dans des entreprises spécialisées [in French]
Occupational exposures of 380 workers in fifteen enterprises specialized in the recycling of electrochemical batteries was evaluated. The survey shows that there is a high risk of lead exposure during the shredding and melting of lead batteries, a potential risk of mercury poisoning during pyrometallurgical processing, and that during the treatment of Ni-Cd batteries, air purification is not effective. The constant wearing of air purifying respirators is a measure that must remain temporary. Cadmium smoke and dust emissions need to be captured at the source. Appendices include schedules of occupational diseases caused by lead, mercury, cadmium and their compounds.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2003, No.192, p.5-19. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 03-799
Health and Safety Executive
Nickel and you
Contents on this leaflet on the hazards from exposure to nickel aimed at employees: what is nickel, and products and processes where it is found; modes of exposure; health hazards; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers, particularly under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1999 (see CIS 00-620); health surveillance; information of personnel.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 6p. 1 ref. [in English]


CIS 02-1770 Symanski E., Chang C.C., Chan W.
Long-term trends in exposures to nickel aerosols
A evaluation of the long-term changes in exposure levels to nickel aerosols was conducted using data from 10 nickel-producing and nickel-using industries. Significantly negative linear trends were found for exposures in the mining (-7%/yr), smelting (-9%/yr) and refining (-7%/yr) sectors, while exposures in milling showed a positive trend (+4%/yr). Effects of the work environment, process and nature of the job on exposure trends were evaluated. The decline in exposures was greater in workplaces with no ventilation compared with ventilated workplaces, in workers who performed similar rather than diverse tasks, and in North American workplaces compared with workplaces in Europe and Western Australia. These results could be used in the design of prospective sampling protocols and in future retrospective health-effect studies of workers in the nickel industries.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.324-333. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-1259 Schneider T., Lepicard S., Oudiz A., Gadbois S., Hériard-Dubreuil G.
A comparison of the carcinogenic risk assessment and management of asbestos, nickel and ionising radiation
French regulations and methodologies used for the assessment and management of the carcinogenic risk of asbestos, nickel aerosols and ionizing radiation are discussed and compared. The data collected reveal some significant similarities in the principle on which the assessment and management of risks of low-level exposure are based, and although the procedures used are based on relatively distinct instruments, they produce results that are not dissimilar and that in general reflect the shared concern to devise reasonable solutions with regard to the prevention of carcinogenic risks.
OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Le Seine St-Germain, 12 Boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, Nov. 2000. 83p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 01-1144 Queille-Roussel C., Graeber M., Thurston M., Lachapelle J.M., Decroix J., de Cuyper C., Ortonne J.P.
SDZ ASM 918 is the first non-steroid that suppresses established nickel contact dermatitis elicited by allergen challenge
SDZ ASM 918, a non-steroid selective cytokine-inhibitor developed for treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. In this study, 2 SDZ ASM 918 cream formulations were tested for their efficacy to suppress nickel contact dermatitis induced by 48h challenge with 5% nickel sulfate in water patches in 66 healthy volunteers with previous positive patch tests to nickel. The established allergic contact dermatitis was treated for 12 days. Evaluation of erythema, induration and vesiculation was performed. SDZ ASM 918 formulations were significantly more effective than corresponding vehicles.
Contact Dermatitis, June 2000, Vol.42, No.6, p.349-350. 6 ref.

CIS 01-493 Dawn G., Gupta G., Forsyth A.
The trend of nickel allergy from a Scottish tertiary referral centre
To analyse the change in trend of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from nickel in a specialized medical centre, 800 and 860 patients were patch tested in 1982 and 1997, respectively. The frequency of positive reactions to nickel was 16% in 1982 and 22% in 1997. The commonest age of onset in 1982 was in the 11-20 year age group while in 1997, this was 1 decade later. In 1997, a much higher female preponderance (F:M=13:1) was observed than in 1982 (F:M=6:1). The rate of atopy in patients with nickel ACD showed an increase from 23% in 1982 to 33% in 1997. Nickel was considered to be a contributory factor in 27% of patients in 1982 and 24% patients in 1997. The most common occupations were hairdressing in 1982 and nursing in 1997. In 1997 a massive increase in the number of patients showing positive reactions to other allergens in addition to nickel was observed. In both years, the hands were the main sites of involvement. However, in 1997 there was an increase in the number of patients presenting with face and neck involvement.
Contact Dermatitis, July 2000, Vol.43, No.1, p.27-30. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 01-1783 Lausch H.
Final report on a research project on the composition and structure of oxide components in environmental dusts released when manufacturing and machining nickel-containing metals - Nickel-containing dusts
Abschlussbericht zum Forschungsvorhaben "Untersuchung der Zusammensetzung und Struktur von oxidischen Komponenten in freigesetzten Stäuben in der Arbeitsluft bei der Herstellung und Verarbeitung nickelhaltiger metallischer Werkstoffe" - Nickelhaltige Stäube [in German]
This research project focused on the structural characterisation of the dusts released during grinding, welding or injection moulding of nickel-containing materials in the metalworking industry, and to highlight the existence of free unalloyed nickel or nickel (II) oxide. Dusts released during various operations were sampled and their nickel composition determined. Structure was examined by electron microscopy. Results showed that nickel was underrepresented compared to the base alloys or welding materials in almost all dust samples except those collected during repair welding of grey cast iron, and that it was present either as alloy particles with iron, chromium or as spinels. No free nickel or dinickel trioxide was found in the dusts.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Oct. 1999. 41p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 01-1767 Werner M.A., Vincent J.H., Thomassen Y., Hetland S., Berge S.
Inhalable and "total" metal and metal compound aerosol exposures for nickel refinery workers
Research was conducted at a Scandinavian nickel refinery to investigate exposures to compounds of nickel and several other metals as measured according to the conventional total aerosol approach and those as measured according to the inhalability criterion. Differences between measures of exposure were examined and related to the particle size distributions of the aerosols inhaled by the workers. Side-by-side comparisons were conducted, in which workers wore the two types of samplers simultaneously. Workers were also made to wear personal inhalable dust spectrometers (PIDS) which provided particle size distribution information. It was shown that inhalable aerosol exposures for nickel, copper, cobalt, lead and iron were consistently greater than the corresponding total aerosol exposure, tending to be more so for worksites where the aerosol was coarsest.
Occupational Hygiene, 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.93-109. 21 ref.

CIS 01-1123 Skerfving S., Bencko V., Vahter M., Schütz A., Gerhardsson L.
Environmental health in the Baltic region - Toxic metals
Recent reports on concentrations of lead, cadmium, methylmercury, arsenic and nickel in some biological media in populations of the Baltic region are reviewed. In particular, children in parts of Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany have uptakes of lead sufficient to cause adverse effects on the central nervous system and kidneys. Cadmium exposure is also high in Poland. Methylmercury uptake is dependent upon the intake of fish in Sweden and Finland, as well as along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. There are some indications of immunotoxic effects. However, fish also contain other immunomodulating agents. Exposure to arsenic seems to be low everywhere in the Baltic region. There is high nickel exposure in northern Russia.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.40-64. Illus. 199 ref.

CIS 00-1641 Approval testing of welders - Fusion welding - Part 4: Nickel and nickel alloys
Epreuve de qualification des soudeurs - Soudage par fusion - Partie 4: nickel et ses alliages [in French]
Parts 1, 2 and 3 of this ISO standard were covered by CIS 00-751, CIS 00-752 and CIS 00-1640, respectively. Topics: aptitude tests; nickel; ISO; metals; nickel alloys; qualifications; standard; welding and cutting; work aptitude.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., Apr. 1999. iv, 20p. Illus.

CIS 99-1942 Barceloux D.G.
Almost all cases of acute nickel toxicity result from exposure to nickel carbonyl. The initial effects involve irritation of the respiratory tract and nonspecific symptoms. Patients with severe poisoning develop intense pulmonary and gastrointestinal toxicity. Diffuse interstitial pneumonitis and cerebral edema are the main causes of death. Nickel is a common sensitizing agent with a high prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis. Nickel and nickel compounds are well-recognized carcinogens. However, the identity of the nickel compound or compounds which cause the increased risk of cancer remains unclear. Currently, there are little epidemiological data to indicate that exposure to metallic nickel increases the risk of cancer, or that exposure to the carcinogenic forms of nickel causes cancer outside the lung and the nasal cavity. Topics: acute toxicity; animal experiments; antidote treatment; asthma; carcinogenic effects; nickel carbonyl; nickel; chelating agents; chronic toxicity; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; first aid; health hazards; human experiments; irritants; literature survey; lung cancer; metabolic process; nasal cancer; nickel and compounds; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; toxicology; urinary excretion.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.239-258. Illus. 144 ref.

CIS 99-1910 Odland J.Ø., Tchachtchine V.P., Bykov V., Fiskebeck P.E., Lund E., Thomassen Y., Nieboer E.
Critical evaluation of medical, statistical, and occupational data sources in the Kola Peninsula of Russia pertinent to reproductive health studies
Following reports of possible reproductive and developmental health concerns among female workers in a Russian nickel refinery, a study was conducted to ascertain whether medical, statistical, and occupational databases could be used for information about pregnancy histories, occupational histories, and life-style factors of the women affected. A registry of all births in three towns with a nickel refinery was constructed and its contents verified against patients' records obtained from hospitals and community polyclinics. Municipal Registration Board, Regional Health Statistics Board and nickel company records were also reviewed. Reproductive/developmental outcome information and workplace histories were acceptable, and a cohort or cross-sectional study for the detection of an excess risk for spontaneous abortion with adequate statistical significance and power was possible. Such investigations would need to be supplemented by workplace environmental/biological monitoring assessments for evaluation of occupational exposure and a questionnaire aimed at workers to obtain information about life styles. Topics: nickel; compilation of statistics; complications of pregnancy; epidemiologic study; expectant mothers; exposure evaluation; health service records; parental exposure; Russian Federation; teratogenic effects; women.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 1999, Vol.72, No.3, p.151-160. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 01-1117 Michels P.E.
Nickel and chromium (VI) aerosols in workplace air in electroplating workshops
Nickel- und Chrom(VI)-Aerosole in der Luft am Arbeitsplatz galvanotechnischer Betriebe [in German]
Topics: aerosols; air sampling; nickel; chromic acid; chromium and compounds; description of technique; determination in air; electroplating; exposure evaluation; personal sampling; plating solutions; threshold limit values.
Die BG, July 1998, No.7, p.400-406. Illus.

CIS 00-800 Sorahan T., Burges D.C.L., Hamilton L., Harrington J.M.
Lung cancer mortality in nickel/chromium platers 1946-95
The mortality experience of a cohort of 1762 chrome workers (812 men, 950 women) from a large electroplating and light engineering plant was investigated for the period 1946-95. All subjects were first employed in chrome work at the plant during the period 1946-75, and had at least six months employment in jobs associated with exposure to chromic acid mist (hexavalent chromium). Based on mortalities for the general population of England and Wales, male workers with some period of chrome bath work had higher lung cancer mortalities than did other male chrome workers. Similar findings were shown for female workers. After adjusting for sex, age, calendar period, year of starting chrome work, period from first chrome work and employment status there was a significant relationship between duration of chrome bath work and risks of mortality for lung cancer. Duration of other chrome work was not a useful predictor of risks of lung cancer. Similar findings for both variables were obtained relative to risk of chrome nasal ulceration. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that soluble hexavalent chromium compounds are potent human lung carcinogens.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1998, Vol.55, No.4, p.236-242. 18 ref.

CIS 99-1557 Lidén C., Röndell E., Skare L., Nalbanti A.
Nickel release from tools on the Swedish market
The prevalence on the market of tools that release nickel was investigated. 27% of 565 hand-held tools with metal parts that come into contact with the skin reacted positively in a dimethylgloxime test. Release of nickel and other metals into artificial sweat, and composition of metals on the surface and in the base alloy were also studied. It is suggested that tool producers should consider nickel allergy and avoid nickel-releasing materials, and that analytical methods, relevant for nickel release from tools, should be further developed. Topics: nickel; evaluation of equipment; hand tools; sensitization; skin allergies.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1998, Vol.39, No.3, p.127-131. 15 ref.

CIS 99-911 Järup L., Bellander T., Hogstedt C., Spång G.
Mortality and cancer incidence in Swedish battery workers exposed to cadmium and nickel
In a long-term study of battery workers exposed to nickel hydroxide and cadmium oxide, there was an increased overall risk for lung cancer. No exposure-response relation was observed between cumulative exposure and risk of lung cancer. There was a highly significant risk of cancer of the nose and nasal sinuses, which may have been caused by exposure to nickel or cadmium or a combination of both exposures. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; cadmium; cancer; nickel; cohort study; latency; length of exposure; lung cancer; morbidity; mortality; nasal cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.55, No.11, p.755-759. 24 ref.

CIS 99-561 Kodama Y.
Health effects of nickel compounds (review)
Nickel no seitai eikyou [in Japanese]
A literature survey revealed an increased risk of nasal cancer and lung cancer in nickel refinery workers. Epidemiologic and animal studies show that nickel carbonyl is the most acutely toxic nickel compound. Information on poisoning by other nickel compounds is limited, but allergic contact dermatitis is associated with nickel, both in nickel workers and in the general population. Women are more sensitive to nickel than are men. Kinetics of nickel compounds vary between the compounds. Topics: nickel carbonyl; nickel; health hazards; literature survey; lung cancer; nasal cancer; nickel and compounds; ore reduction; sensitization dermatitis.
Occupational Health Review, Feb. 1998, Vol.10, No.4, p.139-158. Illus. 94 ref.

CIS 98-1361 Anttila A., Pukkala E., Aitio A., Rantanen T., Karjalainen S.
Update of cancer incidence among workers at a copper/nickel smelter and nickel refinery
Topics: cancer; nickel; copper; nickel sulfate; cohort study; foundries; frequency rates; gastrointestinal cancer; latency; length of service; long-term study; lung cancer; morbidity; nasal cancer; smelting plants.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 1998, Vol.71, No.4, p.245-250. 18 ref.


CIS 99-1625
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for nickel: Update
Topics: allergens; asthma; carcinogenic effects; nickel subsulfide; nickel(II) oxide; nickel(II) nitrate; nickel acetate; nickel; nickel(II) chloride; nickel sulfate; criteria document; eczema; exposure evaluation; glossary; haematotoxic effects; health hazards; heart diseases; immunobiological changes; limitation of exposure; literature survey; lung cancer; lung diseases; mutagenic effects; nasal cancer; neurological effects; renal diseases; sensitization dermatitis; skin eruption; toxic effects; toxicity evaluation; toxicology; USA.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 1997. xvii, 262p. Illus. approx. 530 ref.

CIS 99-924 Kiilunen M., Aitio A., Tossavainen A.
Occupational exposure to nickel salts in electrolytic plating
Exposure to nickel was measured in 38 nickel plating shops in Finland. The average after-shift urinary nickel concentration of 163 workers was 0.16µmol/L. After the 1-5 week vacation, urinary nickel concentration was higher than the upper reference limit of non-exposed Finns, indicating that a part of water-soluble nickel salts is accumulated in the body. Urinary nickel concentrations in the shops considered clean in an industrial hygiene walk-through were not different from those observed in the shops considered dirty. The correlation between concentrations of nickel in air and in urine was low, and the amount of nickel excreted in urine exceeded the calculated inhaled amounts, indicating exposure by other routes such as ingestion. Topics: breathing atmosphere; determination in air; determination in urine; electroplating; exposure evaluation; nickel and compounds; occupational health survey.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1997, Vol.41, No.2, p.189-200. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 99-923 Kiilunen M., Utela J., Rantanen T., Norppa H., Tossavainen A., Koponen M., Paakkulainen H., Aitio A.
Exposure to soluble nickel in electrolytic nickel refining
Past and present exposure to nickel was studied in an electrolytic nickel refinery where an increased incidence of nasal cancer had been reported. Levels of nickel in air, blood and urine were measured and genotoxic effects were studied by analysis of micronuclei from the buccal mucosa of workers. Airborne nickel concentrations varied between 230 and 800µg/m3 in 1966-1988; thereafter lower concentrations were observed (170-460µg/m3). After-shift urinary concentrations of nickel showed no correlation with nickel concentrations in air. Concentrations of nickel in the urine were still elevated after a 2-4 week vacation. The frequency of micronucleated epithelial cells in the buccal mucosa of these workers was not significantly elevated by comparison with referents. No relationship was observed between micronucleus frequencies and levels of nickel in air, urine or blood. Topics: breathing atmosphere; carcinogens; nickel; determination in air; determination in blood; determination in urine; electrolysis; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; job-exposure relation; long-term study; ore reduction; refining; respirators; soluble substances.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1997, Vol.41, No.2, p.167-188. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 98-198 Kanerva L., Kiilunen M., Jolanki R., Estlander T., Aitio A.
Hand dermatitis and allergic patch test reactions caused by nickel in electroplaters
Topics: eczema; electroplating; Finland; nickel; questionnaire survey; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1997, Vol.36, No.3, p.137-140. 28 ref.

CIS 97-1967 Bright P., et al.
Occupational asthma due to chrome and nickel electroplating
The clinical features of chrome-induced occupational asthma in seven subjects exposed to chrome and nickel fumes in metal electroplating works are described. Diagnosis was made from a history of asthma with rest day improvement, and confirmed by specific bronchial provocation testing with potassium dichromate and nickel chloride. Sensitivity to chrome may occur in situations where exposure levels are likely to be within the current exposure standards. There may be cross reactivity with nickel.
Thorax, 1997, Vol.52, p.28-32. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 97-1643
Health and Safety Executive
Nickel and its inorganic compounds: Health hazards and precautionary measures
This guidance note describes the occurrence, properties and use of nickel and its inorganic compounds, their effects on health (lung damage, nervous system effects, asthma, cancer of the nose and lung, skin sensitization, eye irritation), and legal requirements for the prevention and control of exposure: risk assessment; occupational exposure limits; engineering control; personal protective equipment; skin protection; maintenance of control measures; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; notification of reportable disease; information of personnel; and emergency procedures. Replaces CIS 92-259.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 1997. 7p. 21 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 97-1247 Diebold F., et al.
Assessment of exposure of welders to chrome and nickel in different arc welding processes
Evaluation de l'exposition des soudeurs au chrome et au nickel pour différents procédés de soudage à l'arc [in French]
Three welding processes were used by the welders studied: manual arc welding with covered electrode, semi-automatic gas-shielded bare wire metal arc welding and manual arc welding using a non-consumable tungsten electrode under inert gas shielding. For each work station a separate information sheet was established, with information on the operations performed, the work rate and the protection methods used. Personal sampling of the workplace air was performed in order to estimate pollution levels. A job-exposure matrix consisting of the three processes and of two metals (chromium and nickel) was drawn up as a result of the measurements. This matrix may be of use to epidemiologists when they try to establish a dose-effect relationship between exposure to these metals in welding operations and broncho-pulmonary cancer.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1997, No.167, Note No.2047-167-97, p.225-233. 9 ref.


CIS 99-1636
Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Laboratory
Nickel and inorganic compounds of nickel in air (except nickel carbonyl)
Topics: atomic absorption spectrometry; nickel subsulfide; nickel(II) oxide; nickel(II) nitrate; nickel(II) sulfide; nickel carbonate; nickel; nickel(II) chloride; nickel sulfate; data sheet; description of equipment; description of technique; determination in air; dust measurement; dust measuring instruments; evaluation of equipment; metal fumes; nickel and compounds; respirable dust; sampling and analysis; threshold limit values.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1996. 20p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 97-749 Nickel hydroxide
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. It is a carcinogen and should be handled with extreme caution. May irritate and burn the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause skin allergy and an asthma-like allergy. May affect the kidneys.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996. 6p.

CIS 97-596 Cavelier C., Foussereau J.
Contact allergy to metals and their salts
Allergie de contact aux métaux et à leurs sels [in French]
The principal topics of this information note are: allergy tests and allergological investigations; chromium; nickel; cobalt; mercury; palladium; other metals; differential diagnosis. In annex: hard metals; metal plating; alloys; basic data on corrosion; table of concentrations used in tests for allergies to various metallic salts.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1996, No.67, p-199-238. approx. 400 ref.

CIS 97-283 Radiation protection data sheets for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources
Fiches techniques de radioprotection pour l'utilisation de radionucléides en sources non scellées [in French]
These radiation protection data sheets are intended for supervisors and staff in the medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, university and industrial laboratories and departments where radionuclides are handled, and also for all those involved in safety and health at work in this field. They provide essential data on radiation protection measures during the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources. The eight data sheets published here cover nickel-63, gallium-68, selenium-75, krypton-85, indium-111, cesium-137 - baryum-137, iridium-192, gold-198.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.165, p.519-536. 5 ref.

CIS 96-1770 Morvai V.
Cardiovascular effects of metals
Studies of the toxic cardiovascular effects of metals in animals and humans are reviewed, in particular those of arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel and vanadium. Despite the numerous data available, the exact mechanism of metals in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease remains obscure. Future research needs are outlined.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.2, p.115-145. 194 ref.


CIS 01-353 Aitio A.
The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals - 119. Nickel and nickel compounds
Nickel is the most common allergen in patch testing. People sensitized to nickel are at elevated risk of hand eczema. Inhalation of soluble nickel and nickel oxides and sulfides causes nasal and pulmonary cancer whereas metallic nickel dust does not seem to be carcinogenic.
Arbetslivsinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1995. vi, 61p. 259 ref.

CIS 97-111 Morabia A., Ten Have T., Landis J.R.
Empirical evaluation of the influence of control selection schemes on relative risk estimation: The Welsh nickel workers study
Empirical evaluation of the theory that relative incidence rate (RIR) and relative risk (RR) can be directly estimated from cas-control studies that have different sampling schemes of controls. With data from the workers of a nickel refinery in South Wales, a nested case-control study of the relation of nickel exposure to respiratory cancers was conducted within each of four fixed subcohorts that differed for stability of exposure, incidence rates and RIR. Respiratory cancers were not rare as risk of nasal and lung cancer in workers unexposed to nickel varied from 15% to 26% over the full risk period. The RIR was adequately estimated by the OR when controls were identified concurrently to case occurrence throughout the risk period. The RR was well approximated with the OR when controls were a sample of the study base. These results add empirical support to the theory that the RIR or the RR can be validly estimated in case-control studies. Overall, this theory is relatively tolerant of large departures from the stability assumptions of exposure and of incidence.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1995, Vol.52, No.7, p.489-493. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 96-2088 Kieć-Swierczyńska M., Szymczak W.
The effect of the working environment on occupational skin disease development in workers processing rockwool
A total of 259 workers manufacturing insulation matting of rockwool and phenol-formaldehyde resin were examined. All subjects and a control group of 529 workers were patch-tested. Dermatitis was found in roughly every fourth subject examined, oil acne in every tenth. The development of dermatitis is attributed to the irritating effects of rockwool and the sensitizing action of phenol-formaldehyde resin and metals present in the working environment. Regarding the latter, the risk of nickel allergy appears to be six times higher, and that of cobalt allergy five times higher, in people exposed to rockwool as opposed to controls.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1995, Vol.8, No.1, p.17-22. 13 ref.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5 | next >