Copper and compounds - 64 entries found
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Elenge M.M., De Brouwer C.
Identification of hazards in the workplaces of artisanal mining in Katanga
While artisanal mining takes place in casual framework and with total ignorance of good practices, few studies have focused on the origin of hazards specific to each workplace constitutive of this exploitation facility. Nevertheless, this study is a condition of an efficient occupational safety and health control in this sector. This study of the Ruashi artisanal mine in Congo identifies different workplaces and the hazards specific to each of them, through the observation and analysis of the various tasks, tools and processes used. The investigated exploitation facility consists of five categories of workers: diggers; crushers; washers; hand-made furnace workers; loaders. Beside the risks common to these various workplaces and ensuing notably from the lack of hygiene and working in bad positions, operating in underground galleries exposes diggers to the risks connected with collapsing parts of the mine, suffocation, dehydration or fine particles in the breathed air. Crushers are especially exposed to traumatism risks, notably ocular, and loaders are exposed to risks related to handling heavy loads. Several simple risk prevention measures are proposed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol.24, No.1, p.57-66. Illus. 24 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for copper (Update)
This profile has been prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of copper is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. There is little information on copper toxicity in man. Respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and dermal effects have been observed in factory workers following inhalation exposure and there are reports of acute gastrointestinal effects following ingestion of large amounts of copper. Long-term exposure to high levels of copper in food or water may cause liver and kidney damage, possibly leading to death. (Update of CIS 91-1263).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2004. xx, 272p. Illus. Approx. 880 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp132.pdf [in English]
Chlebda E., Antonowicz-Juchniewicz J., Andrzejak R.
The effect of occupational exposure to heavy metals and arsenic on the concentration of carotenoids in the serum of copper foundry workers
Wpływ ekspozycji zawodowej na ołów i arsen na stężenie karotenoidów w surowicy u pracowników huty miedzi [in Polish]
Occupational exposure to heavy metals and arsenic in moderate doses may lead to a decrease in the concentration of carotenoids in the serum of people at risk, thus reducing the efficiency of their antioxidative mechanisms.
Medycyna pracy, 2004, Vol.55, No.5, p.389-401. 40 ref.
Existing Chemicals Information Sheet. Overall, there are no data in the IPCS report to indicate copper is an irritant, genotoxic, carcinogenic or a reproductive toxicant. The data indicate that copper may have a limited skin sensitization potential, that is it may induce allergic contact dermatitis in susceptible individuals. There are reports that exposure to copper fume results in metal fume fever in workers. An occupational exposure standard exists for copper fume in Australia. In humans, gastrointestinal effects are associated with single and chronic ingestion of excess copper, though the greatest risk of human health effects is from an inadequate dietary intake of copper. Exposure limit in Australia (NOHSC 1995, 8h TWA): copper (dusts and mists) - 1mg/m3; (fumes) - 0.2mg/m3.
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS), GPO Box 58, Sydney NSW 2001, Australia, 2003. 5p. 5 ref.
http://www.nicnas.gov.au/Publications/Information_Sheets/Existing_Chemical_Information_Sheets/ECIS_CU_PDF.pdf [in English]
Borak J., Cohen H., Hethmon T.A.
Copper exposure and metal fume fever: Lack of evidence for a causal relationship
A systematic literature search was made on the topic of possible adverse health effects of inhalation exposure to copper fume and dust. Seven reports published over the past 88 years were identified that contain original human data and claim to document that exposure to copper dust or fume caused metal fume fever (MFF) or an MFF-like syndrome. Insufficient evidence was found to conclude that exposures to copper dust and copper fume cause MFF. Limitations included absence of exposure measurements, atypical symptoms and complaints, and lack of consistency among types of work associated with symptoms. Given the extensive use of copper in many industries and operations, it is evident that if copper-induced MFF does occur, it is a rare event.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.832-836. 52 ref.
Subra I., Hubert G., Aubert S., Héry M., Elcabache J.M.
Occupational exposure to metals in the machining of copper-, chromium- and arsenic-treated wood
Exposition professionnelle aux métaux lors de l'usinage des bois traités au cuivre, chrome, arsenic [in French]
Exposure was measured in two workshops where impregnated wood is machined. The chromium in the treatment solution is the most toxic form (chromium VI), but due to its reducing properties the cellulose in the wood tends to transform it during impregnation into what are probably trivalent components. As a result, worker exposure to chromium VI is minimal (at the limit of analytical detection). Generally, exposure to total chromium and copper is well below the limit values, both French and American. Only exposure to arsenic reaches significant levels in the two workshops. Although well below the current French limit value of 200µg/m3, it is above the limit value recently proposed in France (50µg/m3) and that adopted by ACGIH (10µg/m3). An efficient implementation of the prevention measures related to woodworking is sufficient for a good prevention of copper, chromium and arsenic related hazards.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 1999, No.175, p.61-68. Illus. 12 ref.
Approval testing of welders - Fusion welding - Part 3: Copper and copper alloys
Epreuve de qualification des soudeurs - Soudage par fusion - Partie 3: cuivre et ses alliages [in French]
Parts 1, 2 and 4 of this ISO standard were covered by CIS 00-751, CIS 00-752 and CIS 00-1641, respectively. Topics: aptitude tests; copper; copper alloys; ISO; metals; qualifications; standard; welding and cutting; work aptitude.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., Apr. 1999. v, 23p. Illus. 17 ref.
Chronic copper toxicity is rare and primarily affects the liver. Wilson's disease and Indian childhood cirrhosis are examples of severe chronic liver disease that results from genetic predisposition to hepatic accumulation of copper. Copper sulfate is a gastric irritant that produces erosion of the lining of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal symptoms occur at whole blood concentrations near 3mg Cu/L. Chelating agents (CaNa2EDTA, BAL) are recommended in severe poisoning, but there are little pharmacokinetic data to evaluate the effectiveness of these agents. Topics: acute toxicity; animal experiments; antidote treatment; biliary excretion; carcinogenic effects; copper; copper sulfate; chelating agents; chronic toxicity; copper and compounds; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; electrical industry; gastric disorders; health hazards; hepatic diseases; irritants; literature survey; medical treatment; metabolic process; toxicology; urinary excretion.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.217-230. Illus. 118 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Summaries in French and in Spanish. Topics: cardiovascular diseases; copper(I) oxide; copper; copper(II) chloride; copper sulfate; cirrhosis; copper and compounds; criteria document; dermatitis; eczema; hepatitis; ILO; IPCS; literature survey; metal fume fever; toxic effects; toxicology; UNEP; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1998. xxii, 360p. Approx. 1,130 ref. Price: CHF 72.00 (CHF 50.40 in developing countries).
Anttila A., Pukkala E., Aitio A., Rantanen T., Karjalainen S.
Update of cancer incidence among workers at a copper/nickel smelter and nickel refinery
Topics: cancer; nickel; copper; nickel sulfate; cohort study; foundries; frequency rates; gastrointestinal cancer; latency; length of service; long-term study; lung cancer; morbidity; nasal cancer; smelting plants.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 1998, Vol.71, No.4, p.245-250. 18 ref.
Cardiovascular effects of metals
Studies of the toxic cardiovascular effects of metals in animals and humans are reviewed, in particular those of arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel and vanadium. Despite the numerous data available, the exact mechanism of metals in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease remains obscure. Future research needs are outlined.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.2, p.115-145. 194 ref.
Ostiguy G., Vaillancourt C., Bégin R.
Respiratory health of workers exposed to metal dusts and foundry fumes in a copper refinery
Cross-sectional and longitudinal (7 years) survey of 494 long-term workers in a copper refinery, carried out from medical questionnaires, chest radiographs and forced spirometry, to assess respiratory health hazards in these workers. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and small airway disfunction (SAD) was 5% and 7%, which did not differ from the control population. The COPD and SAD were associated with cumulative smoking index. The mean reduction of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was 20(7)mL in non-smokers, 26(4)mL in smokers and 26(5)mL in ex-smokers. In the smokers and ex-smokers with COPD, the loss of FEV1 was 53(10). The prevalence of pleural plaques was 11% in older workers with known exposure to asbestos. The data suggest that low level long-term exposure to metal dusts, gases and foundry fumes does not necessarily cause respiratory dysfunction, circumscribed pleural plaques with low grades of width and extent do not reduce forced vital capacity (FVC) significantly and, finally, exposure to asbestos dust that produced pleural plaques does not necessarily produce airway dysfunction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.204-210. 51 ref.
Enterline P.E., Day R., Marsh G.M.
Cancers related to exposure to arsenic at a copper smelter
To verify earlier findings of a supralinear dose response relation between exposure to arsenic in air and deaths from respiratory cancer, and to examine relations with other cancers, an earlier study of 2,802 men who worked at a copper smelter for a year or more during the period 1940-64 and who were followed up for deaths during the period 1941-76 was updated until 1986. Estimates of exposure for the period 1977-1984 were added. The additional follow-up confirms the earlier finding that at low doses the increments in death rates for respiratory cancer for a given increment in dose are greater than at high doses. The additional follow-up also shows significant increases in cancer of the large intestine and bone, and SMRs >150 for cancer of the buccal cavity, pharynx, rectum and kidney. There was a positive relation between exposure to airborne arsenic and kidney and bone cancer, but none for the other cancers (except respiratory cancer).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.52, No.1, p.28-32. Illus. 26 ref.
Pines A., Klebanov M., Lemesch C., Alkaslassy D., Furth M., Meiri N., Ribak J.
Laboratory evaluation of combined exposure to lead, zinc and copper in secondary copper smelter workers
Compared with a control group of wood workers not exposed to metals, the exposed workers showed high mean blood Pb (29.8µg/100mL) and zinc protoporphyrin in blood (48.5µg/100mL), an increased Zn level in blood serum, and increased urine excretion of copper. The correlations in the study group were lead-dominated. There was a significant negative correlation between blood creatinine and the Pb blood level.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1995. Vol.1, No.1, p.5-26. Illus. 46 ref.
Pfister E., Böckelmann I., Brosz M., Ferl T., Winter C.G.
Determination of neurotoxic effects caused by long-term exposure to lead in the Saxony-Anhalt copper industry by means of psychometric performance tests
Ermittlung neurotoxischer Effekte infolge langjähriger Bleiexposition in der Kupferindustrie Sachsen-Anhalts anhand psychometrischer Leistungsdaten [in German]
The influence of long-term exposure to lead on perceptual-motor performance was studied in 109 workers of a copper smelter in the Land of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany (ex-GDR). The workers had been exposed throughout a 10-year period to permissible lead concentrations of somewhat above 0.025mg/m3, which amounted to somewhat more than one quarter of the exposure limit. The average blood lead level amounted to 31.2µg/dL which was less than half the biological threshold limit. The performance of the lead-exposed workers in 7 computer-aided psychometric tests was compared to that of a non-exposed control group of 27 workers of a mechanical engineering plant. No statistically significant relationship between the blood lead levels and the perceptual-motor performance was found for the exposed group. It is concluded that perceptual-motor performance is not a good indicator of the latent effects caused by a long-term sub-clinical exposure to lead.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.12, p.422-432. Illus. 58 ref.
Cohen H.J., Powers B.J.
A study of respirable versus nonrespirable copper and zinc oxide exposures at a nonferrous foundry
Personal air samples were collected from workers involved in the casting of a 70% copper and 30% zinc alloy. Samples were taken using 10mm nylon cyclones to categorize aerosols into respirable and nonrespirable fractions. Most of the copper (94%) and zinc oxide (65%) particulate matter collected was nonrespirable. On the whole, a larger proportion of samples of total particulate matter exceeded the OSHA PEL for these substances as fumes than did samples of respirable fractions. It is recommended that air monitoring should include particle size differentiation when comparing results to health standards for fumes or respirable dusts.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1994, Vol.55, No.11, p.1047-1050. 27 ref.
Copper (I) oxide
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; metal fume fever; nasal inflammation. Occupational exposure limits: TLV (as Cu, dusts and mists): 1mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1992); TLV (as Cu, fume): 0.2mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1991-1992).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.
Chen L.C., Peoples S.M., Amdur M.O.
Pulmonary effects of sulfur oxides on the surface of copper oxide aerosol
A system was developed that generates copper oxide aerosol similar to the primary emissions from smelters. The surface of the ultrafine copper oxide aerosol is coated with a layer of sulfur oxides consisting of sulfate, S(VI), and sulfite, S(IV). Guinea pigs were exposed to this sulfur oxide layered copper oxide aerosol, and pulmonary mechanical functions were measured by using the Amdur-Mead method. The concentration of sulfur oxides on the aerosol was determined by using a flame photometric detector system. Although sulfuric acid was not found in this system, S(IV) at concentrations as low as 0.36µmol/m3 delivered as a surface layer caused prolonged changes in pulmonary mechanical functions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1991, Vol.52, No.5, p.187-191. 13 ref.
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes; metal fume fever. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; effects on the lungs.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for copper
There is little information on copper toxicity in man. Respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic and dermal effects have been observed in factory workers following inhalation exposure and there are reports of acute gastrointestinal effects following ingestion of large amounts of copper. Long-term exposure to high levels of copper in food or water may cause liver damage and death. Dermal exposure results in allergic dermatitis in some individuals. Glossary.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Dec. 1990. xi, 143p. Illus. ca. 320 ref.
Cavelier C., Foussereau J., Gille P., Zissu D.
Allergy to nickel or cobalt: Tolerance to nickel and cobalt samples in man and in the guinea pig allergic or sensitized to these metals
The aim of this study was to evaluate, in animals and humans sensitive to nickel or cobalt, the tolerance to manufactured metal samples of nickel and cobalt of a defined metallographic structure, plated or not with a layer of chrome or copper/chrome of a determined thickness. Under the defined experimental conditions, a guinea pig sensitised to one metal (nickel or cobalt) was intolerant to both metals (nickel and cobalt). A plating of chrome or copper/chrome did not act as a protection. In the human, it was not the same: the tolerance to metal samples was determined by the specific sensitivity. A plating of chrome or copper/chrome did not act as protection.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1989, Vol.21, No.2, p.72-78. 14 ref.
De Boer E.M., Van Ketel W.G., Bruynzeel D.P.
Dermatoses in metal workers - I. Irritant contact dermatitis
In an epidemiological study of 286 metalworkers exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF), the prevalence of skin problems was investigated. Minor changes such as dry, rough skin with slight erythema were seen in 31%, and major changes, such as more serious and widespread dermatitis, were observed in 27% of all workers. By far the most cases were of irritant origin; in only 2.8% was a contact sensitisation established. Exposure to water-based MWF caused irritant contact dermatitis more often than exposure to neat oils. No influence was found of the presence of atopy on the occurrence of dermatitis. Other factors that may result in irritation of the skin are discussed as well as measures to be taken to minimise insult of the skin.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1989, Vol.20, No.3, p.212-218. 22 ref.
Romaguera C., Grimalt F., Vilaplana J.
Contact dermatitis from nickel - An investigation of its sources
Patch tests with the GEIDC standard series of allergens, and with 8 washers made of copper, nickel, nickel-palladium, palladium, brass, bronze, gold and iron, were carried out in 964 consecutive patients who complained of intolerance to metals and in 200 controls who did not. All subjects were also questioned as to personal and family history of atopy, occupational contact and intolerance to gold. The results provide support for the substitution of nickel in imitation jewellery with metals such as palladium or bronze.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1988, Vol.19, No.1, p.52-57. 43 ref.
Nekrasova S.V., Tašči P.V.
Polarographic determination of copper, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc and manganese in atmospheric air
Poljarografičeskoe opredelenie medi, svinca, kadmija, nikelja, zinka i marganca v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
An alternating-current polarographic method for the determination of 6 metals without prior separation is proposed. The method is based on reducing ions of copper, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc and manganese at a dropping mercury electrode with a supporting electrolyte of acetic acid and ammonium acetate. Samples are collected and prepared by pumping measured volumes of air through APHA filters, ashing the filters, treating the ash with concentrated hydrochloric acid and taking up the residue in electrolyte. Detection limits are 0.04µg/mL for copper, lead, cadmium and manganese and 0.08µg/mL for nickel and zinc. Iron and chromium do not interfere with the determination. Analysis after dissolving the sample takes about 30 minutes.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.48-49. 2 ref.
Cadmium fume inhalation and emphysema
Lung function and chest radiographs of 101 men who had worked for 1 or more years manufacturing copper-cadmium alloy were compared with those of a referent group matched for age, sex, and employment status. Cigarette consumption was similar in the two groups. The cadmium workers had an excess of abnormalities of lung function and of radiographic changes consistent with emphysema. Classification of the cadmium workers by exposure categories based on either estimated cumulative cadmium exposure or liver cadmium measured by neutron activation analysis showed that abnormalities of lung function were greatest in those with the highest cumulative cadmium exposure or liver cadmium. The difference in the transfer coefficient (KCO) between cadmium workers and referents increased linearly with increasing cumulative exposure without evidence for a threshold. The estimated mean decrement in KCO for a cadmium worker employed 5 or more years with a cumulative exposure of 2000 yr.µg/m3 (exposure to the current UK control limit of 50µg/m3 for a working lifetime of 40yr) lies between 0.05 and 0.3mmol/min/kPa (95% confidence interval). This decrement is consistent with the functional and radiological changes of emphysema observed in this group of workers.
Lancet, 26 March 1988, Vol.I, No.8587, p.663-667. Illus. 30 ref.
Possible toxic metal exposure of prehistoric bronze workers
An attempt was made to assess the possible occupational exposure to arsenic, lead, and mercury during the Bronze Age. Archaeological, metallurgical, and historical evidence is combined to form a picture of the potential toxic hazards. In the case of arsenic, a definite picture emerges of the effect of toxicity as a useful material is abandoned for health reasons on discovery of an acceptable alternative.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.44, No.10, p.652-656. Illus. 10 ref.
Kurljandskij B.A., Braude E.V., Kljačkina A.M., Toršina N.L., Hohlova S.B., Zasorina E.B.
Toxicity of copper phthalocyanine
Izučenie toksičnosti ftalocianina medi [in Russian]
Exposure of animals to copper phthalocyanine revealed very slight toxic effects of this pigment; it can adsorb to and dye the skin. The data obtained support the MAC of 5mg/m3 for phthalocyanine. It falls in hazard class III. The toxicity of copper phthalocyanine-based pigments is due to their contamination with soluble copper compounds.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1985, No.1, p.92-93. 3 ref.
Commission of the European Communities
Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals: Acrylonitrile, aluminium, chromium, copper, styrene, xylene, zinc
The available data on the human health effects, metabolism and biological indicators of these substances are reviewed. Conclusions reached: determination of the compound (or its metabolites) in urine may be used for evaluating exposure to acrylonitrile, water soluble chromium compounds, styrene and xylene; aluminium serum levels seem to be an indicator of the body burden and concentration in urine seems to be an indicator of current exposure; no sufficiently reliable biological indicators appear to be available for evaluating exposure to copper or zinc.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1984. 110p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Sigova N.V., Blohin V.A.
Toxicological characteristics of chromium phosphate binders
Toksikologičeskaja harakteristika hromofosfatnyh svjazujuščih [in Russian]
Chromophosphate binders are expected to find wide use in refractories and pigments. Chromium phosphate itself and mixtures containing copper, nickel, calcium-nickel and calcium-aluminium chromates were administered topically, intragastrically and by inhalation to rabbits, mice and rats. The compounds were irritant, producing gastritis on ingestion and brochitis on inhalation. LD50s ranged from 0.31 to 4.30g/kg, depending on compound and species. The mixtures were more toxic than pure chromium phosphate. The following MACs are proposed: for chromium phosphate and copper chromophosphate 0.02mg/m3 as chromium; for calcium aluminium chromophosphate 0.01mg/m3 as chromic oxide; for nickel chromophosphate and calcium nickel chromophosphate 0.005mg/m3 as nickel.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1984, No.6, p.50-52. 4 ref.
Sheehy J.W., Mortimer V.D., Jones J.H., Spottswood S.E.
Control technology assessment: Metal plating and cleaning operations
A control technology assessment of electroplating and cleaning operations was conducted by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Walk-through surveys were conducted at about 30 electroplating plants and 9 in-deph studies at 8 plants. Air sampling and ventilation data and other control information were collected for 64 plating and cleaning tanks. 31 of these were hard-chrome plating tanks, but cadmium, copper, nickel, silver and zinc plating tanks were also evaluated. Worker exposures were found to be controlled below existing and recommended standards.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Dec. 1984. 106p. Illus. 71 ref.
Copper - a hygienic and toxicological survey
Měd - hygienicko-toxikologický prěehled [in Czech]
This review covers: the incidence of copper in the natural and work environments, its metabolism, experimental toxicity by various routes of administration in various species and under different conditions (diet, administration protocol), toxicity and deficit of environmental copper, and ecological and hygienic aspects of environmental pollution by copper.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1983, Vol.35, No.8, p.340-345. 59 ref.
Armstrong C.W., Moore L.W., Hackler R.L., Miller G.B., Stroube R.B.
An outbreak of metal fume fever. Diagnostic use of urinary copper and zinc determinations
Symptoms of fever, dyspnoea, chills, headache and nausea were among those commonly reported by 26 workers involved in cutting brass pipes with electric cutting torches in an enclosed, poorly ventilated steam condenser. Clinical signs were limited to wheezing or rales in 8 patients. Leukocytosis and an increase in band cell forms were noted in 21 and 20 workers, respectively. The median time interval between exposure and onset of symptoms was 5h. Of 12 workers admitted to a hospital 5 had urine copper levels >0.05mg/l.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1983, Vol.25, No.12, p.886-888. 13 ref.
Takahashi W., Pfenninger K., Wong L.
Urinary arsenic, chromium, and copper levels in workers exposed to arsenic-based wood preservatives
Spot urine samples were collected from 89 wood treaters and 232 control subjects. Wood treaters averaged 103µg/l arsenic compared with 74µg/l in controls; respective figures for chromium were 41 and 63µg/l and for copper 191 and 221µg/l. Mean urinary arsenic levels of the wood treaters were within published normal limits. Urinary arsenic values can provide a useful index of occupational exposure to chromated copper arsenate wood preservatives when statistical adjustments are made for the effects of dietary arsenic.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1983, Vol.38, No.4, p.209-214. 18 ref.
Urinary excretion of heavy metals (Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu) following injection of Ca-EDTA
Oral administration and infusion of calcium-EDTA were compared, as means of therapy in workers exposed to lead (Pb), by monitoring urinary excretion of Pb, iron, copper, and zinc (Zn), after administration. Urinary excretion of these metals in toto was 10 times greater after infusion than after oral administration. Comparison of daily infusion for 3-8 days and infusion 6 times with 2 week intervals revealed no significant difference in total urinary excretion of the metals. As the excretion of Pb decreased, that of Zn increased. The method of administration and intervals used in Ca-EDTA therapy should be considered in the light of these findings.
Proceedings of the Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Edition of Industrial Health, Sep. 1982, Vol.20, p.23-26. Illus. 5 ref.
Logue J.N., Koontz M.D., Hattwick M.A.W.
A historical prospective mortality study of workers in copper and zinc refineries
Report of a study to determine if work in a copper and zinc refinery was associated with any excess mortality patterns. A cohort of over 4,800 workers exposed for at least 1 year in 9 zinc and copper refineries was studied (vital statistics and death certificates). Significantly high cause-specific standard mortality rates were found for: cerebrovascular disease (CBVD) for the cohort; all cancers, gastrointestinal cancers and CBVD for the copper subgroup; all cancers, respiratory track cancer and CBVD for one plant with a significantly high overall SMR. The significant excess of cancer death among the study cohort is due largely to the plant with the significantly high overall mortality rate, but lack of smoking data qualifies this finding. The CBVD excess seems consistent for all plants and warrants further research.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1982, Vol.22, No.5, p.398-408. Illus. 32 ref.
Harta Castaño A., Roch Martínez de Azcoitia M.
A rapid and simple method for the determination of copper in blood and urine
Un método rápido y simple para la determinación de cobre en sangre y orina [in Spanish]
Description of a method for the determination of copper in blood and urine, based on the catalytic action of metallic copper on the reduction of ferric salts by thiosulfate using sulfocyanide ion as an internal indicator. Using a calibration line it is possible to relate reaction time to the copper cation concentration. The results obtained using this method correlate well with those using more complicated techniques such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The method is particularly attractive for routine testing in view of its rapidity, low cost and the fact that little instrumentation is required. Studies of possible interfering reactions have shown that the test is selective for copper.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan.-Mar. 1981, Vol.29, No.113, p.23-26. 13 ref.
Suzuki Y., Toda K., Koike S., Yoshikawa H.
Cadmium, copper and zinc in the urine of welders using cadmium-containing silver solder
Urine samples from 12 male welders aged 20 to 50 years who had been engaged in work with cadmium-containing silver solder for 3-23 years were analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) and compared with samples from 5 controls. Mean concentration values of Cd, Cu, and Zn for welders were 26, 2.4 and 2.6 times those of controls. A linear relation was found between urine concentrations of Cd, and both Cu and Zn. In chromatographic analyses of samples from 2 welders suspected of suffering from Cd-induced renal injury, the metallothionein fraction contained Cd and Cu but not Zn, and the Cu content of this fraction was much greater than the Cd content. The Cd and Cu in this fraction represented 6 and 10% of totals; the remaining Cd and Cu were recovered from high molecular weight protein and low molecular weight non-protein fractions. Urinary Zn was present in both of these fractions. Cd accumulation affects the excretion of Cu and Zn in urine, and urinary excretion of metallothionein containing Cd and Cu may be involved in Cd-induced renal injury.
Industrial Health, 1981, Vol.19, No.4, p.223-230. Illus. 17 ref.
Kawahara K., Samamoto M., Kushihata T.
Correlation between renal dysfunction and imino acid in cadmium poisoning. 1. Urinary findings of copper and/or cadmium-administered rats for three months
In rats receiving copper (Cu) and/or cadmium (Cd), high correlation coefficients were found between (1) urinary Cd and both protein and free proline; (2) between urinary total proline and both free proline and free hydroxyproline; (3) between urinary Cd and calcium in the femur; and (4) between urinary proline and protein. Correlation was found between urinary imino acids in rats receiving 200ppm of Cu and Cd simultaneously or 200ppm of Cu alone. Urinary Cd, protein and glucose, and total and free proline can be used for early detection of chronic Cd poisoning.
Hokuriku Journal of Public Health - Hokuriku Koshu Eisei Gakkaishi, Oct. 1981, Vol.8, No.1, p.14-18. 16 ref. Price: Y.2000.
Suciu I., Prodan L., Lazar V., Ilea E., Cicîrla A., Olinici L., Paduraru A., Zagreanu O., Lengyel P., Györffi L., Andru D.
Research on copper poisoning
Yearly examinations were performed on 75-100 workers involved in grinding and sieving copper (Cu) dust, over a 4 year period. 4 stages of Cu poisoning were identified. In the first stage the serum Cu was > 80µg%, with increased alpha-2-globulins, red bloodcells and haemoglobin. There was also hepatomegaly, gingivitis and a yellowish green line on the gums. In the second stage nervous disorders, gastro-intestinal disorders with hepatomegaly, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and congestion of the face were also observed. Chronic irritative bronchitis, with yellowish green sputum, sexual impotency and non-secretory adenoma of the hypophysis with modifications of the sella turcica also occurred. The third stage was characterised by the appearance of organic lesions, sensitive polyneuritis and chronic hepatitis. In the 4th stage the organic symptoms were decompensated. Cu elimination from the body was obtained with D-penicillamine and chelation treatment.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1981, Vol.72, No.3, p.190-197. 8 ref.
The pathogenic effects of mixed dust generated in cadmium production
K ocenke patogennogo dejstvija pyli kadmievogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
Rats inhaling mixed dust from copper and cadmium ore concentrates (10mg/m3 and 2mg/m3) were studied by physiological, biochemical and pathomorphological methods to detect toxic and fibrogenic effects. Apart from functional impairments, the inner organs, examined morphologically after one month of exposure, showed inflammatory changes due to the absorption of the metals. Fibrogenic effects were detected after longer periods, involving high levels of oxyproline and lipids in the lung tissue during the second phase of the experiment. Increased lung mass is evidently linked to the formation of fibrous tissue and dust accumulation. As rats inhaling the 2mg/m3 concentration developed early functional and later organic damage, this level cannot be taken as an exposure limit.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1980, No.12, p.39-41.
Evaluation, from the point of view of physiology and hygiene, of a method for the continuous discharge of matte in reverberatory smelting of copper concentrates
Fiziologo-gigieničeskaja ocenka metoda nepreryvnogo vypuska štejna pri otražatel'noj plavke mednyh koncentratov [in Russian]
A study of 12 smelter workers before and after introduction of a new method for the continuous production of matte, including screening of the main radiant heat sources and use of local exhaust ventilation. The temperatures and speeds of air movement at the workplaces remained unchanged. The respiratory and pulse rates decreased, the latent period for sensorimotor reactions to light stimuli was shorter, and there was a fall in body temperature from 37°(±0.08) to 36.6°(±0.16). The quicker sensorimotor reaction may be due to the lower air concentration of sulfur dioxide.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1980, No.12, p.9-12. 4 ref.
Borg E., Nilsson C.A., Nygren O., Söderman C.
Sampling and analysis of wood dust from timber impregnated under pressure - I. Determination of total chromium, chromium(VI) and copper
Provtagning och analys av trädamm från tryckimpregnerat virke - I. Bestämning av totalkrom, krom(VI) och koppar [in Swedish]
This study on timber impregnated with a wood preservative containing Cr, Cu and As shows that 16% of the total Cr found in wood dust consists of slightly soluble hexavalent Cr. The additive hygienic effect of these substances in normally impregnated timber is greater than 1 at a dust concentration of 1.5mg/m3 (35% of the TLV for wood dust).
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 17184 Solna, Sweden, 1980. 23p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: Swe-cr.10.00.
Hyodo K., Suzuki S., Furuya N., Meshizuka K.
An analysis of chromium, copper, and zinc in organs of a chromate worker.
The content of chromium, copper, and zinc and the valency of chromium were determined in organs of a worker with considerable exposure to hexavalent chromium for 30 years in a chromate producing plant, who died of maxillary and lung cancer 10 years after his retirement. The chromium in the worker's lung averaged 3,555ppb compared to 86-399ppb in controls. Other organs also contained more chromium than those of the controls. The amounts of copper and zinc did not vary as widely. The ratio of hexavalent chromium to total chromium was 29.3% in the worker's and 12.9 to 38.7% in controls; the ratio for the other organs was higher.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 1980, Vol.46, No.2, p.141-150. 21 ref.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 67. Copper, silver, gold
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 67. Cuivre, argent, or. [in French]
Description, based on examples from the literature, of possible hazardous chemical reactions (fires, explosions) of copper, silver and gold in presence of some substances or compounds (hydrazoic acid, chlorates + sulfur, acetylene compounds, hydrogen sulfide, potassium hydroxide, hydrazine nitrate, ethylene oxide, ammonium perchlorate, phosphorus, chlorine trifluoride, peroxyformic acid, ammonium hydroxide, ozonides).
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1980, No.98, Note No.1234-98-80, p.123-125. 16 ref.
Technical progress and occupational hygiene in copper production
Tehničeskij progress i voprosy gigieny truda v metallurgii medi [in Russian]
Since the introduction of new ore reduction technologies (electric smelting of unroasted copper-sulfide concentrates, electric reduction in oxygen-blown cyclones, down-draft blowing on sinter lines) and in fire refining in revolving electric arc or induction furnaces, hygiene conditions have improved considerably in copper plants; the new processes involve fewer arduous jobs and less atmospheric pollution. New hygiene techniques such as local exhaust ventilation have contributed to reducing sickness absenteeism.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.1-5. 2 ref.
Herrmann G., Viehrig J.
Irritative respiratory tract disorders due to ammonia and sulfuric acid aerosols in a cuoxam spinning mill
Irritative Atemwegserkrankungen durch Ammoniak und Schwefelsäureaerosole in einer Kuoxamseidenspinnerei [in German]
The combined effects of these chemicals on lung function were studied in 80 workers. 24% had mild and 28% moderate lung function impairment. It is recommended to transfer affected persons to other jobs, and the need for medical follow-up is stressed. An industrial medical monitoring programme for this work is proposed.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Aug. 1979, Vol.25, No.8, p.581-584. 25 ref.
Gomez M., Duffy R., Trivelli V.
At work in copper: Occupational health and safety in copper smelting.
This study of conditions at all 16 US copper smelters, employing some 5000 production workers, identifies safety and health hazards, defines worker protection techniques, and evaluates company, government, and union efforts to protect workers. Vol.1 describes the health hazards affecting copper smelter workers and the methods available for their control: review of information on potential hazards (arsenic, sulfur dioxide, copper, noise; lead, iron, antimony, cadmium, silica, asbestos, aromatic hydrocarbons, heat); main points of the debate on the alternate approaches of engineering controls and personal protective equipment; detailed description of copper smelting processes, highlighting their hazards and available methods of control; findings of a 3.5-year study of the industry (engineering controls, industrial hygiene, safety, medical services, workers' rights); evaluation of the impact of regulations on copper smelting. Vols. 2 and 3 give profiles of the smelters owned by 8 companies.
INFORM, Inc., 25 Broad Street, New York 10004, USA, 1979. 3 Vols., 284 + 336 + 484p. Illus. 1432 ref. Price: US$70.00.
Esposito Iacenna V., Mazzella di Bosco M., Tarducci G.
New occupational diseases - Health effects of copper
Contributo alla conoscenza delle nuove malattie professionali - Patologia da rame [in Italian]
This literature survey covers: uses of copper compounds; normal copper levels in blood, urine and other tissues; acute effects (metal fume fever, acute poisoning); chronic effects (occupational poisoning, eczema, staining of hair and teeth, mucosal disorders, pulmonary fibrosis); diagnosis, chelation therapy; prevention (TLVs for fumes and dust, periodic medical examinations, compensation).
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, Jan.-Apr. 1979, Vol.66, No.1-2, p.75-81. 35 ref.
Rencher A.C., Carter M.W., McKee D.W.
A retrospective epidemiological study of morbidity at a large western copper smelter.
Sophisticated statistical techniques are used to compare smelter workers with employees at the mine, concentrator and refinery on the basis of weekly indemnity insurance claim forms. The refinery had the highest percentage of workers submitting claims, both in respect of respiratory disease classifications and overall morbidity levels. There was little evidence of excess morbidity at the smelter.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1979, Vol.40, No.8, p.695-701. Illus. 12 ref.
Joint Standing Committee on Health, Safety and Welfare in Foundries, Health and Safety Executive, London.
Safety during semicontinuous and continuous casting of copper and copper-based alloys.
Fifth report (for the 1st to the 4th reports see CIS 72-2042, 77-220, 78-1213 and 79-330) of the Subcommittee on Molten Metal and Water Hazards (formerly the Subcommittee on Continuous Casting and High-Speed Melting), summarising 12 years' work of the subcommittee investigating the cause and prevention of explosions that result from the inadvertent mixing of molten metal and cooling water, following reports of catastrophic explosions wrecking entire plants in the USA. The reports is divided into sections covering the following aspects: processes and equipment (open-topped moulds and submerged dies); melting and holding procedures; plant preparation; operating procedures; coolant supply and its systems; automatic warning and control; emergency services. Appendices: data and safety criteria from pilot-scale experiments on copper.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1979. 20p. Illus. 9 ref. Price: £0.80.
Health hazard from occupational exposure to metallic copper and silver dust.
The toxicity and occupational hazard of these metals is reviewed in a summary report. The data do not suggest that the prime metals produce disease in man. Both satisfy the requirements for definition as nuisance particulates, and should be regulated as such at the recommended level of 10mg/m3.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1979, Vol.40, No.3, p.245-247. 28 ref.
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