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Falls from heights - 105 entries found

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CIS 10-0184 Guide to inspecting workplace
This guide consists of a series of checklists for workplace inspections involving the following activities and exposures: chemicals and harmful substances; electricity; manual tasks; slips and trips; working at heights; forklifts; new and young workers; machinery and plant; machinery guarding; noise; emergency procedures; violence and aggression; working alone.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, no date. PDF document, 21p. [in English]

CIS 12-0302 Lombardi D.A., Smith G.S., Courtney T.K., Brennan M.J., Kim J.Y., Perry M.J.
Work-related falls from ladders - A follow-back study of US emergency department cases
Ladder falls comprise 16% of all United States workplace fall-related fatalities and ladder use may be particularly hazardous among older workers. This follow-back study of injured workers from a nationally representative sample of US emergency departments (ED) focused on factors related to ladder falls in three domains of the work environment: work equipment, work practices, and worker-related factors. Risk factors for fractures, the most frequent and severe outcome, were also evaluated. Workers injured from a ladder fall, treated in one of the 65 participating ED in the occupational National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) responded to a questionnaire on demographics, injury, ladder and work equipment and environment characteristics, work tasks, and activities. Findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Nov. 2011, Vol.37, No.6, p.525-532. Illus. 23 ref.
Work-related_falls_from_ladders_[BUY_THIS_ARTICLE] [in English]

CIS 11-0218 Richez J.P., Brasseur G., Clergiot J.
Renewable energies - Towards sustainability in occupational safety and health
Energies renouvelables - Vers un développement durable de la prévention [in French]
This collection of articles reviews the specific occupational safety and health hazards related to the construction and operation of equipment for producing biogas and solar, wind and geothermal energy.
Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2011, No.714, p.18-34. Illus.
Energies_renouvelables.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0117 Carlier A.
Arborists - Happiness is in the tree
Grimpeurs-élagueurs - Le bonheur est dans l'arbre [in French]
This richly-illustrated article describes the work of arborists employed by the City of Paris. Topics addressed: harnesses; anchoring devices; aerial baskets; protective clothing; helmets; earmuffs; chain saws; night work; work organization.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2011, No.715, p.2-13. Illus.
Grimpeurs-élagueurs.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0873 Shishlov K.S., Schoenfisch A.L., Myers D.J., Lipscomb H.J.
Non-fatal construction industry fall-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1998-2005
Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System occupational supplement (NEISS-Work) were used to describe fall-related injuries treated in US emergency departments among workers in the construction industry (1998-2005). Based on NEISS-Work estimates, 555,700 non-fatal work-related injuries among workers in the construction industry were the result of a fall, resulting in an annual rate of 70 per 10,000 full-time equivalents. Younger workers had higher rates of falls, whereas older workers were more likely to suffer serious injuries. The majority of the injuries (70%) were precipitated by falls to a lower level from roofs, ladders, and scaffolding.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.128-135. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 10-0871 Shishlov K.S., Schoenfisch A.L., Myers D.J., Lipscomb H.J.
Non-fatal construction industry fall-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1998-2005
Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System occupational supplement (NEISS-Work) were used to describe fall-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments among workers in the construction industry (1998-2005). Based on NEISS-Work estimates, a total of 555,700 non-fatal work-related injuries among workers in the construction industry were the result of a fall, resulting in an annual rate of 70 per 10,000 full-time equivalents. Younger workers had higher rates of falls, whereas older workers were more likely to suffer serious injuries. The majority of the injuries (70%) were precipitated by falls to a lower level from roofs, ladders, and scaffolding.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.128-135. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 10-0576 Occupational injuries and fatalities due to falls
Lesiones y muertes ocupacionales por caídas [in Spanish]
An estimated 15.9 million people worked in the manufacturing sector in the United States during 2008, which accounted for approximately 10.9% of the employed workforce. In 2008, 411 manufacturing sector workers died from occupational injuries, of which 58 from falls, which comprised the third most important cause of occupational accident mortality after equipment and transport. Aimed at employers in manufacturing industries, this leaflet outlines the strategic goals of a partnership programme between NIOSH and participating enterprises aimed at identifying the most critical workplace issues related to fall accidents.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, 2010. PDF document. 2p. Illus. 4 ref.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2010-143.pdf [in English]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2010-143.pdf [in Spanish]


CIS 12-0301 Guide to the selection and control of personal protective equipment against the risk of falls
Guía para la selección y control de equipos de protección personal para trabajos con riesgo de caídas [in Spanish]
Contents of this guide to the selection and control of personal protective equipment against the risk of falls: introduction; general considerations; selection of fall arresters; recommendations for the testing of fall arresters. Appendices include: treatment of suspension trauma; check-list of fall hazards at the place of work; marking; log sheet for periodical checks; glossary.
Instituto de Salud Pública de Chile, Departamento Salud Ocupacional y Contaminación Ambiental, av. Marathon 1000, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780050, Chile, 2010, 25p. Illus. 12 ref.
Guía_para_la_selección_y_control_(03)_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0369 Goh Y.M., Love P.E.D
Adequacy of personal fall arrest energy absorbers in relation to heavy workers
Despite the increasing weight of workers, most energy absorbers of personal fall arrest systems are only tested to 100 kg. This research aims to evaluate the capacity of fall arrest energy absorbers in relation to the weight of heavy workers, so as to provide recommendations for improvements to current fall arrest standards. A series of dynamic drop tests based on the Australian and New Zealand fall protection equipment standard were conducted. A total of 31 samples on seven types of energy absorbers were undertaken. The experiment simulated a worst credible scenario of a 3.8 m fall of a rigid mass which was connected using inelastic material. The capacity of each type of energy absorber was determined using the test mass that caused one or both of the following test criteria to be breached: at least two samples reached the maximum possible extension and at least two samples had the maximum arrest force exceeding 7 kN. The estimated capacities were then compared with the 95th percentile weight of worker working at height. The research demonstrates that most energy absorbers are not able to ensure that the two test criteria are not breached during the arrest of a heavy worker in the worst case scenario fall. It is recommended that the test mass stipulated in fall arrest standards should be revised and increased to accommodate the increasing weight of workers.
Safety Science, July 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.747-754. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 10-0405 Kaskutas V., Dale A.M., Lipscomb H., Gaal J., Fuchs M., Evanoff B.
Fall prevention among apprentice carpenters
Falls from heights are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the construction industry, especially among inexperienced workers. Apprentice carpenters were studied to identify individual and organizational factors associated with falls from heights, using a 72-item questionnaire on fall prevention with multiple domains including fall experience, fall-prevention knowledge, risk perceptions, confidence in ability to prevent falls, training experience, and perceptions of the safety climate and crew safety behaviors. Of the 1025 respondents of the cross-sectional sample, 51% knew of someone having fallen from a height at work and 16% had personally fallen in the past year, with ladders accounting for most of the falls. Despite participation in school-based and on-the-job training, fall-prevention knowledge was poor. Ladders were perceived as low risk and ladder training was rare. Apprentices reported high levels of unsafe, fall-related behaviors on their work crews. Apprentices in residential construction were more likely to fall than those in commercial construction, as were apprentices working on crews with fewer senior carpenters to provide mentorship, and those reporting more unsafe behaviors among fellow workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, May 2010, Vol.36, No.3, p.258-265. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 10-0275 Code of practice - Man overboard: prevention and response 2010
This code provides general guidance for all commercial fishing vessels in Western Australia on the management of occupational safety and health issues relevant to the prevention of man overboard incidents and the response to such incidents. Topics addressed: hazard identification; risk control; monitoring and review of control measures.
Commission for occupational safety and health, 1260 Hay Street, PO Box 294, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2010. PDF document, 44p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 10-0134 Rebaud P., Dufour T.
Collapse of a balcony
Effondement d'un balcon [in French]
This sheet describes a fatal fall of a worker assigned with the task of adding reinforcement bars on a defective balcony after the shoring towers had been removed. It explains how the work should have been done to ensure safety.
Organisme Professionnel de Prévention du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics, Centre d'expédition de la documentation (CED), 74, rue du Petit-Pont - BP 94420, 45044 Orléans Cedex 1, France, 2010. 2p. Illus.


CIS 11-0270 Burton A., den Haan K.H.
European downstream oil industry safety performance - Statistical summary of reported incidents - 2007
The fourteenth such report by CONCAWE, this issue includes statistics on work-related personal injuries for the European downstream oil industry's own employees as well as contractors for the year 2007. Data was received from 30 companies representing over 97% of the European refining capacity. Trends over the last fourteen years are highlighted and the data is also compared to similar statistics from related industries.
CONCAWE, Boulevard du Souverain 165, Bruxelles, Belgium, 2009, vi, 18p. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 09-696 Guérit G.
Work at height - Some improvements, yet...
Travaux en hauteur: des progrès, mais... [in French]
Falls from heights continue to be one of the main causes of fatal accidents in the construction industry. This collection of articles on the prevention of falls from heights addresses the following issues: causes of accidents; French regulations; scaffolds; safety by design.
Prévention BTP, Jan. 2009, No.114, p.38-47. Illus.

CIS 09-446 Lan A., Daigle R.
Development and validation of a method for evaluating temporary wooden guardrails built and installed on construction sites
Wooden guardrails are usually installed on construction sites to protect workers against falls. It is however extremely difficult to verify whether they are safe and comply with existing regulations. The present study describes the development and validation of an evaluation method and a test protocol for verifying whether these guardrails are safe and meet the requirements of the Quebec Safety Code for the construction industry in order to ensure that workers have adequate fall protection. It was found that some guardrails did not comply with the requirements. The evaluation method and test protocol are reproducible and easily applicable on construction sites and can easily be adapted to international regulations.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.215-226. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 09-451 Martín J.E., Rivas T., Matías J.M., Taboada J., Argüelles A.
A Bayesian network analysis of workplace accidents caused by falls from a height
Using Bayesian networks, this article analyses the circumstances surrounding workplace tasks performed using equipment that may result in falls such as ladders or scaffolding. The information source was a survey of employees working at a height. The approach used enabled identifying the causes having the greatest bearing on accidents involving equipment, namely the adoption of incorrect postures during work and inadequate knowledge of safety regulations by workers.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.206-214. Illus. 29 ref.


CIS 11-0571 Detter A., Cowell C., McKeown L., Howard P.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of current rigging and dismantling practices used in arboriculture
Arboricultural work is physically demanding. It is often carried out at height and carries a high risk of injury. It is estimated that fatal and major injury incidence rates for arboriculture are at least double those of the construction industry. Recent analysis of arboricultural accidents has shown that 10% are due to high falls, a further 6% to low or unspecified falls and another 6% to uncontrolled swings in the tree. This report presents the results of a comprehensive study into a number of safety and health issues related to rigging operations used in the dismantling of trees in the United Kingdom. The information it contains should enable the arboriculture sector to determine good practices in carrying out risk assessments prior to dismantling a tree, planning and organizing rigging operations, and selecting measures to mitigate risks and accidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2008. vi, 361p. Illus. 36 ref.
RR_668.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0122 Kaskutas V.K., Dale A.M., Lipscomb H.J., Evanoff B.A.
Development of the St. Louis audit of fall risks at residential construction sites
This article describes the development and pilot of a worksite audit system to assess fall prevention safety practices on residential construction sites. The audit was tested at sixteen residential construction sites in the city of St. Louis, United States, showing excellent inter-rater reliability. Results suggest that the audit has good face and content validity and is a reliable instrument for measuring fall safety risks at residential construction sites. It is practical, easy, and safe to administer, making it a potentially useful instrument for field research as well as regular safety monitoring by foremen and crew.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 4th quarter 2008, Vol.14, No.4, p.243-249. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 09-1152 Fukaya K., Uchida M.
Protection against impact with the ground using wearable airbags
This article presents three types of wearable airbag systems for protection against falls from heights, wheelchair overturns and falls on the same level. The systems consist of an airbag, sensor, inflator, and jacket. The sensor detects the fall and the airbag inflates to protect the user. Fall tests using dummies with and without the airbags demonstrated the effectiveness of these devices. In fall heights of less than 2m, the airbags reduced the impact acceleration. Head Injury Criterion values were under 1000, as per the auto-crash test requirement. The limits to the amount of protection afforded are discussed.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2008, Vol.46, No.1, p.59-65. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 08-1204
Health and Safety Executive
Safe working on glasshouse roofs: Advice for growers
This information note describes the hazards associated with working on glasshouse roofs. It outlines the precautions to be taken before accessing and working on glasshouse roofs, as well as the selection, training and supervision of staff working on such roofs. Advice is also given on appropriate clothing and responsibilities towards contractors. It specifically refers to responsibilities under the Work at Height Regulations 2005. Replaces CIS 95-337.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2008. 4p. [in English]

CIS 08-956 Lan A., Daigle R.
Strength of the anchor point of a fall arrest and positioning system for reinforcing steel installers
Résistance du point d'ancrage d'un système d'arrêt de chute et de positionnement pour les poseurs d'acier d'armature [in French]
In some large dimension walls where protection against falls from heights poses a problem, ironworkers climb into the framing structure and need to be anchored to allow their positioning and protection against falls. Two important aspects must then be taken into consideration: the choice of harness, positioning and fall arrest equipment, and the presence of a sufficiently solid anchor point for the personal fall arrest system to the reinforcing bars. Scientists from the IRSST verified the strength of these anchors during tests performed on a reinforcement wall erected according to good rules of practice. The anchor point to the reinforcing bars appears to be sufficiently strong to arrest a person's fall. Furthermore, the ironworkers who participated in the tests confirm that they always add additional ties to the anchor points used for attaching the snap hook, which contributes to added safety.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vi, 30p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-945 Damro N.
How to create an ANSI Z359.2-compliant fall protection plan
All enterprises with personnel who work at heights must have a written fall protection plan to be in compliance with the new ANSI Z359.2 standard "Minimum Requirements for a Comprehensive Managed Fall Protection Program". A well- written and implemented plan not only reduces worker risk and saves lives, it stands as evidence that an employer is making every effort to comply with regulations. It can help prevent the economic consequences of an incident, including fines, liability and increased insurance costs. This article describes a seven-step fall protection plan development guide to assist companies in creating a comprehensive plan. The steps are as follows: develop a policy and define the scope of the programme; identify fall hazards through a well developed hazard analysis of the work area; determine appropriate methods of protection; conduct training to ensure effective employee understanding of fall hazards and precautions; perform inspection and maintenance of fall arrest equipment; administer and audit the programme for compliance and continuous improvement; develop a specific fall protection work plan for each construction or work site.
Occupational Hazards, Apr. 2008, p.33, 39-40. Illus.


CIS 09-190 Pamies A., Laine P.
Prevention of falls from heights
La prévention des chutes de hauteur [in French]
Falls from heights are the second most-frequent cause of fatal accidents after traffic accidents. Risks of falls from heights are characterized by high severity rates. This information sheet describes an approach for the prevention of falls from heights that take into account design, work organization and the selection of means of access.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2007, No.678, 4p. Insert. Illus. 14 ref.$File/ed130.pdf [in French]

CIS 08-1451 Oliver S., Brown R., Bassett C.
Health and Safety Executive
HSE "Height Aware" campaign evaluation
In 2006, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) ran a nationally co-ordinated publicity, education and inspection campaign about the risks of working at height. The campaign objectives were to increase awareness of targeted workers and employers of the risks even when working at low height, and to influence attitudes and behaviour to working at height. The evaluation of the campaign comprised quantitative surveys among persons working at height and their employers, together with job observations. Findings are reviewed with respect to attitudes to working at height, awareness of the media campaign, views concerning the media campaign, inspections, raising awareness and changing behaviour.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. 142p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 08-1196 Wearing S., Peebles L., Jefferies D., Lee K., Anjorin E.
Health and Safety Executive
First evaluation of the impact of the work at height regulations. First evaluation of the removal of the "two metre rule"
The Work at Height (WAH) Regulations were introduced in the United Kingdom in 2005. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the new Regulations, in particular with respect to the removal of the two metre rule for construction work. This rule required employers to use specific control measures for construction work that presented a risk of people falling two or more metres. The first stage of the study was conducted prior to the introduction of Regulations and the second stage was conducted one year after the Regulations were introduced. Data were collected by means of literature surveys and reviews of accident statistics, followed by panel discussions, interviews and site visits in the key sectors where falls from heights hazards are present. Findings are discussed. Changes to working practices were made as a result of the Regulations, with a reduction in the use of ladders and in increase in the use of scaffolds and platforms for work activities below two metres.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. iv, 343p. Illus. 135 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-943 Falls from vehicles: An underestimated problem
Chutes depuis un véhicule: un problème sous-estimé [in French]
Vehicles at rest involve a risk of falls from heights whenever drivers are required to climb, descend, load or unload. This article addresses the risk factors of falls from vehicles, responsibilities of employers and the precautions to be taken for avoiding these types of accident.
Objectif prévention, Dec. 2007, No.447, p.1-3. Illus.

CIS 08-698 Martínez V.
Líneas de vida [in Spanish]
Working at height involves the risk of falling and requires the adoption of various types of protective systems, such as lifelines. This article describes the characteristics of lifelines, together with the criteria to be considered when designing or selecting this type of equipment. It also explains the correct installation, use and maintenance of these systems.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2007, Vol.27, No.108, p.6-22. Illus. [in Spanish]

CIS 08-369 Ospina González M.F., Villegas Carrasquilla L., Arévalo R., Mancera J.R.
Safety in the telecommunications sector
Seguridad en el sector telecomunicaciones [in Spanish]
Collection of articles on safety in the telecommunications sector. Contents: working on telecommunication towers; safety in telecommunication networks; safety in voice over IP (VOIP) networks; mounting and working with equipment at height (including regulations and standards applicable to harnesses and fall arresters); protection and safety in telecommunication network operations.
Protección y seguridad, May-June 2007, Vol.53, No.313, p.53-79. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 08-453 Arteau J., Beauchamp Y., Langlais I., Vachon F.
Work at heights and fall protection for pruners
Travail en hauteur et protection contre les chutes pour les élagueurs [in French]
Originating from a request from the City of Montréal, this study evaluated the methods and equipment for access to heights used by pruners to reduce the risk of falls. The effectiveness and reliability factors were measured by means of mechanical tests in the laboratory. Several new types of equipment and systems were tested according to the specifications of fall protection standards. The level of efforts required, the mobility and the overall safety level of the tested systems were estimated in a controlled environment in urban parks and woods. The various tree-access systems were analysed and ranked by order of relevance for a given situation. A harness adapted to pruners' work was designed and evaluated. It is now in regular use.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2007. xii, 133p. Illus. 39 ref. + CD-ROM Price: CAD 12.72. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 07-1258
Health and Safety Executive
Why fall for it? Preventing falls in agriculture
Falls from heights are one of the main causes of fatal accidents in agriculture. Many accidents occur while agricultural buildings or other structures are being built or maintained. These jobs often require temporary access to height such as ladders, scaffolds or platforms. Falls frequently occur because the equipment used is defective, not appropriate or used incorrectly. The Work at Height Regulations 2005 (see CIS 06-1047) require that all work at height is properly planned, supervised and carried out by persons who are competent to do the job. The case studies used in this booklet are based on actual accidents investigated by the Health and Safety Executive, followed by examples of good practice to help ensure compliance with the law.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2007. 11p. Illus. 11 ref. [in English]


CIS 07-455 Parard G.
Fall from a roof through a skylight
Chute de terrasse au travers d'un lanterneau [in French]
This article describes the fatal fall of a worker who walked on a skylight during roofing work. It analyses the causes of the accident and recalls the measures that could have prevented it.
Prévention BTP, Oct. 2006, No.89, p.35-36. Illus. [in French]


CIS 08-1458 OSHA Fact Sheet - Using aerial lifts
The major causes of injuries and fatalities involving aerial lifts are falls, electrocutions, collapses and overturning. Aerial devices include boom-supported aerial platforms, such as cherry pickers or bucket trucks, aerial ladders and vertical towers. This information sheet summarises the measures to be implemented when working with aerial lifts, which include worker information and training, following manufacturers' instructions, taking precautions near power lines and adopting protective measures against the risks of crushing and falls.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2005. 1p. [in English]

CIS 07-1192 Safety (accidents, falls, slips...)
Sécurité (accidents, chutes, glissades...) [in French]
Veiligheid (ongevallen, vallen...) [in Dutch]
The objective of the SOBANE approach (screening, observation, analysis and evaluation) is to ensure occupational safety and health by means of a systematic analysis of occupational hazards. This booklet presents the SOBANE approach applied to the prevention of falls. Following a review of general aspects of occupational safety and health management, it explains how to proceed with the observation, analysis and evaluation, together with the qualifications required for carrying out these steps. The following topics are summarized on information sheets: state of flooring; passageways; lighting of emergency exits; work areas; stairways; falls of persons and objects; ladders.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot I, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2005. 88p. Illus. 73 ref. [in Dutch] [in French]

CIS 06-707 Chi C.F., Chang T.C., Ting H.I.
Accident patterns and prevention measures for fatal occupational falls in the construction industry
Data concerning 621 fatal falls in the construction industry in Taiwan were analysed with respect to individual variables (age, gender, experience and the use of personal protective equipment), the fall site, company size and cause of the fall. Primary and secondary prevention measures to prevent falls or to mitigate the consequences of falls are suggested for each type of accident. Primary prevention measures include fixed barriers, such as handrails, guardrails, surface opening protections and crawling boards, and use of strong roofing materials. Secondary protection measures include travel restraint systems (safety belts), fall arrest systems (safety harnesses), and fall containment systems (safety nets).
Applied Ergonomics, July 2005, Vol.36, No.4, p.391-400. 33 ref.

CIS 05-453
Health and Safety Executive
New perspective on falls from height - Identifying high profile areas for intervention
This report describes a study into the risks associated with, and underlying causes of, falls from height. The data set contains details of 91,000 accidents reported under RIDDOR between 1996/97 and 2002/03. Around 54,000 of these are low-level falls, 18,000 are high-level falls, and the rest are unclassified. This set is used to identify key risks where future risk controls may best be targeted and to establish a baseline from which future improvements may be measured. The largest number of falls are reported in the service industries, followed by the construction and manufacturing industries. The highest accident rates are reported in agriculture and construction, where the injuries are also typically more severe. Key risk areas are identified as being goods drivers falling from vehicles during loading and unloading and electrical fitters falling from ladders. Risk registers contain information on the underlying causes of the key risks.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xix, 434p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 05-454 Cameron I., Duff R, Gillan G.
Health and Safety Executive
A technical guide to the selection and use of fall prevention and arrest equipment
This report describes fall prevention and arrest equipment available to the construction industry, including trolley systems, safety decking, fall arrest mats, safety netting and cable and track fall arrest systems. When selecting appropriate safety equipment for working at height, the order of preference should be: prevention (guardrails, barriers, trolleys, safety decking); passive arrest (safety nets, fall arrest mats); active arrest (cable and track-based systems); mitigation of the consequences of an accident. The risk of a fall must, wherever possible, be eliminated at the design stage. If this is not possible, the above hierarchy must be followed in equipment selection. Good practices derived from interviews with system users, experts in selection and planning of accident protection methods, and observations of live case study sites are described.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xxiii, 311p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 04-388
Health and Safety Executive
Improving health and safety in construction: Phase 2 - Depth and breadth: Volume 5 - Falls from height: Underlying causes and risk control in the construction industry
This report describes a study into the underlying causes of falls from heights in the construction industry. Data were collected and analysed during a series of workshops with the participation of representatives of all major parties involved. Underlying organizational and human factors influencing accidents were identified, together with risk control measures and their potential effectiveness. The most important direct factors influencing falls from heights are competence, situational awareness and risk perception, compliance, environmental conditions, and operational and safety equipment. Among the organizational factors, design for safe construction, training, management and supervision and safety culture were found to be significant. Several recommendations are made on the basis of these findings. This report is part of a series on improving health and safety in the construction sector. For the other reports, see CIS 04-280, 04-386, 04-387 and 04-389.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. xiv, 167p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-461 NIOSH Alert - Preventing falls of workers through skylights and roof and floor openings
Fatalities caused by falls remain a serious occupational safety issue throughout the United States. Falls are one of the leading causes of traumatic injury death in the workplace, accounting for 808 of 5900 (13.7%) of such fatalities in 2001. Contents of this booklet on the prevention of serious injuries and fatalities from falls: current standards; short case reports; recommendations aimed at employers, skylight manufacturers and designers, building owners and workers. A detachable poster is included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Aug. 2004. 12p. Illus. 16 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-213 Whitaker S.M., Graves R.J., James M., McCann P., Wilson C., Dymiotis C., Wolfram J., Baker M.
Health and Safety Executive
Developing a prototype decision aid for determining the risk of work systems at height when using temporary access systems
The research described in this report was aimed at developing and testing appropriate decision aids for persons involved in temporary access to height. The work involved a literature survey, the analysis of a large sample of accident and incident reports involving work at height reported to the HSE over the last ten years and consultations with building contractors using scaffolds. A large number of accidents were related to two work systems, namely temporary access scaffolds and work on roofs. This analysis provided information on the direct causes of the accidents as well as the more fundamental causes leading to the event, such as safety management deficiencies.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 149p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: GBP 30.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-215 Riches D.
Health and Safety Executive
Preliminary investigation into the fall-arresting effectiveness of ladder safety hoops
Various legislative and guidance documents specify ladder safety hoops on fixed access ladders, and give the impression that the purpose of the hoops is to protect workers from fall risks. The aim of this investigation was to update the current state of understanding in regard to what ladder safety hoops actually are and what their intended purpose is, and to establish by preliminary testing whether or not they could provide any form of fall-arresting capability. Work involved a literature survey, a survey of fixed ladder manufacturers and users, an analysis of accident data and practical test measurements. The tests used a mannequin to simulate a worker falling off a caged ladder, and compared the results with those obtained on ladder-mounted fall arresters using the same test conditions. It is concluded that ladder-mounted fall arresters provide far better protection.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. viii, 212p. Illus. 97 ref. Price: GBP 35.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 10-0575 Fernandes Vieira M., Rangel Filho A., Rodrigues da Silva R., Custódio D.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Technical recommendation on procedures - Protective measures against falls from heights
Recomendação técnica de procedimentos - Medidas de proteção contra quedas de altura [in Portuguese]
This technical recommendation (RTP 01) specifies the measures to be implemented for preventing falls of persons and of objects in the building industry. These measures concern equipment offering vertical protection (railings, nets, protection of floor openings by fences and barriers) and horizontal protection, as well as protective platforms against falls from heights.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2003. 33p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1391 Basic principles - Risks of falls
Fundamentos teóricos - Riesgo de caída [in Spanish]
This article recalls the laws of physics that apply to falls from heights, as well as the forces to which the human body are subjected during the acceleration, deceleration and static suspension phases of the fall. These principles are then applied to the understanding of the forces and effects on the human body when the fall is interrupted by a fall arresting device. During falls, fall arresters have to operate within the limits of certain physical parameters in order to avoid body injuries. In particular, the deceleration phase has to begin before the fall distance reaches 1.8m and the stop must not take place in less than 0.3s so as to ensure that the breaking forces remain tolerable to the body.
Protección y seguridad, Mar.-Apr. 2003, Vol.49, No.288, p.34-41. Illus.

CIS 03-1404
Health and Safety Executive
Falls from height - Prevention and risk control effectiveness
This report describes a study across various industries into the underlying factors that influence the occurrence and the prevention of falls from heights. Fall from height accidents reported via the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995 (see CIS 95-1930) were analysed for the period 1996/2001. It was found that the construction sector had the highest number of falls, but similar fatality rates were found in construction and agriculture. There were few fatalities due to low falls, but low falls made up around 60% of the overall number of falls, with service activities having the highest number of accidents but the lowest accident rate. The highest rate of low falls occurred in the construction sector.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. xx, 269 + 136p. Illus. 47 ref. Price: GBP 50.00. [in English]

CIS 03-1392 Kines P., Mikkelsen K.L.
Effect of firm size on risks and reporting of elevation fall injury in construction trades
While many occupational safety programmes target large firms, the construction industry is dominated by smaller firms. This study examines the differential effect of firm size on the risk and the reporting of over 3000 non-fatal elevation fall injuries in the Danish construction industry from 1993 to 1999. Small firms (<20 employees) accounted for 93% of all firms and 55% of full-time equivalent workers. There was an inverse relationship between firm size and serious injury rates and a direct relationship between firm size and minor injury rates. An inverse relationship between firm size and injury severity odds ratios (serious versus minor) was found for all trades, but was particularly pronounced for carpentry and electrical work. Health and safety policies, legislation and enforcement in the construction industry should take the smaller size of firms in the industry into consideration.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.45, No.10, p.1074-1078. 24 ref.


CIS 03-1400 Schüler T., Röbenack K.D., Steinmetzger R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Investigation into fall accidents during building modification, refurbishment and sanitary improvement, and recommendations with respect to preventative measures
Untersuchung von Absturzunfällen bei Ausbau-, Modernisierungs- und Sanierungsarbeiten sowie Empfehlung von Maßnahmen zu deren Verhütung [in German]
This study analyses accidents due to falls in the building industry in Germany between 1991 and 1999 and examines more particularly 309 falls during building alteration, and 140 falls during processes of refurbishment and sanitary improvement, which correspond respectively to 7.8% and 8.7% of the accidents in these areas. An analysis of accidents by type of incident, type of injury, height of fall and place of incident is provided. More than 97% of the falls during alteration processes, and 86% of falls in refurbishment and sanitary improvement processes, occurred from a height of no more than 5m. Special attention should be given to the fact that about 50% of the serious accidents occurred from heights between 1 and 2m. Falls from ladders occurred most frequently, followed by falls from scaffoldings. Both types of fall account for more than 75% of all falling accidents during alteration processes and almost 50% during refurbishment and sanitary improvement. The most serious accidents were falls from ladders and scaffoldings during the building alteration process and falls from building structures that may or may not be walked on and from scaffolding during refurbishment and sanitary improvement. Preventive measures based on this information are proposed.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 150p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: EUR 14.50.


CIS 02-1447
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing falls from height in the food and drink industries
There are approximately 750 accidents involving falls from heights reported each year in the food and drink industry in the United Kingdom. This information sheet provides guidance on preventing falls from heights in these industries. It analyses where the falls occur, why they occur and how they can be prevented. Summaries of 14 actual fall accidents are provided, including the subsequent corrective measures that were undertaken.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. 4p. 11 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1439 Schüler T., Röbenack K.D., Steinmetzger R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Study of accidents involving falls from heights in the building industry and recommendations for their prevention
Untersuchung von Absturzunfällen bei Hochbauarbeiten und Empfehlung von Maßnahmen zu deren Verhütung [in German]
Between 1991 and 1997, there were 778 fall accidents in the building industry in the new German States (Länder) of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, representing 10.6% of the building industry accidents. This report consists of a statistical analysis of the causes of these accidents. Tables present the breakdown by cause, workplace, type of construction work and height of the fall. Falls from scaffolds were the most frequent, followed by falls from ladders. Falls through apertures and falls following the collapse of the construction were the most serious. Almost 80% of the falls occurred from a height below 3m; these included 65% of the serious accidents and 30% of the fatal accidents. A number of preventive measures are recommended. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 120p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: EUR 13.50.

CIS 02-1288 Lang K.H., Jahr M., Vorath B.J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Possibilities for the prevention of falls from heights and of electrical accidents during light and rapidly-executed construction work
Möglichkeiten der Verhinderung von Absturz- und Elektrounfällen bei Bau- und Montagearbeiten geringen Umfanges und kurzer Dauer [in German]
During light and rapidly-executed construction work there is a risk that safety precautions may not be deemed necessary or worthwhile. Based on inspections of construction sites and on discussions with safety experts, this report describes various hazardous situations with respect to falls from heights or electrocution. Safety measures are proposed for each of these situations. An approach is proposed for the implementation of appropriate safety measures when planning light and rapidly-executed construction work. Detailed summary in English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 214p. Illus. 44 ref. Price: EUR 18.00.

CIS 01-1821
Health and Safety Executive
Improving health and safety in construction - Phase I: Data collection, review and structuring
This report covers work undertaken towards improving safety and health in construction. The Phase 1 scope consists of collecting and reviewing data in support of the British Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1985 (RIDDOR) (see CIS 88-1753), to help understand causal factors underlying construction accidents, and to structure the information on accident causation using an "influence network" to provide a basis for quantifying risk and the benefits of improvement measures. The report concentrates on falls from height as the principal source of construction fatalities and makes recommendations on data collection and analysis, and strategies for improving safety and health.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. 217p. Illus. 56 ref. Price: GBP 35.00.


CIS 02-1761 Richez J.P.
Avoiding falls from heights - Ballet of robots of the glazing of Roissy Charles-de-Gaulle
Prévention des chutes de hauteur - La danse des robots sur les vitrages de Roissy Charles-de-Gaulle [in French]
In order to limit work at heights, the Roissy Charles-de-Gaulle airport in Paris opted for a remotely-controlled system for the cleaning of glazing in the new passenger terminal. This allows human interventions on the roof to be limited to equipment repair and maintenance. The robotic cleaning system is described in this article.
Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2000, No.599, p.2-6. Illus.

CIS 01-1228 Worker deaths by falls - A summary of surveillance findings and investigative case reports
Between 1980 and 1994, there were 8,102 deaths in the United States due to falls from heights at work, accounting for 10% of all occupational fatalities in the country. This report summarizes surveillance data and investigative reports of fatal work-related falls from elevations. Part I provides an overview of fall hazards at the workplace, a summary of the epidemiology of fatal occupational falls, and recommended elements for an effective safety program for the prevention of falls at the workplace. Part II contains case summaries and prevention recommendations from 90 investigation reports of fatalities from falls from heights.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Nov. 2000. xi, 322p. Illus. 35 ref. [in English]

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