ILO Home
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us Français | Español
view in a printer-friendly format »

Iron and compounds - 27 entries found

Your search criteria are

  • Iron and compounds


CIS 09-817 Bourgkard E., Wild P., Courcot B., Diss M., Ettlinger J., Goutet P., Hémon D., Marquis N., Mur J.M., Rigal C., Rohn-Janssens M.P., Moulin J.J.
Lung cancer mortality and iron oxide exposure in a French steel-producing factory
A total of 16,742 men and 959 women ever employed for at least one year in a French steel mill between 1959 and 1997 were followed up for mortality from 1968 to 1998. Occupational exposures were assessed by a factory-specific job-exposure matrix validated with atmospheric measurements. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using local death rates (external references). Poisson regressions were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) for occupational exposures (internal references), adjusted on potential confounding factors. Among men, mortality was lower than expected for lung cancer compared to the local population (SMR 0.89) and higher than expected compared to the French population (SMR 1.30). A significant bladder cancer excess was observed among workers exposed to oil mist (RR 2.44). Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2009, Vol.66, No.3, p.175-181. 32 ref.

CIS 09-816 Bourgkard E., Wild P., Courcot B., Diss M., Ettlinger J., Goutet P., Hemon D., Marquis N., Mur J.M., Rigal C., Rohn-Janssens M.P., Moulin J.J.
Lung cancer mortality and iron oxide exposure in a French steel-producing factory
Mortalité par cancer du poumon et exposition aux oxydes de fer dans une usine sidérurgique française [in French]
The objective of this study was to highlight a possible relationship between exposure to iron oxides and the risk of lung cancer among workers of a French steel mill producing carbon steel. A historical cohort comprising all workers having ever worked for at least a year between 1959 and 1997 was constituted. Causes of death were determined from death certificates, while occupational exposures were evaluated with the help of a plant-specific job-exposure matrix developed by a panel of eight experts and validated by atmospheric sampling. The cohort consisted of 16,742 men and 959 women, followed-up for mortality from 1968 to 1998. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using local death rates. Poisson regressions were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) for occupational exposures, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among men, mortality was lower than expected for lung cancer compared to the local population (SMR 0.89) and higher than expected compared to the French population (SMR 1.30). A significant bladder cancer excess was observed among workers exposed to oil mist (RR 2.44). Other findings are discussed.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2009, No.118, p.209-220. 32 ref.$File/TF180.pdf [in French]


CIS 08-667 Flesch F., Tournoud C., Thaon I., Benhassine E.
Iron poisoning
Intoxications par le fer [in French]
Most acute intoxications caused by iron are the result of ferrous salt ingestion, either accidentally in children or more rarely in suicidal attempts among adults. The main toxic mechanism of iron is related to its capacity to induce the formation of free radicals, followed by lipid peroxidation. Classically, five clinical phases have been identified: gastrointestinal toxicity; transitory relative stability; systemic toxicity with shock, metabolic acidosis and coma; hepatotoxicity with coagulopathy; gastrointestinal scarring. Therapy includes supportive care, whole bowel irrigation and the use of deferoxamine, a specific iron chelator. Activated charcoal is ineffective. Chronic exposure to iron occurs primarily in occupational settings and causes pneumoconiosis following the inhalation of dust and iron oxides. Ocular siderosis is a chronic disease that may lead to a vision loss. It occurs when a particle containing iron penetrates in the eye.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2007, No.154, 6p. 53 ref.


CIS 03-771 Zhang Q., Huang X.
Induction of ferritin and lipid peroxidation by coal samples with different prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis: Role of iron in the coals
To establish whether differences in levels of bioavailable iron in coal may be responsible for the observed regional differences in the prevalence and severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), 29 coal samples from the coal mining regions of Utah (UT), West Virginia (WV) and Pennsylvania (PA) with CWP prevalences of 4, 10 and 26%, respectively, were found in vitro in human lung cells. Iron bound by chelating agents, ferritin and lipid peroxidation were found in increasing order of UT American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.42, No.3, p.171-179. Illus. 30 ref.


CIS 01-850 Flesch F., Thaon I.
Iron poisoning
Intoxications par le fer [in French]
Most cases of acute poisoning by iron are due to the ingestion of ferrous salts, either accidentally among children, or more rarely with an intention of committing suicide among adults. The main toxic mechanism of iron derives from its ability to induce the formation of free radicals and, consequently, the peroxidization of lipids. Iron poisoning evolves through four phases: digestive problems; transient clinical improvement; hepatitis; shock and acidosis; permanent after-effects on the digestive system in the form of stenosis. Besides symptomatic treatment, the treatment involves decontamination of the digestive tract, including intestinal lavage and chelating treatment with deferoxamine. Activated carbon is not effective. Chronic exposure to iron occurs mainly in occupational settings, and gives rise to overload pneumoconiosis due to the inhalation of iron oxide dust.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 1999, No.123, 4p. 28 ref.


CIS 98-631 Crinquand A., Boudret G., Laureillard J., Joly N., Gillet A., Iwatsubo Y., Brochard P., Choudat D., Ameille J.
Study of the respiratory morbidity in metal polishers exposed to crystalline iron dust
Etude de la morbidité respiratoire de polisseurs de métaux exposés à des poussières de fer cristallin [in French]
Topics: case-control study; chest radiography; France; iron oxide; length of exposure; male workers; manufacture of musical instruments; metallic oxides; one-second forced expiratory volume; questionnaire survey; respiratory diseases; siderosis; smoking; statistical aspects; vital capacity.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1997, Vol.58, No.8, p.648-653. 14 ref.


CIS 96-1770 Morvai V.
Cardiovascular effects of metals
Studies of the toxic cardiovascular effects of metals in animals and humans are reviewed, in particular those of arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel and vanadium. Despite the numerous data available, the exact mechanism of metals in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease remains obscure. Future research needs are outlined.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.2, p.115-145. 194 ref.


CIS 95-1508 Radiation protection data sheets for the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources
Fiches techniques de radioprotection pour l'utilisation de radionucléides en sources non scellées [in French]
These radiation protection data sheets are intended for supervisors and staff in the medical, hospital, pharmaceutical, university and industrial laboratories and departments where radionuclides are handled, and also for all those involved in safety and health at work in this field. They provide essential data on radiation protection measures during the use of radionuclides in unsealed sources. The seven data sheets published here cover chromium-51, cobalt-57, iron-59, molybdenum-99 - technetium-99m, technetium-99m, iodine-123 and thallium-201.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1995, No.158, p.85-100. 5 ref.


CIS 94-332 Wibowo A.A.E.
Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid
Health-based recommended occupational exposure limit for arc welding fume particles not containing chromium and nickel
Evaluation of the health hazards of exposure to arc welding fume particles not containing chromium and nickel. Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, monitoring; sources of exposure; environmental levels and human exposure; guidelines and standards; toxicokinetics; effects in animal experiments and observations of adverse effects in humans; previous evaluations by (inter)national bodies; evaluation of human health risks; recommendations for research. It is found that for either MIG-MAG/MS or MMA/MS welding fume particles, three elements dominate the composition from the health assessment point of view: iron oxide, manganese dioxide and silicon oxide. The most important health effects of exposure to welding fumes can be observed in the respiratory tract and (in the case of MS welding fumes) in the reduction of the male reproductive capacity. Based on the data available a limit of 1mg/m3 total fume particles, 8h-TWA is recommended for 'inert' welding fume particles. Detailed summary in Dutch.
SDU Uitgeverij Plantijnstraat, Afdeling Verkoop Publikaties Arbeidsinspectie, Postbus 20014, 2500 EA Den Haag, Netherlands, 1993. 69p. 88 ref. Price: NLG 30.00.


CIS 89-1544 Rudolph A.
Contribution to the safe operation of induction furnaces
Beitrag zur Betriebssicherheit von Induktionsöfen [in German]
Induction furnaces sometimes release molten iron along with cooling water into a pit, which frequently leads to damage by explosion. An explosionproof pit is described, consisting of a 25-30cm layer of granulated slag with a particle diameter of 0.5-3mm, through which the water runs off quickly while molten iron is retained through sintering of the top slag. The slag is kept in place by a perforated sheet of clay-graphite.
Giesserei, Oct. 1988, Vol.75, No.22, p.656-657. Illus.


CIS 85-941 Goller J.W., Park N.W.
A comparison of iron oxide fume inside and outside of welding helmets
Airborne iron-oxide fume concentrations were determined simultaneously at 4 body locations (left and right front shoulders, front chest, inside the helmet) during a normal welding task. The fume concentrations in the actual breathing zone inside the helmet were 36 to 71% lower than outside concentrations, depending on the type of welding and the welder's posture.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1985, Vol.46, No.2, p.89-93. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 84-1552 Stokinger H.E.
A review of world literature finds iron oxides non carcinogenic
Critical examination of reports and studies linking cancer of the respiratory tract with exposure to iron oxide of workers in iron ore mining, iron and steel production, foundries and welding. This investigation, data obtained from animal studies and experience gained in the manufacture of magnetic tapes all indicate that iron oxide is not carcinogenic. In most cancer cases studied, iron oxide particles seem to have acted as carrier for known carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or dimethylnitrosoamine.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.127-133. 39 ref.

CIS 84-1535 Peltier A., Demange M., Boulet A., Elcabache J.M., Guillemin C.
Prevention of siderosis. A survey of controls in enterprises, 1971-1982
Prévention de la sidérose. Bilan des contrôles en entreprises de 1971 à 1982 [in French]
More than 2000 samples were taken between 1971 and 1982 in 514 French enterprises where there was a risk of siderosis. The results of the analyses are presented by year and activity, and are related to the TLV (5mg/m3 for respirable dust and for ferric oxide). The TLV was exceeded in 29% of the cases, and in 42% of the samples connected with welding. Conclusions: prevention of siderosis must be pursued with determination; iron might constitute - in most metalworking activities - an initial "tracer" of pollution, permitting a quick evaluation of pollution in the workplace.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd quarter 1984, No.115, Note No.1477-115-84, p.193-196. 3 ref.


CIS 84-637 Taguchi T., Suzuki S.
Health effects of ferrite and the raw materials dust
42 workers manufacturing ferrite cores for television tubes and 33 controls were studied. 19 of them were exposed to a mean concentration of 9mg/m3 of a mixture of ferric, zinc, magnesium oxides and manganese carbonate, and 16 of them to 3mg/m3 spinelled (cubically crystallised) ferrite dust. X-rays showed small round opacities in 4 of 33 subjects exposed for ≥5 years. Exposed workers had significantly higher rates of coughing, respiratory disease, and hospital visits than controls.
Industrial Health, 1983, Vol.21, No.1, p.1-9. 23 ref.

CIS 83-1998 Lovejoy F.H.
Chelation therapy in iron poisoning
This editorial reviews the use of deferoxamine as a chelator in the treatment of iron poisoning. The action of deferoxamine, the rate of administration, the dose to be used and the duration of therapy are discussed.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1982-83, Vol.19, No.8, p.871-874. 19 ref.


CIS 84-768 Suenaka T.
Urinary excretion of heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu) following injection of Ca-EDTA
Oral administration and infusion of calcium-EDTA were compared, as means of therapy in workers exposed to lead (Pb), by monitoring urinary excretion of Pb, iron, copper, and zinc (Zn), after administration. Urinary excretion of these metals in toto was 10 times greater after infusion than after oral administration. Comparison of daily infusion for 3-8 days and infusion 6 times with 2 week intervals revealed no significant difference in total urinary excretion of the metals. As the excretion of Pb decreased, that of Zn increased. The method of administration and intervals used in Ca-EDTA therapy should be considered in the light of these findings.
Proceedings of the Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Edition of Industrial Health, Sep. 1982, Vol.20, p.23-26. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 84-58 Prilipko V.A.
Effect of ferrite dust on the body and establishment of hygienic standards for ferrite levels in workplace air
K voprosu o vlijanii pylej ferritov na organizm i gigieničeskoe normirovanie ih soderžanija v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Five chemically different ferrites showed weak pneumoconiotic effects and were toxic in chronic inhalation experiments with rats and mice. The ferrites altered protein and nucleic acid metabolism and liver function and produced morphological alterations in internal organs. The extent of the effects depended on the physico-chemical properties of the individual ferrites. Recommended MACs for dusts are: magnesium-manganese and manganese-zinc ferrites, 1mg/m3; nickel-zinc and nickel-copper ferrites, 2mg/m3; barium ferrites, 4mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.23-26. 4 ref.


CIS 82-1551 Guest L.
Quantitative determination of the exogenous and endogenous storage iron content of haematite workers' lungs
Mössbauer spectroscopy was used for the determination of the haematite and storage iron content of formalin-fixed lungs. The lungs were categorised according to whether they had been exposed to occupational dust or not. Those with no occupational dust exposure were classified as normal, tubercular and bronchitic. Lungs with occupational dust exposure were grouped according to occupation: coalworkers, foundry workers, pottery workers and haematite workers. Significant amounts of storage iron were found in all of the occupational lungs, including simple and complicated pneumoconiotic lungs, and in the group of bronchitic lungs (total iron contents from 1.31 to 11.20% of dried lung).
Analyst, June 1981, Vol.106, p.663-675. Illus. 40 ref.


CIS 80-1927 Leleu J.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 75. Elements in Group VIII
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 75. Eléments du Groupe VIII. [in French]
Description, with examples from the literature, of hazardous chemical reactions of iron, cobalt, nickel, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum, alone or in the presence of other substances or compounds.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1980, No.100, Note. No.1272-100-80, p.421-426.

CIS 80-1781 Kalliomäki K., Kalliomäki P.L., Kelha V., Vaaranen V.
Instrumentation for measuring the magnetic lung contamination of steel welders.
A technique and the required instrumentation for routine mapping of magnetic lung contamination in vivo is described. The apparatus consists of a patient chair which moves during the mapping between 2 transducers; 2 magnetising coils producing a magnetic field to magnetise the lung contaminants; a minicomputer for control, calculations, and recording. Measurements of lung contamination in mild steel and stainless steel welders are reported. Resolution is 0.1nT, corresponding to a sensitivity better than 1mg of magnetic contaminants in the form of iron oxides. The magnetic properties of welding fumes produced in these welding processes are reported.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1980, Vol.23, No.2, p.175-184. 17 ref.


CIS 79-1570 Loriot J., Félix M., Gacouin J.C., Proteau J.
Pulmonary siderosis of arc welders in the form of fatal diffuse interstitial fibrosis
Sidérose pulmonaire du soudeur à l'arc à forme de fibrose interstitielle diffuse d'évolution mortelle. [in French]
Communication to the French Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Society. The main observation is that exposure to harmful fumes is necessary for at least 10 years for an abnormal lung picture to develop, and the work must be performed in a confined atmosphere. A case of an arc welder with severe respiratory insufficiency presenting signs of diffuse interstitial fibrosis is presented. The chief risk factor is inobservance of protective measures. The pathogenic agent was probably crystalline or amorphous silica. Establishment of an adequate case history is essential for diagnosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Mar.-Apr. 1979, Vol.40, No.3-4, p.521-524.

CIS 79-1428 Axelson O., Sjöberg A.
Cancer incidence and exposure to iron oxide dust.
This is a report on a case-control study at a sulfuric acid production plant in Sweden. There was a high exposure to iron oxide dust, particularly hematite, with impurities of pentavalent arsenic and other metals. No excess of cancer was observed in the respiratory system or at other sites in the exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1979, Vol.21, No.6, p.419-422. 22 ref.


CIS 78-132 Baer H.P., Bech R., Franke J., Grunewald A., Kochmann W., Melson F., Runge H., Wiedner W.
Results of experiments in rabbits with sodium fluoride and antidotes
Ergebnisse tierexperimenteller Untersuchungen an Kaninchen mit Natriumfluorid unter Einwirkung von Gegenmitteln [in German]
7mg/kg fluoride was administered daily for a year. Fluorosis varied individually, but was of only minor degree. Equivalent quantities of boron and iron given daily as antidotes increased urinary fluoride excretion, normalised the enzyme system in the blood serum, reduced the fluoride content of bone on chemical analysis, and prevented thickening of the cortex of the long bones, as radiological and histological investigations showed. Prolonged administration of iron gave rise to toxic side effects and finally osteoporosis. Boron generally had a better antagonistic effect on fluoride and caused no toxic side effects.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Jan. 1977, Vol.23, No.1, p.14-20. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 77-1398 Patel K.C., Sheth S.M., Kamat S.R.
Arc welder's lung - A case report.
Report on a man employed for 18 years as a naval dockyard arc welder in whom lung fibrosis suggestive of arc welder's lung was diagnosed. Results of laboratory studies, lung function tests, radiography and lung biopsy are given. Development of the disease and the question of the fibrogenicity of iron oxide are discussed in the light of the relevant literature.
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, 1977, Vol.23, No.1, p.35-38. Illus. 13 ref.


CIS 74-972 Teculescu D., Albu A.
Pulmonary function in workers inhaling iron oxide dust.
Report on methods and results of lung function studies in 14 workers employed for 5 to 20 years in the production of pure red iron oxide (Fe2O3). Although the authors found marked radiological changes, there were no abnormalities compatible with pulmonary fibrosis.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 23 May 1973, Vol.31, No.2, p.163-170. Illus. 29 ref.


CIS 72-2273 Albu A., Schuleri E.
External ventilation and pulmonary mechanism in occupational siderosis
Contribution à l'étude de la ventilation externe et de la mécanique pulmonaire dans la sidérose professionnelle [in French]
A study of lung volume, ventilatory capacity and pulmonary mechanics in 14 persons with pure occupational pulmonary siderosis due to iron oxide inhalation in a chemical works gave the following mean values: vital capacity = 86,9%; total lung capacity = 92%; residual volume/total lung capacity = 29,2%; FEV% = 73,35%; maximum breathing capacity 93,6%; static lung compliance = 0.275L/cm H2O; dynamic lung compliance = 0,133L/cm H2O; dynamic resistance = 1,99cm H2O L/s; pulmonary elastic work=2,38g/cm. These figures indicate the absence of ventilatory disorders and interstitial fibrosis morphopathological changes in pulmonary siderosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan.-Feb. 1972, Vol.33, No.1-2, p.51-58. 13 ref.

CIS 73-361 Bergman I., Casswell C.
Lung dust and lung iron contents of coal workers in different coalfields in Great Britain
Lung-dust analyses from 7 British coalfields were compared, and it was found that average dust composition varies significantly with coal rank. The higher the rank, the higher the coal percentage and the lower the quartz percentage of the lung dust. Samples of airborne dust collected at the coalface in different coalfields show a similar but smaller variability of composition with rank of coal. The amount of iron in simple-pneumoconiosis lungs is related to their mineral and coal contents, and to the factor "years underground".
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1972, Vol.29, No.2, p.160-168. 18 ref.