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Diseases of the musculoskeletal system - 1,719 entries found

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  • Diseases of the musculoskeletal system


CIS 12-0209 Preventica and occupational safety and health in the construction industry
Préventica et la prévention dans le BTP [in French]
This article consists of a short report of a conference and exhibition on occupational safety and health in the construction industry held in Lyon, France, 27-29 September 2011. It includes the interview of the secretary-general of the Professional organization for occupational safety and health in the construction industry (French acronym OPPBTP), focused mainly on the prevention of musculoskeletal diseases in this sector.
Préventique-Sécurité, Nov.-Dec. 2011, No.120, p.30-31. Illus.
Préventica_et_la_prévention_dans_le_BTP_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0078 Vézina M., Cloutier E., Stock S., Lippel K., Fortin E., Delisle A., St-Vincent M., Funes A., Duguay P., Vézina S., Prud'homme P.
Quebec survey on working and employment conditions and occupational health and safety (EQCOTESST) - Summary report
Enquête québécoise sur des conditions de travail, d'emploi et de santé et sécurité du travail (EQCOTESST) - Rapport sommaire [in French]
This report presents the main findings of a survey carried out among a random sample of 5000 workers aged 15 years or more in Quebec, Canada. Data were collected by means of phone interviews. Topics addressed included: conditions of work; non-occupational factors; violence, bullying and sexual harassment; state of health; musculoskeletal diseases; occupational accidents; mental health. Findings are discussed.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. v, 39p. 33 ref.
Enquête_québécoise_sur_des_conditions_de_travail_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Quebec_survey_on_working_and_employment_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0192 Ouellet S.
Task analysis for developing a training tool
Analyse de l'activité pour le développement d'un outil de formation [in French]
Based on the case of a butcher in an industrial meat-cutting plant, this article presents the approach taken by ergonomists when designing a training programme aimed at minimizing musculoskeletal risk, involving studying and understanding the various tasks carried out.
Travail et santé, Dec. 2011, Vol.27, No.4, p.18-21. Illus. 4 ref.
Analyse_de_l'activité_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in French]

CIS 12-0186 El-Bestar S.F., El-Mitwalli A.A., Khashaba E.O.
Neck-upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders among workers in the telecommunications company at Mansoura City
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and work-related risk factors of neck-upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among video display terminal (VDT) users. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted; there were 60 VDT users and 35 controls. The participants filled in a structured questionnaire and were subjected to electrophysiological tests and an X-ray of the neck. The prevalence of MSDs was higher (28.3%) among VDTs users compared to controls (14.3%), however with no statistically significant difference. The prevalence of cervical disorders with or without radiculopathy (18.3%) was the most common disorder followed by carpal tunnel syndrome (6.6%). The mean (SD) age of MSD cases (51 ± 7.2 years) was statistically significantly higher than of the controls (42.8 ± 9). Physical exposure to prolonged static posture (odds ratio OR 6.9), awkward posture (OR 5.5) and repetitive movements (OR 5.5) increased risk of MSDs with a statistically significant difference for static posture only. VDT users experienced more job dissatisfaction, work-overload and limited social support from supervisors and colleagues.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.2, p.195-205. 27 ref.
Neck-upper_extremity_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0178 Kausto J., Miranda H., Pehkonen I., Heliövaara M., Viikari-Juntura E., Solovieva S.
The distribution and co-occurrence of physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders in a general working population
The aim of this study was to describe the distribution and co-occurrence of physical and psychosocial risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders in a working population. It is based on data from the Health 2000 survey carried out in Finland in 2000-2001. The sample consisted of 2,491 men and 2,613 women who had been actively working during the year preceding the survey. Logistic regression and exploratory factor analysis were used to analyze the co-occurrence of the work-related risk factors. Exposure to high physical work load and several co-occurring work load factors was more prevalent among men than women. In women, as opposed to men, the highest exposure to most physical work load factors was found in their later work life. Gender and age showed weak associations with psychosocial work load factors. Low socioeconomic position, in both genders, was related to an increased risk of being exposed to several co-occurring physical or psychosocial factors. Physical exposures most frequently co-occurred with high job demands and low job control in men. Among women, physical exposures were found to co-occur with high job demands, low job control and job insecurity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2011, Vol.84, No.7, p.773-788. Illus. 51 ref.
The_distribution_and_co-occurrence_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0173 Binderup A.T., Holtermann A., Søgaard K., Madeleine P.
Pressure pain sensitivity maps, self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence among cleaners
Pressure pain threshold (PPT) mapping is a valuable method for the identification of distinct zones of mechanical pain sensitivity. Such approach was applied for the first time in relation to self-reported musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence within the last 12 months among cleaners. 29 cleaners filled out a self-administered questionnaire regarding health, work-related measures and musculoskeletal disorders. The level of pain in the neck and dominant shoulder and upper-back within the last seven days correlated negatively with most PPT measurements. The group of cleaners with long-term sickness absence had significantly lower levels of PPT in the neck-shoulder region than the cleaners with no long-term sickness absence. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2011. Vol.84, No.6, p.647-654. Illus. 28 ref.
Pressure_pain_sensitivity_maps_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0169 McDonald M., DiBonaventura M., Ullman S.
Musculoskeletal pain in the workforce - The effects of back, arthritis, and fibromyalgia pain on quality of life and work productivity
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of musculoskeletal pain on health-related quality of life and work productivity losses among United States workers. Data from the 2008 National Health and Wellness Survey involving 30,868 currently employed workers aged 20 to 64 years, workers with arthritis, back and fibromyalgia pain were compared with workers without those respective musculoskeletal pain conditions. Arthritis, back, and fibromyalgia pain were all associated with significantly lower levels of health-related quality of life, often at clinically meaningful levels. All pain conditions were associated with higher levels of work productivity loss, even after adjusting for demographic and health characteristics. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.53, No.7, p.765-770. 24 ref.
Musculoskeletal_pain_in_the_workforce_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0167 Bao S., Howard N., Spielholz P., Silverstein B., Polissar N.
Comparison of two different methods for performing combination analysis of force and posture risk factors in an epidemiological study
This study aimed to introduce a method of simultaneous combination analysis of multiple exposure parameters for large epidemiological studies of work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and compare this analysis method with the conventionally used job-level combination analysis method when applied in exposure-response analysis of work-related upper-extremity MSD. Health outcome (carpal tunnel syndrome, CTS) and physical exposure (forceful exertion and hand/wrist postures) data for 733 subjects were obtained from the baseline period of a 3-year work-related upper-extremity MSD study. Determinations of CTS cases were done based on a set of defined criteria. Physical exposure variables of several different types of forceful exertions and three different hand/wrist postures were collected onsite, processed, and analyzed using both a simultaneous combination and job-level combination analysis method. The commonly used job-level combination analysis method resulted in significantly different combination exposure distributions compared to the simultaneous combination analysis method, although the absolute differences were small. Both methods showed some significantly higher combined force-posture exposures among CTS cases than non-cases.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2011, Vol.37, No.6, p.512-524. Illus. 26 ref.
Comparison_of_two_different_methods_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0166 Roquelaure Y., Bodin J., Ha C., Petit Le Manac'h A., Descatha A., Chastang J.F., Leclerc A., Goldberg M., Imbernon E.
Personal, biomechanical, and psychosocial risk factors for rotator cuff syndrome in a working population
Rotator cuff syndrome (RCS) is a major health problem among workers. The aim of the study was to examine the risk factors for RCS among workers exposed to various levels of shoulder constraints. From 3710 workers, representative of a French region's working population, trained occupational physicians diagnosed a total of 142 cases of RCS among men and 132 among women between 2002-2005. Diagnoses were established by standardized physical examination while personal factors and work exposure were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Statistical associations between RCS and personal and work-related factors were analyzed for each gender using logistic regression modeling. The personal risk factors for RCS were age (odds ratio (OR) for 1-year increment 1.07 among men and 1.08 among women) and diabetes mellitus (OR 2.9among women). The work-related risk factors were: sustained or repeated arm abduction two hours or more per day, >90 degrees among men (OR 2.3) and >60 degrees among women (OR 1.8) or both conditions among men (OR 2.0) and women (OR 3.6); high repetitiveness of the task four hours or more per day among men (OR 1.6) and women (OR 1.7); high perceived physical demand among men (OR 2.0); high psychological demand among men (OR 1.7); low decision authority among women (OR 1.5).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2011, Vol.37, No.6, p.502-511. 37 ref.
Personal_biomechanical_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0165 Leinonen T., Pietiläinen O., Laaksonen M., Rahkonen O., Lahelma E., Martikainen P.
Occupational social class and disability retirement among municipal employees - The contribution of health behaviors and working conditions
This study examined, on the one hand, the associations between occupational social class and disability retirement due to all causes, musculoskeletal diseases, and mental disorders and, on the other hand, the contribution of health behaviors and working conditions to these associations. A total of 6516 middle-aged municipal employees from the Helsinki Health Study cohort baseline surveys in 2000-2002 were followed up until the end of 2010 for disability retirement. Social class was categorized into managers and professionals, semi-professionals, routine non-manual employees and manual workers. Cox regression analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. The risk of disability retirement was generally higher among those in lower social classes with a strong gradient for all causes, an even stronger gradient for musculoskeletal diseases, and a weaker non-linear association for mental disorders. These associations were largely mediated through physical workload among both women and men and hazardous exposures particularly among men. In mental disorders, job control also mediated the association. Strenuous desktop work and job demands widened the social class differences particularly among men and in mental disorders. The contribution of health behaviors was modest. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2011, Vol.37, No.6, p.464-472. 42 ref.
Occupational_social_class_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0162 Petit Le Manac'h A., Roquelaure Y., Ha C., Bodin J., Meyer G., Bigot F., Veaudor M., Descatha A., Goldberg M., Imbernon E.
Risk factors for de Quervain's disease in a French working population
De Quervain's disease (DQD) is a significant cause of musculoskeletal pain among workers. The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of personal and occupational risk factors for DQD in a working population. A total of 3710 workers from a French region were randomly included in the cross-sectional study between 2002 and 2005. There were 45 subjects with DQD diagnosed by 83 trained occupational physicians performing a standardized physical examination. Individual factors and work exposure were assessed by a standardized physical and a self-administered questionnaire. Statistical associations between DQD and individual and occupational factors were analyzed using logistic regression modeling in the whole sample and among women. The prevalence rates of unilateral or bilateral DQD for the whole, male and female working populations were 1.2%, 0.6% and 2.1%, respectively. Personal risk factors for DQD were mainly age and female gender. Work-related factors were workplace dependent on technical organization (odds ratio (OR) 2.0), repeated or sustained wrist bending in extreme posture (OR 2.6) and repeated movements associated with the twisting or driving of screws (OR 3.4). No association was found with psychosocial factors.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.37, No.5, p.394-401. 38 ref.
Risk_factors_for_de_Quervain's_disease_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0329 Driessen M.T., Proper K.I., Anema J.R., Knol D.L., Bongers P.M., van der Beek A.J.
The effectiveness of participatory ergonomics to prevent low-back and neck pain - Results of a cluster randomized controlled trial
The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to investigate the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics (PE) programme to prevent low-back and neck pain. A total of 37 departments were randomly allocated to either the intervention (PE) or control group (no PE). The randomization procedure resulted in 19 intervention departments (1472 workers) and 18 control departments (1575 workers). During a six-hour meeting, working groups followed the PE steps and composed and prioritized ergonomic measures aimed at preventing low-back and neck pain. Subsequently, working groups were requested to implement the ergonomic measures in the departments. The primary outcomes were low-back and neck pain prevalence and secondary outcomes were pain intensity and duration. Data were collected by questionnaires at baseline, and after 3, 6, 9 and 12-months follow-up. After 12 months, the intervention was not more effective than the control group in reducing the prevalence of low-back and neck pain or reducing pain intensity and duration. However, PE was more effective in the recovery from low-back pain.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 2011, Vol.37, No.5, p.383-393. Illus. 40 ref.
The_effectiveness_of_participatory_ergonomics_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0160 Waters T.R., Lu M.L., Piacitelli L.A., Werren D., Deddens J.A.
Efficacy of the revised NIOSH lifting equation to predict risk of low back pain due to manual lifting
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the Revised NIOSH Lifting Equation (RNLE) is a valid tool for assessing risk of low back pain (LBP) due to manual lifting by using combined data from two cross-sectional studies of 1-year prevalence. Results from a symptom and occupational history questionnaire and RNLE analysis for 677 subjects employed in 125 manual lifting jobs at nine industrial sites were combined from two studies. The odds of LBP increased as the lifting index (LI) increased from 1.0 to 3.0. A statistically significant odds ratio (OR) was found for both the 1 < LI ¿ 2 (OR = 1.81) and the 2 < LI ¿ 3 categories (OR = 2.26). For jobs with an LI value greater than 3.0, however, the OR remained non-significant. The 2 < LI ¿ 3 group remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and psychosocial factors. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.1061-1067. 34 ref.
Efficacy_of_the_revised_NIOSH_lifting_equation_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0157 Waters T.R., Dick R.B., Krieg E.F.
Trends in work-related musculoskeletal disorders - A comparison of risk factors for symptoms using quality of work life data from the 2002 and 2006 General Social Survey
The objective of this study was to assess trends in risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Results from two similar national surveys (2002 and 2006) examined trends in relationships between individual, psychosocial, and physical factors and MSDs. Findings between years were similar, but important differences included a stronger effect of "Work Stress" on "Pain in Arms," and a stronger combined effect of "Hand Movement" and "Work Stress" on "Pain in Arms." Also, two interactions were statistically significant in the 2006 data, but not in the 2002 data, revealing potentially increased risks. These were "Hand Movement" and "Work Stress" on "Back Pain," and "Heavy Lifting" and "Work Stress" on "Pain in Arms." New strategies for preventing both low back and upper extremity MSDs should focus on work stress, heavy lifting, and hand movement, individually and in combination.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.53, No.9, p.1013-1024. Illus. 15 ref.
Trends_in_work-related_musculoskeletal_disorders_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0152 Sorensen G., Stoddard A.M., Stoffel S., Buxton O., Sembajwe G., Hashimoto D., Dennerlein J.T., Hopcia K.
Role of the work context in multiple wellness outcomes for hospital patient care workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between low-back pain (LBP), inadequate physical activity and sleep deficiency among patient care workers. It was carried out in the form of a cross-sectional survey of 1572 patient care workers (response rate 79%). A total of 53% reported LBP, 46%, inadequate physical activity, and 59%, sleep deficiency. Inadequate physical activity and sleep deficiency were associated, but LBP was not significantly related to either. Increased risk of LBP was significantly related to job demands, harassment at work, decreased supervisor support and job title. Inadequate physical activity was significantly associated with low decision latitude. Sleep deficiency was significantly related to low supervisor support, harassment at work, poor ergonomic practices, people-oriented culture and job title. These findings point to shared pathways in the work environment that jointly influence multiple health and well-being outcomes.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.53, No.8, p.899-910. 99 ref.
Role_of_the_work_context_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0325 Brasseur G.
Waste sorting centre - Safety and health in waste sorting
Centre de tri - La prévention profite du tri des déchets [in French]
This richly- illustrated article presents the activities of an enterprise specialized in waste sorting. The opening in 2011 of a state-of-the art sorting plant contributed towards viewing waste truly as a raw material.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2011, No.722, p.2-11. Illus.
Centre_de_tri_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 12-0134 Prombumroong J., Janwantanakul P., Pensri P.
Prevalence of biopsychosocial factors associated with low back pain in commercial airline pilots
The aim of this study was to examine the 12-month prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and to identify individual, flight-related and psychosocial factors associated with the prevalence of LBP in commercial airline pilots. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a self-administered questionnaire delivered to 708 Thai airline pilots during their regular medical examinations. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to assess the associations between the prevalence of LBP and statistically significant factors. A total of 684 subjects (97%) returned the questionnaires. The 12-month prevalence of self-reported LBP among commercial airline pilots was 55.7%. An elevated risk of experiencing LBP was associated with occasionally to frequently encountering turbulence in the previous year, lifting luggage four or more times per duty period, perception of noise in the cockpit as being too loud, and perception of work hazards at intermediate to high levels. On the other hand, the factors that reduced the risk of experiencing LBP were performing vigorous exercise regularly and having 5-23 h rest breaks between flights.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.82, No.9, p.879-884. 29 ref.
Prevalence_of_biopsychosocial_factors_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0129 IJmker S., Huysmans M.A., van der Beek A.J., Knol D.L., van Mechelen W., Bongers P.M., Blatter B.M.
Software-recorded and self-reported duration of computer use in relation to the onset of severe arm-wrist-hand pain and neck-shoulder pain
The objective of this study was to examine the association between duration of computer use at work, measured with software and self-reports, and the onset of severe arm-wrist-hand and neck-shoulder symptoms. A 2-year follow-up study was conducted between 2004 and 2006 among 1951 office workers in The Netherlands. Self-reported computer duration and other risk factors were collected at baseline and at 1-year follow-up. Computer use at work was recorded continuously with computer software for 1009 participants. Outcome questionnaires were obtained at baseline and every 3 months during follow-up. Cases were identified based on the transition within 3 months of no or minor symptoms to severe symptoms. Findings are discussed. No association was found between the software-recorded duration of computer use at work and the onset of severe arm-wrist-hand and neck-shoulder symptoms using an exposure window of 3 months. In contrast, a positive association was found between the self-reported duration of computer use at work and the onset of severe arm-wrist-hand and neck-shoulder symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.68, No.7, p.502-509. Illus. 26 ref.
Software-recorded_and_self-reported_duration_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0124 Seidler A., Bolm-Audorff U., Petereit-Haack G., Ball E., Klupp M., Krauss N., Elsner G.
Work-related lesions of the supraspinatus tendon: A case-control study
The objective of this study was to examine the dose-response relationship between cumulative duration of work with highly elevated arms (work above shoulder level) as well as of manual material handling, and ruptures of the supraspinatus tendon in a population-based case-control study. A total of 483 male patients with radiologically-confirmed partial or total supraspinatus tears were recruited from 14 radiology practices in Germany, together with 300 male controls. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview. To calculate cumulative exposure, the self-reported duration of lifting/carrying of heavy loads (>20 kg) as well as the duration of work with highly elevated arms was added up over the entire working life. Results support a dose-response relationship between cumulative duration of work with highly elevated arms and symptomatic supraspinatus tendon tears. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2011, Vol.84, No.4, p.425-433. 27 ref.
Work-related_lesions_of_the_supraspinatus_tendon_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0119 Driessen M.T., Proper K.I., Anema J.R., Knol D.L., Bongers P.M., van der Beek A.J.
Participatory ergonomics to reduce exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors for low back pain: Results of a cluster randomised control trial
This study investigated the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics programme to reduce workers' exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors. 3047 workers from 37 departments of four Dutch companies participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial; 19 departments (1472 workers) were randomised to an intervention group (participatory ergonomics) and 18 departments (1575 workers) to a control group (no participatory ergonomics). During a 6h meeting guided by an ergonomist, working groups devised ergonomic measures to reduce psychosocial and physical workload and implemented them within three months in their departments. Data on psychosocial and physical risk factors for low back pain and neck pain were collected at baseline and after six months. Psychosocial risk factors were measured using the Job Content Questionnaire and physical risk factors using the Dutch Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Intervention effects were studied using multilevel analysis. Intervention group workers significantly increased on decision latitude and decision authority compared to control workers. However, exposure to awkward trunk working postures significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group. No significant differences between the intervention and control group were found for the remaining risk factors. Participatory ergonomics was not effective in reducing exposure to psychosocial and physical risk factors for low back pain and neck pain among a large group of workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2011, Vol.68, No.9, p.674-681. Illus. 40 ref.
Participatory_ergonomics_to_reduce_exposure_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0115 Andersen L.L., Mortensen O.S., Hansen J.V., Burr H.
A prospective cohort study on severe pain as a risk factor for long-term sickness in blue-and white-collar workers
The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the impact of pain in different body regions on future long-term sickness absence (LTSA) among blue- and white-collar workers. A representative sample of 5603 employees was interviewed in 2000, and followed in 2001-2002 in a national sickness absence register. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the risk estimates of mutually adjusted severe pain in the neck/shoulder, low back, hand/wrist and knees for onset of LTSA, defined as receiving sickness absence compensation for at least three consecutive weeks. Age, gender, body mass index, smoking and diagnosed disease were controlled for. In 2000 the prevalence among blue- and white-collar workers, respectively, of severe pain was 33% and 29% (neck/shoulder), 33% and 25% (low back), 16% and 11% (hand/wrists), and 16% and 12% (knees). During 2001-2002, the prevalence of LTSA among blue- and white-collar workers was 18% and 12%, respectively. Hand/wrist pain (risk ratio RR 1.49) and low back pain (RR 1.30) were significant risk factors among the total cohort. Neck/shoulder pain was a significant risk factor among white-collar workers only (RR 1.35). Knee pain was not a significant risk factor.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2011, Vol.68, No.8, p.590-592. 12 ref.
A_prospective_cohort_study_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 12-0001 Coutu M.F., Durand M.J., Marchand A., Labrecque M.E., Berbiche D., Cadieux G.
Presence and evolution of generalized anxiety disorder maintenance factors in workers undergoing rehabilitation for persistent pain of musculoskeletal origin
Présence et évolution des facteurs de maintien du trouble de l'anxiété généralisée chez des travailleurs en réadaptation pour une douleur persistante d'origine musculo-squelettique [in French]
The objective of this study was to better understand the nature of the anxious manifestations of workers with persistent musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), together with the extent of their problems, using a recognized model to document the presence, intensity and variation over time of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Close to forty workers participated in the study, half of whom showed symptoms of GAD. They were valuated at baseline and at various stages of their return to work by means of self-administered questionnaires. All the maintenance factors diminished significantly during the rehabilitation program. At the end, only 21% of the participants still presented GAD. The psychosocial factors already recognized in the MSD field do not seem to be significantly associated with the factors comprising the GAD model. However, the perception of benefiting from a safe work environment is associated with less risk of presenting GAD symptoms. The factors associated with returning to work or not are: usefulness of worry, fear of movement, dramatization of pain and the perceptions of benefiting from ergonomics and disability management.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2011. viii, 42p. Illus. Approx. 120 ref.
Présence_et_évolution_des_facteurs_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 11-0814 Linaker C., Harris E.C., Cooper C., Coggon D., Palmer K.T.
The burden of sickness absence from musculoskeletal causes in Great Britain
The objective of this literature survey was to evaluate the information provided by United Kingdom surveillance schemes and publicly-available datasets on sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). It is concluded that national statistics on MSD-related sickness absence are piecemeal and incomplete. This limits capacity to plan and monitor national policies in an important area of public health. Simple low-cost additions to the Labour Force Survey would improve the situation.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.458-464. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 11-0811 Öztürk N., Esin M.N.
Investigation of musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic risk factors among female sewing machine operators in Turkey
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic risks in female sewing machine operators at a textile company. The study sample comprised all 283 female sewing machine operators employed in the company. Data were collected through the use of the adapted Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and by direct observations via the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) to determine ergonomic risks. RULA is a validated tool for assessment of ergonomic risks. The mean age of the women was 30.2 and the mean number of years of employment was 13.4. The highest prevalence rates for musculoskeletal symptoms were in the trunk (62.5%), neck (50.5%) and shoulder (50.2%); 65% of the women had experienced musculoskeletal pain or discomfort over the previous six months. Pain intensity of these symptoms assessed with a visual analogue scale was found to be 3.5. Results of the RULA scores were found to be high (average of 6.9, with all scores >5). Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.585-591. 38 ref.

CIS 11-0890 Choobineh A., Motamedzade M., Kazemi M., Moghimbeigi A., Pahlavian A.H.
The impact of ergonomics intervention on psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms among office workers
This study aimed to investigate psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms among office workers of an Iranian oil refinery and also to examine the subsequent effects of ergonomics intervention on musculoskeletal discomfort and psychosocial risk factors. A total of 73 office workers as a case group and 61 office workers as a control group were randomly selected and examined. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and the Persian version of the Job Content Questionnaire (P-JCQ) were used as collecting data tools before and after the interventional program. Low back problem (28.8%) was found to be the most common problem among the office workers. Significant differences found between prevalence rates of reported musculoskeletal in upper back, lower back and feet/ankle regions before and after intervention. Findings showed that psychosocial variables were not affected by the intervention which consisted in ergonomic traning sessions. The only variables on the P-JCQ that were significantly different pre/post intervention are the physical variables: physical job demands, physical exertion and physical isometric load. None of the other psychosocial variables were found to be significant. With management support, improvements in all office workstation components were made successfully.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.671-676. 74 ref.

CIS 11-0888 Dutta T., Holliday P.J., Gorski S.M., Baharvandy M.S., Fernie G.R.
The effects of caregiver experience on low back loads during floor and overhead lift maneuvering activities
This study investigated the effects of caregiver experience on peak external forces and moments generated at the L5/S1 joint of the low back when maneuvering loaded floor-based and overhead-mounted patient lifting devices. Twenty caregivers were divided into more-experienced and less-experienced groups based on the product of two factors: their years of lifting experience and the frequency of lifting the caregivers had done in the past. Ground reaction forces and moments as well as motion capture data were recorded while caregivers performed five different maneuvering tasks with both lifts in each of three conditions (caregiver subjects worked alone, as the primary caregiver in a pair, and as the secondary caregiver in a pair). Six outcome measures (net external forces and moments at the L5/S1 joint) were recorded. Multivariate analyses of variance of all net external forces and moments were done separately for the floor and overhead lifts. A significant effect of experience level was found for the floor lift but not for the overhead lift. A follow-up univariate analysis of floor lift activities found significant differences between more-experienced and less-experienced caregivers. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.653-660. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 11-0806 Saidu I.A., Utti V.A., Jaiyesimi A.O., Rufa'i A., Maduagwu S.M., Onuwe H.A., Jajere A.M.
Prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries among factory workers in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria
Kano is a metropolis and commercial centre in northern Nigeria; it is highly industrialized. Most of the population does factory work. This survey was undertaken to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) and other related occupational hazards among factory workers in Kano Metropolis. Five hundred questionnaires were distributed to respondents recruited from tannery, steel rolling, textile and agrochemical factories at three industrial estates of the metropolis. Only unskilled and manual labourers were considered. Only 420 questionnaires were returned duly completed. Three hundred and fifty-three (84.05%) respondents were male and 67 (15.95%) were female, aged between 21 and 58 years (average 39 years). Low back complaints had the highest prevalence (85.71%), followed by upper limb injuries (40.71%), shoulder complaints (37.14%) and hip injuries (8.10%). About 41% of the respondents reported two or more work-related MSIs.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.1, p.99-102. 14 ref.

CIS 11-0886 Jones T., Kumar S.
Biomechanical loads and subjective stress exposure to lumber graders in sawmill industry
The aim of this study was to determine biomechanical loads and subjective stresses on lumber graders and associated morbidity in a high risk and repetitive sawmill occupation. The exposures of all 29 male sawmill worker volunteers were recorded. Motion and posture were studied with electro-goniometers, muscle loads were recorded with surface electromyography, and psychophysical stresses were assessed with subjective responses. Fifty-nine percent of the participants reported greater than moderate discomfort in their task-dominant upper extremity. Job performance required an average range of motion of 44°, 21° and 52° in flexion/extension, radial/ulnar deviations, and pronation/supination respectively. It also required an average of 9% maximum voluntary contraction force and was repeated an average of 34 times/min. This repetitive exertion over an 8-h shift was deemed to be a significant risk factor associated with prevalent upper extremity morbidity.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.17, No.1, p.87-97. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 11-0799 Milosavljevic S., Gregory D.E., Pal P., Carman A.B., Milburn P.D., Callaghan J.P.
The interaction between skill, postures, forces and back pain in wool handling
Wool handling is an important rural occupation where workers process 200 or more fleeces daily, separating them into various quality components. Loads and postures they experience carry substantial risk of low back pain (LBP). Although a formal skill training structure exists, interaction with loads and LBP is unknown. This study examined whether skill and LBP influenced trunk postures and loads of 60 wool handlers representing three skill levels. LBP prevalence ranged from 20% for junior (lowest skill) to 45% for open class (highest skill) wool handlers. Open class wool handlers demonstrated increased lateral bend and more axially twisted postures, generating greater medio-lateral shear forces and lateral bend and axial twist moments. LBP was associated with open class wool handlers spending more time in severe axially twisted postures. These findings suggest that skill-based training needs to be reviewed to reduce the quantity of axially twisted posture which may help reduce the prevalence of LBP in this workforce.
Applied Ergonomics, Nov. 2011, Vol.42, No.6, p.801-806. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 11-0676 Kaila-Kangas L., Arokoski J., Impivaara O., Viikari-Juntura E., Leino-Arjas P., Luukkonen R., Heliövaara M.
Associations of hip osteoarthritis with history of recurrent exposure to manual handling of loads over 20 kg and work participation: A population-based study of men and women
This study reviewed work histories of manual handling of loads >20 kg in relation to hip osteoarthritis by age, exposure and work participation. A nationally representative sample of 3110 Finnish men and 3446 women aged 30-97 was recruited. Diagnosis of hip osteoarthritis was based on standardized clinical examination by trained physicians. Previous exposure to physically loading work was evaluated through interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations between work factors and hip osteoarthritis. 1.9% of men and 2.1% of women had hip osteoarthritis. Almost half the men and a quarter of the women had recurrently handled heavy loads at work. Subjects who had manually handled loads >20 kg had a 1.8-fold increased risk of hip osteoarthritis compared to non-exposed references, when age, body mass index, traumatic fractures and smoking were accounted for. A work history of manual handling of loads >20 kg showed a strong association with hip osteoarthritis in all age groups except the youngest. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.68, No.10, p.734-738. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 11-0672 Öztürk N., Esin M.N.
Investigation of musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic risk factors among female sewing machine operators in Turkey
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic risks in female sewing machine operators at a textile company. The sample included 283 sewing machine operators, of mean age 30.2 years. Data were collected by means of an adapted Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and by direct observations via the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) to determine ergonomic risks. Women have both a high level of musculoskeletal disorders and high ergonomic risks. "Feeling pressured because of work" was the strongest predictor. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.585-591. 38 ref.
Investigation_of_musculoskeletal_symptoms.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0667 Kierklo A., Kobus A., Jaworska M., Botuliński B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists - A questionnaire survey
The objective of this study was to assess the musculoskeletal health of Polish dentists. It was carried in the form of a questionnaire survey of a cross-sectional sample of 220 dentists. The questionnaire addressed demographic details, work duration and acquired specialization, organization and methods of work, and musculoskeletal disorders. It was found that over 92% of the surveyed dentists experienced MSDs, especially in the neck (47%) and lower back (35%). More than 29% experienced trouble with fingers, 23% with hip, 20% in the mid-back, 20% in the shoulders, 18.3% in the wrists and 15-16% in knees, feet or elbows. Statistical dependence was shown between the years of practice and the period of time when disorders occurred. Moreover, significant relationships were found between MSDs and both standing work position and non-use of rest breaks. Implications of these findings are discussed.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2011, Vol.18, p.79-84. Illus. 21 ref.
Work-related_musculoskeletal_disorders.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0726 Samani A., Fernández-Carnero J., Arendt-Nielsen L., Madeleine P.
Interactive effects of acute experimental pain in trapezius and sored wrist extensor on the electromyography of the forearm muscles during computer work
This study investigated the interactive effects of shoulder pain and wrist extensor muscle soreness on surface electromyography (EMG) during computer mouse work. On day one, 12 subjects performed computer work with/without acute muscle pain induced in the trapezius muscle. Subsequently, eccentric exercise was performed to induce delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) in wrist extensor muscles. In presence of DOMS on day two, computer work recordings with/without pain were repeated. EMG signals were recorded from the descending part of trapezius bilaterally, flexor carpi ulnaris and extensor carpi radialis brevis. Experimental muscle pain in trapezius led to a decrease in the muscular activity of the wrist extensor and decreased the relative rest time in the wrist flexor even in presence of DOMS. These results suggest that shoulder pain plays a role in the coordination of wrist flexors and extensors during computer work.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2011, Vol.42, No.5, p.735-740. Illus. 58 ref.

CIS 11-0522 Webb T.S., Wells T.S.
Civil engineering airman at increased risk for injuries and injury-related musculoskeletal disorders
The purpose of this study was to examine the United States Air Force Civil Engineering career field to determine if they are negatively impacted by their work environment. Specifically, the objective of this study was to determine if 25,385 enlisted civil engineering airmen were at increased risk for injury or injury-related musculoskeletal disorders compared to 28,947 enlisted information management/communications airmen. Using an historical prospective design, electronic data were assembled and analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards modelling. Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for race/ethnicity, marital status, birth year and deployment status. Male civil engineers were observed to be at greater risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR 1.86) and injuries (HR 1.77), while female civil engineers were more than double the risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR 2.18) and injuries (HR 2.22) compared to information management/communications airmen. Based on these results, additional resources were allocated to survey civil engineers on their physical work demands and job requirements to identify key problem areas for further study and mitigation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.248-254. 26 ref.

CIS 11-0521 Gell N., Werner R.A., Hartigan A., Wiggermann N., Keyserling W.M.
Risk factors for lower extremity fatigue among assembly plant workers
Work-related fatigue of the lower extremities is a known cause of lost productivity and significant employer costs. This cross sectional study was conducted in an automotive assembly plant on employees with at least six months of tenure. Fatigue severity data were collected via questionnaires. Jobs were evaluated for lower extremity ergonomic exposures via videotaping, pedometers, interviews and industrial engineering records. Lower extremity fatigue at the end of the work day was associated with a higher prevalence of smoking, rheumatoid arthritis, job dissatisfaction, use of shoes with firmer outsoles, and increased time on the job spent standing or walking. Supervisor support and increased time spent on carpet were protective. Lower extremity fatigue that interfered with activities outside of work had additional risk factors including higher BMI, prior diagnosis of osteoarthritis and increased hours per week spent working. While these results identify carpet as being protective against lower extremity fatigue, no similar relationship was identified for anti-fatigue mats. No adverse relationship was found between hard surfaces such as concrete and lower extremity fatigue. Given the high costs associated with work-related fatigue, future areas for potential intervention include smoking cessation, specific shoe recommendations and enhancing psychosocial aspects of work such as supervisor support.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.216-223. 16 ref.

CIS 11-0495 Shafiezadeh K.R.
Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among paramedics working in a large hospital in Ahwaz, Southwestern Iran in 2010
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are common among employees throughout the world, particularly in high risk groups such as nurses. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of MSDs among nurses in a large hospital in Iran, and to examine its correlation with gender, age, shift working, years of service and smoking. Data were collected by means of self-administered Nordic questionnaires for MSDs from 161 subjects (response rate of 83%). More than 90% of subjects reported at least one MSD in the previous week. The most prevalent site affected was that of neck (64%) followed by head (62.1%), knees (54.7%) and wrists/hands (49.7%); the least frequent disorder was that of elbows (14.3%). MSD was more common among women and increased with age and years of service. It is suggested that nursing staff engage in an exercise programme at their work place to lower the risk of MSDs and promote work efficiency.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2011, Vol.2, No.3, p.157-165. 25 ref.
Prevalence.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0355 Kaufman-Cohen Y., Ratzon N.Z.
Correlation between risk factors and musculoskeletal disorders among classical musicians
Musculoskeletal disorders in humans may originate from biomechanical, environmental, psychosocial and personal risk factors encountered in the working environment. These disorders in musicians are designated as playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD). The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between biomechanical, environmental, psychosocial and personal risk factors and potential incidence of PRMD arising in professional classical musicians. Fifty-nine orchestral classical musicians were observed. They also filled out questionnaires providing information regarding musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors and demography. Clinical observation using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) showed significantly higher scores in string musicians compared with woodwind and brass players. A multivariate regression model showed statistical significance for five of the six dependent variables regarding prevalence of painful joints, severity of musculoskeletal symptoms and functional limitation. The regression analysis revealed that biomechanical risk factors, perceived physical environment risk factors, instrument weight and average playing hours per week, were the main predictors of PRMD. The biomechanical risk factors that predict PRMD are mainly associated with the upper limbs. A high association between PRMD and clinical observation emphasizes the need for further investigation of these risk factors and to study possible implementations in order to define prevention strategies for musical routines and patterns, as used by classical musicians.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.90-95. 30 ref.

CIS 11-0310 Kee D., Chung M.K., Kim J.H.
Legal system and its effect for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Korea
This article presents the legislation of occupational safety and health regulations for prevention of WMSDs in Korea and investigates its effects through the example of an ergonomic intervention effort in a major motor company. In Korea, WMSDs incidence rates had increased from 1999 to 2003. In 2002, the Korean government established a law prescribing employers' duty of preventing WMSDs, which became effective in July, 2003. It requires that all employers should execute the examination of WMSDs risk factors for eleven designated tasks every three years. In addition to this legal obligation, some large companies voluntarily established an ergonomic intervention program by carrying out in-depth assessments for stressful tasks. Thanks to Korean government and industry's efforts, the incidence rates of WMSDs have continually decreased from 2004 onwards.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 2011, Vol.41, p.224-232. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 11-0432 Tak S., Calvert G.M.
The estimated national burden of physical ergonomic hazards among US workers
The objective of this study was to estimate the national burden of physical ergonomic hazards among working adults in the United States. The population prevalence and the total number of workers who are exposed to physical ergonomic hazards, such as vibration, working in cramped space, kneeling, body bending or twisting, climbing and repetitive motions were estimated using Occupational Information Network (O*NET) data and the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), stratified by occupation title. Repetitive motion was the most prevalent of all ergonomic hazards (27% of workers are estimated to be exposed continually). Bending or twisting of the body more than half their time at work was also common, involving over 32 million workers (25% of the workforce). Kneeling, crouching, stooping, or crawling was another ergonomic hazard that 14 million workers perform more than half their time at work. Almost 4 million workers climb ladders, scaffolds, poles, etc. for more than half their time at work. It is also estimated that over 13 million workers (10% of the workforce) are exposed to cramped workspace that requires getting into awkward positions every day. Finally, about 3.5 million workers (2.7% of the workforce) are estimated to be exposed to whole body vibration every day.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.395-404. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 11-0340 Shiri R., Martimo K.P., Miranda H., Ketola R., Kaila-Kangas L., Liira H., Karppinen J., Viikari-Juntura E.
The effect of workplace intervention on pain and sickness absence caused by upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an ergonomic intervention on pain and sickness absence caused by upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders. It was conducted in the form of a randomized controlled study including 177 subjects aged 18-60 years seeking medical advice due to upper-extremity symptoms. Workplace ergonomic improvements were made in the intervention group. Data on symptoms and sickness absences were gathered during one-year follow-up. Pain intensity, pain interference with work, leisure time, or sleep did not differ between the intervention and control group during the one-year follow-up. During the first three months of follow-up, the percentage of employees with sickness absence due to upper-extremity or other musculoskeletal disorders did not differ between the intervention and control group, but the total number of sickness absence days in the intervention group was about half of that in the control group.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.120-128. Illus. 23 ref.
The_effect_of_workplace.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0338 Fassier J.B., Durand M.J., Loisel P.
2nd place PREMUS best paper competition: Implementing return-to-work interventions for workers with low-back pain - A conceptual framework to identify barriers and facilitators
Workplace-based return-to-work interventions for workers with low-back pain are more effective than usual healthcare. Nevertheless, the implementation of such interventions usually encounters many barriers within healthcare systems, workplaces and insurance systems. The aims of this study were to construct a conceptual framework to identify barriers and facilitators, and to validate this conceptual framework empirically. A literature review was conducted to identify barriers and facilitators. A selection process was used to identify core dimensions. The framework was validated through multiple case studies in two regions of France. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and focus groups with key participants. Findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.99-108. Illus. 78 ref.

CIS 11-0337 Harris C., Eisen E.A., Goldberg R., Krause N., Rempel D.
1st place, PREMUS best paper competition: Workplace and individual factors in wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers -The San Francisco study
This study reports findings from a prospective study of right wrist tendinosis among blue-collar workers. It involved 413 workers in four industries, who were followed for 28 months with questionnaires and physical examinations every four months to identify incident cases of right wrist tendinosis. Exposure assessment of force and repetition were based on field measurements and video analysis to determine repetition rate and the percent time in heavy pinch or power grip. All exposure variables were measured at the level of the individual and task. For workers responsible for more than one task, a time-weighted average exposure was calculated based on task hours per week. A proportional hazards model was used to assess the relationship between exposures and incidence of wrist tendinosis. During the 481 person-years of follow-up, there were 26 incident cases of right wrist tendinosis. Adjusting for age, gender and repetition, wrist tendinoses were associated with percent time spent in heavy pinch tasks. An exposure-response relationship was observed for the percent time spent in heavy pinch. The percent time spent in power grip was not a significant predictor, nor were any measures of repetition.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 2011, Vol.37, No.2, p.85-98. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 11-0057 Oyunbileg S., Sumberzul N., Oyuntogos L., Javzmaa J., Wang J.D.
Analysis of incidence rates of occupational diseases in Mongolia, 1986-2006
The purpose of this study was to determine incidence rates and time trends of major occupational diseases in Mongolia. Information about all 4598 patients from 1986 to 2006 who were diagnosed and registered with occupational diseases by the National Center of Workplace Conditions and Occupational Diseases was retrieved. There was an increasing trend in the incidence rates of reported occupational respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular diseases, skin diseases, toxic hepatitis and noise-induced hearing loss. Such a trend may result from both rapid industrialization in Mongolia and increased recognition of occupational disease. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1st quarter 2011, Vol. 17, No.1, p.31-37. 26 ref.

CIS 11-0013 Kriebel D., Jacobs M.M., Markkanen P., Tickner J.
Lessons learned - Solutions for workplace safety and health
This report presents six case studies that illustrate systemic failures to protect workers, communities and the environment such as: immigrant workers killed and severely burned in house fires caused by the chemicals used to refinish wood floors; health care workers, hotel housekeepers, as well as meat and poultry workers disabled by back injuries and other musculoskeletal strain from long hours of awkward postures and repetitive movements; long and avoidable delays in the scientific and legal proceedings used to set health standards protecting workers from cancer-causing chemicals. The report identifies seven high-priority strategies for making workplaces safer. While improved regulations and enforcement are clearly needed, there are many other opportunities to improve workers' health and safety. A key conclusion is that work-related injury and illnesses could be prevented if chemicals, production processes and technologies were designed with worker health in mind. "Prevention through design" initiatives are now being used to design buildings that eliminate hazards and make jobs, products, and materials inherently safer.
Lowell Center for Sustainable Production, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Ave., Kitson 210, Lowell, MA 01854, USA, 2011. iii, 129p. Illus. Bibl. Ref. Price: USD 40.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
Lessons_learned.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0043 Oude Hengel K.M., Visser B., Sluiter J.K.
The prevalence and incidence of musculoskeletal symptoms among hospital physicians: A systematic review
Physicians are exposed to a range of work-related risk factors that may result in occupational diseases. The objective of this literature review was to shed light on the prevalence and incidence of musculoskeletal complaints among hospital physicians. Five medium-quality studies and three high-quality studies were included in this review. Findings are inconclusive. The definitions and assessment used in the studies for musculoskeletal complaints were different, and there were wide variations between the studies on the reported prevalences for hand, wrist, shoulder, neck and low back pain.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2011, Vol. 84, p.115-119. 19 ref.
The_prevalence_and_incidence.pdf [in English]


CIS 12-0193 Clemes S.A., Haslam C.O., Haslam R.A.
What constitutes effective manual handling training? A systematic review
Injuries caused by manual handling are a major burden to society. Manual handling training programmes have been designed to reduce the likelihood of injury among the workforce; however, concerns have been raised over the efficacy of current manual handling training methods. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the effectiveness of various approaches to training in manual handling. The evidence collected indicates that manual handling training is largely ineffective in reducing back pain and back injury. High priority should be given to developing and evaluating multidimensional interventions, incorporating exercise training to promote strength and flexibility, which are tailored to the industrial sector.
Occupational Medicine, Mar. 2010, Vol.60, No.2, p.101-107. 73 ref.
What_constitutes_effective_manual_handling_training_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0877 Lin J.H., McGorry R.W., Banks J.J.
Exposures and physiological responses in power tool operations: Fastening vs. unfastening threaded hardware
Powered hand tools have the potential to produce reaction forces that may be associated with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. This study examined and compared the kinetic and physiological impacts on operator upper extremities between the fastening and unfastening operations. Thirty-two healthy, right-handed male operators used four tools on two joint simulators at different working heights and distances in the laboratory. Three work configurations were simulated: pistol grip tools on a vertical and horizontal surface, and right angle tools on a horizontal surface. Grip force was measured on an instrumented handle attached to each tool. Muscle activity was monitored at the wrist flexor and extensor and the upper trapezius of the right arm. Paired comparisons showed that when pistol grip tools were used, the peak torque to unfasten a joint (3.7 Nm) was significantly less than to fasten the same joint (5.7 Nm). However, the exposure time was longer for unfastening cycles (98 ms more on the horizontal surface, and 107 ms more on the vertical surface). The average grip force scaled to corresponding peak tool torque revealed that the effort to react against torque was greater in unfastening cycles than in fastening cycles for all work configurations. It also showed that as a proximal stabilizer, the upper trapezius muscle had a greater activity in unfastening cycles. The kinetic and physiological responses demonstrated that unfastening fasteners, which has been neglected in the literature, have the potential to increase risk for musculoskeletal disorders and should be considered in ergonomics assessment in the workplace.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2010, Vol.7, No.5, p.290-297. Illus. 20 ref.
Exposures_and_physiological_responses.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0787 Valladeau A.S., Zana J.P., Mauguen G., Nuyts R., Palka T., L'Herrou T., Vigué Y., Fassenot T.
Things are moving in the removals sector - Occupational safety and health in a true occupation
Ça déménage chez les déménageurs - Prévention pour un vrai métier [in French]
The planning and organization of each removal are necessary steps for evaluating risks. When carried out as early as possible and with the active participation of workers, they enable the identification of constraints inherent to the activity, thereby making it possible to improve working conditions and the quality of service. Contents of this guide on occupational safety and health in the removals sector: hazards; main activities of removals workers; leads for solutions; musculoskeletal diseases.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2011. 11p. Illus. 5 ref.
Ça_déménage.pdf [in French]

CIS 11-0664 Caicoya M., Delclos G.L.
Work demands and musculoskeletal disorders from the Spanish national survey
The objective of this study was to use the 2003 Spanish National Survey of Work Conditions to examine prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and physical load at work. Using a representative sample of 5236 persons from the Spanish workforce, the prevalence of carrying or lifting heavy loads, use of significant force and repetitive movements was examined among those with and without MSDs. Use of significant force and carrying heavy weights decreased inversely in relation to exposure time and was always higher among those with MSD symptoms or work-related injury. For repetitive movements, prevalence increased with longer duration of exposure and was also significantly higher in those with MSD symptoms, except in the shortest duration category. One-third of workers used significant force during part of their shifts, while 4% were exposed for >50% of their work shift, suggesting that 500,000 workers in Spain are at high risk of musculoskeletal injury. Moreover, repetitive movements involving >50% of the work shift affected 30% of workers. To reduce the high incidence of MSDs and work-related injury in Spain, preventive interventions should be directed at these risk factors.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2010, Vol.60, No.6, p.447-450. 10 ref.
Work_demands.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0655 Malińska M., Bugajska J.
The influence of occupational and non-occupational factors on the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in users of portable computers
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and intensity of musculoskeletal pain among workers who regularly use portable computers and to determine the influence of working conditions and duration of work with a portable computer. The study covered a cross-section of 300 workers. Musculoskeletal complaints were assessed with the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire complemented with a visual analogue scale. Working conditions were assessed by means of a questionnaire. The most prevalent faults of workstation layouts were lack of a computer desk with an adjustable keyboard tray/drawer, the lack of adjustable armrests, the absence of an external keyboard. The most frequent complaints among computer operators were headaches, low-back pain and neck pain. The use of an external keyboard reduced the intensity of shoulder pain. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.3, p.337-343. 32 ref.

CIS 11-0654 Wahlstedt K., Norbäck D., Wieslander G., Skoglund L., Runeson R.
Psychosocial and ergonomic factors, and their relation to musculoskeletal complaints in the Swedish workforce
A cross-sectional random sample of 1000 subjects (20-65 years old) from the national population of Sweden received a questionnaire; 70% replied, of whom 532 were occupationally active. Female gender, working with neck and/or body bent forward, arms above shoulders, and precision work tasks were predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms. Neck, shoulder, and upper back symptoms were more common in a strained situation at work (high demands, low control) (adjusted odds ratios (adjOR) 2.76, 2.80, and 2.26, respectively). Among women, neck and shoulder symptoms were more common in an iso-strain situation (high demands, low control and low social support) (adjOR 4.43 and 3.69, respectively), and low back symptoms were more common at low social support combined with a passive work situation (adjOR 3.35). No associations were found between iso-strain model and symptoms among male workers.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2010, Vol.16, No.3, p.311-321. 46 ref.

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