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Accident research - 525 entries found

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CIS 12-0220 Michel L.
Inventory of industrial accidents that occurred in France up to 2011
Inventaire 2011 des accidents technologiques [in French]
This collection of articles analyses the 20,620 industrial accidents which occurred in France between 1992 and 2010, and more specifically the 914 accidents that occurred during 2010, featured in the ARIA database. Data are presented by type of event, sector of activity, consequences, circumstances and main causes. Trends in accidents having causes injuries or fatalities are also presented. The situation of various high-risk sectors is briefly reviewed: hydraulic dams; mines and quarries; road and rail transport; piped transport. Data on all accidents having occurred in France and other countries from 1992 can be accessed from the ARIA database.
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2011, No.117, p.14-29. Illus.
Inventaire_2011_des_accidents_technologiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]
Inventaire_2012_des_accidents_technologiques_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in French]

CIS 11-0642 Pavlič M., Likar B., Pavlič A., Markič M.
Managing occupational injuries records in Slovenia from 1948 to 2008
The aim of this study was to examine and compare all publicly-accessible data on occupational injuries in Slovenia in the period from 1948 to 2008, obtained either from archives or websites. The data obtained from five different sources which have been formally collecting and presenting data on occupational injuries in Slovenia were reviewed. Since the early 1960s, there has been a significant decrease of fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries in Slovenia. Problems related to gathering and interpreting data on occupational injuries are also discussed with special emphasis on the diversity of models used for occupational injury data collection.
Safety Science, 2011, Vol.49, p.834-842. Illus. 26 ref.
Managing_occupational_injuries.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0584 Åkerstedt T., Kecklund G.
Shift work, severe sleepiness and safety
This editorial reviews the issue of sleepiness caused by shift work, leading to increased risk of accidents, with references to several scientific studies.
Industrial Health, 2011, Vol.49, p.141-142. 16 ref.

CIS 11-0429 Bena A., Berchialla P., Debernardi M.L., Pasqualini O., Farina E., Costa G.
Impact of organization on occupational injury risk: Evidence from high-speed railway construction
In mid-2002, construction work started on the Torino to Novara high-speed railway line. A regional epidemiological observatory developed a standardized data collection system that provided a rare opportunity for researchers in Italy to analyze risk factors for occupational injury in a large cohort of workers involved in a single major construction project. The aim of this study was to analyze the main determinants of occupational injury risk and estimate incidence rates, with the help of a Poisson model. The risk was highest among workers performing the least skilled jobs and with the shortest contracts. Moreover the risk was higher in large enterprises. Implications of these findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2011, Vol.54, p.428-437. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 11-0319 Kim T.G., Kang Y.S., Lee H.W.
A study on industrial accident rate forecasting and program development of estimated zero accident time in Korea
This article reviews the social and technical change of the business environment after the launch of the "zero accident campaign" through quantitative time series analysis methods. These methods include sum of squared errors (SSE), regression analysis method (RAM), exponential smoothing method (ESM), double exponential smoothing method (DESM), auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, and the proposed analytic function method (AFM). The programme was developed to estimate the accident rate, time to reach zero accidents and achievement probability of an efficient industrial environment.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2011, Vol.49, No.1, p.56-62. Illus. 11 ref.
A_study_on_industrial_accident.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0372 Alamgir H., Ngan K., Drebit S., Guiyun Li H., Keen D.
Predictors and economic burden of serious workplace falls in health care
The objective of this study was to examine the demographic and workplace risk factors of serious falls and associated economic burden in Canadian health care workers. Fall Injury data during 2005-2008 from a workplace safety and health surveillance system were linked with workers' compensation claims and payroll records. The costs for treatment and wage loss and days lost for accepted time-loss claims were calculated. Demographic and work-related factors were identified to distinguish the risk for more serious falls from less serious falls. A total of 938 fall injury claims were captured among 48,519 full-time equivalent workers. Workers aged over 60 years, part time or employed in the long-term care sector sustained a higher proportion of serious falls. Over 75% of falls were serious for care aides, facility support service workers and community health workers. In the multivariate analysis, the risk of serious falls remained higher for workers in the long-term care sector (odds ratio (OR) 1.71) compared with those in acute care and for care aides (OR 1.72), facility support service workers (OR 2.58) and community health workers (OR 3.61) compared with registered nurses (RNs). The median number of days lost was higher for women, long-term care workers, licensed practical nurses and care aides. Females, long-term care workers, RNs, licensed practical nurses, care aides and maintenance workers had the most costly falls. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, 2011, Vol.61, p.234-240. 21 ref.


CIS 11-0699 Onder M., Adiguzel E.
Evaluation of occupational fatalities among underground coal mine workers through hierarchical loglinear models
In this study, hierarchical loglinear analyses were applied to occupational fatalities having occurred in the period of 1980-2004 in the five underground coal mines in Turkey. Accident records were evaluated and the main factors affecting the accidents were defined as mine site, miners' age, occupation and accident type. By taking into account the sub factors of the main factors, multi-way contingency tables were prepared and the probabilities that might affect fatality accidents were investigated. Findings are discussed.
Industrial Health, Nov. 2010, Vol.48, No.6, p.872-878. Illus. 17 ref.
Evaluation_of_occupational_fatalities.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0578 Marucci-Wellman H., Leamon T.B., Binh T.T., Diep N.B., Willetts J.L., Wegman D.H., Kriebel D.
The work-related burden of injury in a rapidly industrialising commune in Viet Nam
In this community-based injury surveillance study, workplaces in a Vietnamese region were identified and ranked by the magnitude of injuries (or highest injury count), the risk (highest incidence rates) and the burden (the effect of injuries on the livelihoods of workers). A total of 591 injuries occurring in the month prior to survey administration were analyzed. 482 were attributed to work activities (82%), yielding an annualised incidence rate of 1001/1000 full time employee equivalents (FTE). The highest number of injuries (299) occurred in the manufacturing sector, followed by agriculture (70). The highest rate of injury was in the transport, storage and communications sector (annualised IR 1583/1000 FTE), followed by manufacturing (1235/1000 FTE) and agriculture (844/1000 FTE). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2010, Vol.67, No.4. p.244-250. 14 ref.

CIS 11-0577 Wang L., Wheeler K., Bai L., Stallones L., Dong Y., Ge J., Xiang H.
Alcohol consumption and work-related injuries among farmers in Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China
This population-based survey aimed to study the association between alcohol use and work-related agricultural injury. Farmers in a north-eastern province of China were questioned about work-related injury in the past year, alcohol use, farming practices and sociodemographic factors. The Chi-square test and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the role of alcohol drinking in agricultural injuries. Among 2,050 farmers who completed the survey, the 12-month prevalence of work-related injury was 12.2%. The leading external cause of injury was exposure to mechanical force. The odds of injury among farmers with past month drinking, who drank distilled spirits and reported intoxication were respectively 1.77, 1.89 and 2.12. The odds of injury also significantly increased with greater average amounts of pure alcohol per day, with increased frequency of drinking per week and with greater reported years of drinking. Each alcohol use variable was associated with injury in logistic regression models while controlling for sex, age, years of farm work, months of farm work in the past 12 months, driving a motor vehicle and agricultural machinery use.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.825-835. 35 ref.

CIS 11-0321 Ismail M.M.
Use the positive power of reporting near-miss to prevent fatalities
A near-miss is an unplanned event that did not result in an injury, ill-health or damage, but had the potential to do so. Only a fortunate break in the chain of events prevented the loss from occurring. Analyzing near-misses can reveal key information for the prevention of accidents, but requires a formal reporting and investigation programme. This paper discusses the use of near-misses as a tool for preventing future accidents. Contents: definition of a near-miss; why near-miss reporting and investigation is important; what can be achieved by effectively managing near-misses; what should be done to manage a simple near-miss programme.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, 2nd quarter 2010, Vol.XLI, p. 36-43. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 11-0320 Yu S.W.
Extension of process safety performance indicators to occupational health and safety management
Based on the findings of the accident investigation report following a major explosion in a Texas refinery in 2005, this paper discusses the characteristics of process safety performance indicators and proposes their extension to occupational safety and health management.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, 2nd quarter 2010, Vol.XLI, p. 22-24. 6 ref.

CIS 11-0426 Verma S.K., Chang W.R., Courtney T.K., Lombardi D.A., Huang Y.H., Brennan M.J., Mittleman M.A., Perry M.J.
Workers' experience of slipping in U.S. limited-service restaurants
This study examines the experience of limited-service restaurant workers with slipping, their use of slip-resistant shoes, and their floor-cleaning practices. A total of 475 workers from 36 limited-service restaurants in six States of the United States participated in a 12-week prospective cohort study on slipping in the workplace. At baseline, participants completed a survey that gathered information about their demographics, perceptions of floor slipperiness, use of slip-resistant shoes, floor cleaning practices, and number of slips experienced in the previous four weeks. During the subsequent 12 weeks, participants reported their slip experience weekly. Restaurant managers reported kitchen floor cleaning protocols and shoe policies. The overall rate of slipping during the 12 weeks of the prospective study was 0.44 slips per 40 work hours. The mean of the individual rate of slipping varied among the restaurants from 0.02 to 2.49 slips per 40 work hours, a rate ratio of more than 100 among the restaurants with the highest and the lowest rate of slipping. Such a large variation suggests that some restaurants are better able to control slipping than others. The highest numbers of slips were reported in the sink and fryer areas, which were also identified by restaurant workers as being the most slippery. Liquid and grease were reported as floor contaminants in over 70% of the slips. In restaurants where slip-resistant shoes were provided by the employer, 91% of participants wore them; whereas if they were neither provided nor encouraged, only 53.5% wore them. Use of enzyme-based floor cleaners was widespread (25/36). In these restaurants, however, 62% of the participants who were responsible for cleaning floors reported using hot/warm water, thus violating the manufacturer's cold water floor cleaning protocol. These findings suggest that focused prevention efforts based on practices from restaurants with low rates of slipping could decrease slipping hazards.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 2010, Vol.7, p.491-500. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 11-0123 Tissot C.
Analysis of construction industry accidents recorded in EPICEA
Analyse des accidents du BTP répertoriés dans EPICEA [in French]
The construction industry is the most hazardous activity of all sectors covered by the French general social security system. This article discusses the use of the EPICEA occupational accident database to expand knowledge concerning the occurrence of these accidents and their victims, and to develop leads for their prevention. EPICEA lists 4385 construction industry accidents having occurred between 1991 and 2008, of which 73% occurred in building and 23% in civil engineering. Findings are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, Mar. 2010, No.218, p.17-34. Illus. 17 ref.
ND 2322-218-10.pdf [in French]

CIS 10-0782 Brière J., Chevalier A., Imbernon E.
Surveillance of fatal occupational injuries in France: 2002-2004
Insufficient use is made of available information about workplace and commuting accidents covered by social insurance workers compensation funds in France. This study sought to determine whether these data could be used to calculate national indicators for surveillance of fatal occupational injuries for 2002-2004. The number of deaths, mortality rate and years of potential life lost from workplace and commuting accidents were calculated by sex, age, economic activity and cause of accident for employees by collecting data from eight social insurance funds in France. The number of deaths, the mortality rates, and the attributable fraction of accidental deaths due to work were estimated for both employees and self-employed workers. The mortality rate from workplace accidents (6.0 per 100,000) increased with age among men and was especially high in three sectors: agriculture-forestry-fishing, transportation, and construction. Other findings are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2010, Vol.53, No.11, p.1109-1118. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 10-0811 Fatal occupational injuries in the U.S. commercial fishing industry: Risk factors and recommendations
NIOSH recently completed an in-depth study of commercial fishing fatalities in the United States during 2000-2009. The purpose of the study was to identify the most hazardous fisheries around the country and to describe the unique safety issues in each. For this study, the United States were divided into four fishing regions: Alaska, West Coast, East Coast, and the Gulf of Mexico. A separate report is published for each region.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2001, USA, Nov. 2010. Internet documents, PDF format, four reports; each report 6p. Illus.
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-103.pdf [in English]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-104.pdf [in English]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-105.pdf [in English]
DHHS_(NIOSH)_Publication_No.2011-106.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0714 Patterson J.M., Shappell S.A.
Operator error and system deficiencies: Analysis of 508 mining incidents and accidents from Queensland, Australia using HFACS
A modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) was used to analyze mining industry incident and accident cases from across the state of Queensland to identify human factor trends and system deficiencies within the mining sector. An analysis of the data revealed that skill-based errors were the most common unsafe act and showed no significant differences across mine types. However, decision errors did vary across mine types. Findings for unsafe acts were consistent across the time period examined.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 2010, Vol.42, No.4, p.1379-1385. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 10-0595 Probst T.M., Estrada A.X.
Accident under-reporting among employees: Testing the moderating influence of psychological safety climate and supervisor enforcement of safety practices
Accident under-reporting was examined with data from 425 employees employed in five industries with above average risk for employee injuries. It was expected that rates for unreported accidents would be higher than rates for reported accidents, and that organizational safety climate and perceptions of supervisor enforcement of safety policies would moderate the relationship between unreported and reported accidents. Results showed that the number of unreported accidents was significantly higher than the number of reported accidents. There was an average of 2.48 unreported accidents for every accident reported to the organization. Furthermore, under-reporting was higher in working environments with poorer organizational safety climate or where supervisor safety enforcement was inconsistent. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2010, Vol.42, No.5, p.1438-1444. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 10-0326 Sgourou E., Katsakiori P., Goutsos S., Manatakis E.
Assessment of selected safety performance evaluation methods in regards to their conceptual, methodological and practical characteristics
The evolution of safety performance evaluation, from incident-based to prospective and recently to holistic approaches, follows the similar evolutionary path of accident causation and safety management. Holistic approaches are characterized by an integrated use of technical, organizational and human factors for the development of safety performance indicators. The aim of this article is to propose a set of assessment criteria for safety performance evaluation methods which also give emphasis to their holistic nature. Specific criteria related to conceptual, methodological and practical characteristics of the methods have been initially selected, and six safety performance evaluation methods are evaluated in a trial implementation of these criteria. Results indicate that the proposed criteria can be applied in different types of safety performance evaluation methods in order to extract useful information in regards to their holistic character, as well as to their appropriateness and usefulness.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.1019-1025. 37 ref.

CIS 10-0321 Hovden J., Albrechtsen E., Herrera I.A.
Is there a need for new theories, models and approaches to occupational accident prevention?
This article discusses occupational accident modelling challenges associated with a changing working life, and questions whether ideas from models developed for high-risk, complex socio-technical systems can be transformed and adapted for use in occupational accident prevention. It also raises a debate as to whether occupational accidents consist mainly of simple component failures or whether a systemic approach to the phenomenon is of some interest and value.
Safety Science, Oct. 2010, Vol.48, No.8, p.950-956. 59 ref.

CIS 10-0372 Hon C.K.H., Chan A.P.C., Wong F.K.W.
An analysis for the causes of accidents of repair, maintenance, alteration and addition works in Hong Kong
This study unveils causes of accidents in repair, maintenance, alteration and addition (RMAA) work. RMAA work is playing an increasingly important role in developed societies, including Hong Kong. Safety problems associated with RMAA work in Hong Kong has reached an alarming level. In view of rapid expansion of the RMAA sector and rising proportion of accidents in the construction industry, there is a pressing need to investigate causes of RMAA accidents. Structured interviews were conducted with RMAA contractors to explore causes of accidents in the RMAA sector. A two-round Delphi method with 13 safety experts was subsequently employed to verify the interview findings and rank the relative degree of importance for various causes of accidents. Accidents happen in RMAA work due to an intersection of reasons. One of the root causes of accidents is low safety awareness of RMAA workers; however, wider organizational and industrial factors are not negligible. This study sheds light on why accidents happen in the RMAA sector. Only when the factors leading to accidents are identified can effective measures be made.
Safety Science, Aug. 2010, Vol.48, No.7, p.894-901. 26 ref.

CIS 10-0317 Wu W., Gibbb A.G.F, Li Q.
Accident precursors and near misses on construction sites: An investigative tool to derive information from accident databases
Safety problems on construction sites seem to be largely unresolved as the fatality and injury records in construction continue to plague the industry across the world. The lack of an effective system to interrupt and prevent the precursors and contributory factors on construction sites is argued to be the critical deficiency of existent research and practice. This study proposes a feasible approach to facilitate acquiring more useful information from historical records of accidents in order to improve safety on construction sites. A systematic model of improving safety on construction sites is presented to consummate and perfect existent safety-improving systems on construction sites by reinforcing and accentuating the real-time tracking of precursors and immediate factors.
Safety Science, Aug. 2010, Vol.48, No.7, p.845-858. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 09-1348 Le Coze J.C.
Accident in a French dynamite company: An example of an organizational investigation
In 2003, an explosion caused the death of four employees in an explosives plant in the north of France. This article describes the approach that was adopted for the investigation of the accident, focusing not only on the technical causes but also on the organizational and human factors.
Safety Science, Jan. 2010, Vol.48, No.1, p.80-90. Illus. 17 ref.


CIS 12-0311 Hallas K., Hunwin G.
Health and Safety Executive
A study of pendulum slider dimensions for use on profiled surfaces
In the United Kingdom, slip and trip accidents lead to more reportable major injury accidents in the workplace than any other type of accident. Approximately three quarters of these accidents are slips, and the remaining are trips. In order to understand the underlying causes of these accidents, it is important to be able to accurately assess the slip resistance of floor surface materials. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) currently favours the "Pendulum" coefficient of friction test. In some workplaces, flooring can consist of profiled surfaces, where a raised pattern is used to give enhanced slip resistance. The materials tend to be resistant to contaminants and corrosion, so they are often used where significant contamination occurs. Based on experimental measurements, it is concluded that the slip resistance reading obtained with the pendulum can be erroneously influenced by the pattern of profiled surfaces, unless used by an operator with significant expertise.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. vi, 13p. Illus. 8 ref.
A_study_of_pendulum_slider_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0043 Boden P., Rees P.
Health and Safety Executive
Improving the reliability of estimates of migrant worker numbers and their relative risk of workplace injury and illness
This study has reviewed the literature on migrant workers for substantive evidence that migrant workers are more susceptible to injury and illness in the workplace. Survey sources typically fail to adequately capture migrant populations, whilst administrative sources lack the richness of data content. Statistics on accidents in the workplace (RIDDOR) are subject to considerable under-recording, particularly for the self-employed, for smaller businesses and, the evidence suggests, for migrant workers. No information is captured to differentiate migrant workers by their nationality, country of birth or first language. Health records are generally only accessible through health surveillance schemes; providing limited coverage on health and the workplace and with no statistics on nationality, country of birth or first language. These combined inadequacies result in a dearth of United Kingdom studies that make an explicit link between migrant workers, the workplace and health outcomes. The few studies which looked explicitly at the relationship between migrant status and occupational injury/illness have typically reported inconclusive evidence on the effect of migrant workers upon issues of safety and health, primarily due to inadequate data capture and coverage of the target population. However, a number of studies that have examined the impact of the recent influx of migrants from outside the United Kingdom have reinforced the general view that migrant workers, engaged in low-skilled jobs, are more at risk of accident and injury due to the nature of the work they are doing and the conditions in which they are doing it. Implications of these findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, xii, 117p. Illus. Approx. 200 ref.
Improving_the_reliability_of_estimates_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0743 Bell J., Holroyd J.
Review of human reliability assessment methods
Human reliability assessment (HRA) involves the use of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the human contribution to risk. There are many and varied methods available for HRA, with some high hazard industries developing individually-tailored industry focused methods. It was considered that it would be useful for HSE to be up to date with developments in the field of quantitative HRA methods and to have knowledge of the capability of the tools and an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, this project was commissioned to further HSE knowledge and expertise, and to form a view on the acceptability of the various tools for use in risk assessments.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. x, 78p. Approx. 100 ref.
RR_679.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0456 Teixidó i Campàs P.
Prevea: An alliance determined to improve
Prevea: Una alianza con la voluntad de mejora [in Spanish]
This article presents a programme aimed at improving safety named Prevea, Spanish acronym for "programme for voluntary accident reduction", to which enterprises can sign up, developed by a Spanish insurance institution. It describes the advantages of this programme, which lasts 24 months. A pilot project resulted in a considerable decrease in accident rates among the 15 participating enterprises.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, May 2009, No.52, p.22-32. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 10-0265 Inventory of industrial accidents that occurred in France up to 2009
Inventaire 2009 des accidents technologiques [in French]
This collection of articles analyses the 18,469 industrial accidents which occurred in France between 1992 and 2008, and more specifically the 1073 accidents that occurred during 2008, featured in the ARIA database. Data are presented by type of event, sector of activity, substances involved, primary cause of accident and consequences. Trends in fatal accidents as well as an accident severity scale are also presented. An interview with a senior official of the French Ministry of Ecology is included, together with boxes offering short descriptions of representative accidents. Data on all accidents having occurred in France and other countries from 1992 can be accessed at the following URL:
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2009, No.105, p.7-21. Illus.

CIS 10-0170 Ensinger W.
Specialized underground engineering in Europe - Analysis of accidents having occurred between 1998 and 2008
Spezialtiefbau in Europa - Analyse des Unfallgeschehens in den Jahren 1998 bis 2008 [in German]
This article analyses approximately 4000 accidents having occurred between 1998 and 2008 in specialized underground engineering work in 13 European countries, on the basis of accident reports. The results are expressed by sector of activity, age group, hour of day, day of the week, shift duration, type of job and accident cause. Data on the location of injury and the severity rate by age group are also presented.
Tiefbau, Apr. 2009, Vol.121, No.4, p.220-224. Illus.

CIS 09-929 Cole H.P., McKnight R.H., Donovan T.A.
Epidemiology, surveillance and prevention of farm tractor overturn fatalities
Census data concerning fatal occupational injuries identify six states of the United States that have the highest rates of agricultural tractor overturn deaths. Demographic, economic, geological and geographic data that characterize farms in these states were examined. These data suggest that a majority of farms in these states are small acreage livestock operations, located on terrain with steep slopes, with low prevalence of tractors equipped with rollover protective structures and operators who work at off-farm jobs over 200 days per year.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.164-171. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-762 Alamgir H., Yu S., Gorman E., Ngan K., Guzman J.
Near miss and minor occupational injury: Does it share a common causal pathway with major injury?
An essential assumption of injury prevention programs is the common cause hypothesis that the causal pathways of near misses and minor injuries are similar to those of major injuries. The rates of near miss, minor injury and major injury of all reported incidents and musculoskeletal incidents among heath care workers were calculated for three Canadian regions using information from a surveillance database and productive hours from payroll data. The relative distribution of individual causes and activities involved in near miss, minor injury and major injury were then compared. For all reported incidents, there were significant differences in the relative distribution of causes for near miss, minor, and major injury. However, the relative distribution of causes and activities involved in minor and major musculoskeletal injuries were similar. Implications are discussed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.52, No.1, p.69-75. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 09-966 Lin Y.H., Chen C.Y., Lu S.Y.
Physical discomfort and psychosocial job stress among male and female operators at telecommunication call centers in Taiwan
The relationship between job stress and various physical discomfort factors were assessed through a cross-sectional study of 1023 male and female call centre operators in Taiwan. Data were collected by means of self-administered questionnaires and subjected to multivariate logistic regression analyses. Eye strain, hoarse or painful throat and musculoskeletal discomfort were the most pronounced and prevalent complaints after prolonged work time at call centres. Female operators had higher prevalence of physical discomfort than male operators for all body areas. Encountering difficult customers ranked as the most important job stress factor for both male and female operators. Operators who perceived higher job stress had significantly increased risks of eye strain, tinnitus, hoarse or painful throat, chronic cough with phlegm, chest tightness, irritable stomach or peptic ulcers, frequent urination and musculoskeletal discomfort.
Applied Ergonomics, July 2009, Vol.40, No.4, p.561-568. 40 ref.

CIS 09-728 Celik M., Cebi S.
Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents
Despite marine technology improvements and the implementation of safety-related regulations, shipping accidents are still a leading concern for global maritime interests. Ensuring the consistency of accident investigation reports is a significant goal in order to clearly identify the root causes of these accidents. This article presents a Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), based on a Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP), in order to identify the role of human errors in shipping accidents. Integration of FAHP improves the HFACS framework by providing an analytical foundation for a quantitative assessment of shipping accidents.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Jan. 2009, Vol.41, No.1, p.66-75. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-718 Rodrigues de Carvalho P.V., Gomes J.O., Huber G.J., Vidal M.C.
Normal people working in normal organizations with normal equipment: System safety and cognition in a mid-air collision
A fundamental challenge in improving the safety of complex systems is to understand how accidents emerge in normal working situations, with equipment functioning normally in normally structured organizations. This article presents an analysis of a true case of a mid-air collision between a commercial carrier and an executive jet, in a clear afternoon sky in which 154 people lost their lives. The focus was on how and why several safety barriers of a well structured air traffic system failed, leading to the occurrence of this tragedy, without any catastrophic component failure, and in a situation where everything was functioning normally.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2009, Vol.40, No.3, p.325-340. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 09-452 The role of latent and active failures in workplace slips, trips and falls: An information processing approach
The aims of this article are to provide an understanding of workplace slips, trips and falls (STF) causation that is cognisant of the potential role of both active and latent failures in STF causation. It presents an ergonomics model for workplace STF analysis that highlights information processing in STF aetiology, the STF incident process and the interaction between latent and active failures in STF causation. It draws upon ergonomics research conducted in a range of occupational contexts to illustrate the key features of the model. The implications of the model for analysis and prevention of STF are discussed.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar.2009, Vol.40, No.2, p.175-180. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 09-444 Perez-Labajos C.A., Blanco B., Azofra M., Achutegui J.J., Eguía E.
Injury and loss concentration by sinkings in fishing fleets
The objectives of this study were to formulate a methodology for analyzing sinking accidents in the fishing sector of a country, and to apply this methodology to the Spanish fishing fleet. Thus, two indices are constructed by region and type of fishing, for two variables, fishermen and vessels. Results are obtained both for the concentration of accidents and the associated Lorenz curves. An increase in the inequality in the spatial and functional distribution of these accidents is verified.
Safety Science, Feb. 2009, Vol.47, No.2, p.277-284. Illus. 48 ref.


CIS 10-0761
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Analyses of fatal occupational accidents in Rio Grande do Sul - An experience of the Section of Workers' Occupational Safety and Health
Análises de acidentes do trabalho fatais no Rio Grande do Sul - A experiência da Seção de Segurança e Saúde do Trabalhador [in Portuguese]
This book presents fatal accidents notified between August 2001 and December 2007 in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, together with detailed studies of the causes of 35 accidents having occurred in various sectors of activity, in order to draw useful conclusions.
Superintendêcia Regional do Trabalho e Emprego do Rio Grande do Sul, Seção de Segurança e Saúde do Trabalhador (SEGUR), Av. Mauá 1013, 90010-10 Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2008. 335p. Illus. 25 ref.
Análises_de_acidentes.pdf [in Portuguese]

CIS 10-0720 Giraud L., Ait-Kadi D., Ledoux E., Paques J.J., Tanchoux S.
Maintenance - State of knowledge and exploratory study
La maintenance - Etat de la connaissance et étude exploratoire [in French]
The objectives of this study were: to determine whether relationships exist between maintenance activities and occupational safety and health; to describe the present state of the maintenance sector; to review literature relating to maintenance and OHS; and to develop a thematic research programme. The report also includes an analysis of maintenance accidents having occurred in Quebec. The report discusses lockout, machine design, confined spaces and belt conveyors. Areas for future research are proposed, to fill some of the gaps noted during the study or to generate new solutions for the problems identified.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. ix, 47p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: CAD 7.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
Rapport_R-578.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-723 Ebara T., Kubo T., Inoue T., Murasaki G.I., Takeyama H., Sato T., Suzumura H., Niwa S., Takanishi T., Tachi N., Itani T.
Effects of adjustable sit-stand VDT workstations on workers' musculoskeletal discomfort, alertness and performance
Adjustable sit-stand workstations, which are designed to allow workers to sit and stand autonomously while working, were examined to identify the effects on workers' musculoskeletal comfort, alertness and performance. Twenty-four healthy subjects participated in the study. The subjects were required to do an English transcription task for 150 min using standard and high-chairs, under various sitting and standing conditions and sequences. Findings are discussed. This study revealed that although the use of sit-stand workstations can contribute to keeping workers' arousal level steady, it has an adverse effect on musculoskeletal comfort.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2008, Vol.46, No.5, p.497-505. Illus. 20 ref. [in English]

CIS 09-170 Li X.R., Koseki H., Iwata Y.
Risk assessment on processing facility of raw organic garbage
This article presents work done in order to investigate the cause of an explosion during the processing of raw garbage in a volume-reduction processing facility at a Japanese shopping mall. Variable onset temperatures of the exothermal reaction were found as a function of oil content, decreasing from 150°C in the samples containing 10.9-14.1% oil to 114°C when the oil content reached 40%. The disposal process was then simulated in a laboratory-scale facility heated by hot air of 150°C blown into the bottom through nozzles. In the case of the dried garbage containing 14.1% oil, white smoke emitted after several hours, accompanied by an abrupt rise of the temperatures in particular at the bottom of the facility. The maximum temperature reached 1070°C, accompanied by the emission of several gases, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and ethane. Probable mechanisms explaining the observed explosion are discussed.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2008, Vol.154, Nos.1-3, p.38-43. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 09-9 Swuste P.
Occupational accident scenarios, and accident analysis
Papers selected among those presented at an international conference on occupational safety held Zeewolde, Netherlands, from 12-15 September 2006,. Topics covered: government programs from The Netherlands and Denmark to reduce occupational accidents and their effects; methodological and conceptual issues (models for workplace interventions, expert judgements, risk assessment methods, bias related to questionnaire studies); accident scenarios and interventions in various industries and activities; road safety.
Safety Science, Feb. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.151-343 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 09-167 Routley J.G.
Carolina tragedy
The deaths of nine firefighters in a fire at a sofa showroom in South Carolina, USA, prompted a wide-ranging investigation. This article reports on the main findings. Contents: incident summary; risks inherent to the building; firefighting operations; lessons and recommendations; steps taken by the fire department and city authorities following the tragedy.
Fire Engineers Journal, Oct. 2008, p.54-59. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 08-1156 Van Wassenhove W., Garbolino E.
Lessons learned from accidents and the prevention of hazards - Principles and methods
Retour d'expérience et prévention des risques - Principes et méthodes [in French]
The lessons learned from accidents approach (LLA) is to provide enterprises with the means of benefiting form past experiences. This publication presents the state of the art with respect to the definition and implementation of an LLA aimed at managing hazards within the enterprise. A first part deals with the basic theoretical and methodological aspects. The second part describes the implementation of an LLA system. It explains the prerequisites for introducing an LLA within the enterprise, together with the approach for its implementation. An example of the LLA method, which comprises a hazard evaluation phase, is also included. Finally, the conclusion addresses the contributions and limits of the LLA approach in the context of hazard evaluation, and discusses the prospects for further improvements.
Editions Tec et Doc, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. vii, 72p. Illus. 64 ref. Index. Price: EUR 35.00.

CIS 08-1162 Procaccia H.
Basics of frequential and Bayesian approaches - Applications in the field of the control of industrial hazards
Les fondements des approches fréquentielle et bayésienne - Applications à la maîtrise du risque industriel [in French]
Analysing the risk of industrial accidents consists of evaluating the likelihood of occurrence of a dreaded event and of its consequences. For evaluating this likelihood, an approach based on frequential statistics approach was commonly used, an approach which however is lacking in terms of both rigour and objectivity. This publication explains the advantages of an approach based on Bayesian statistics and subjective probability, which takes into account all available knowledge for carrying out a hazard evaluation, including lessons learned from accidents and expertise.
Editions Tec et Doc, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 2008. xix, 248p. Illus. 42 ref. Index. Price: EUR 70.00.


CIS 08-1257 Vilela R.A.G., Mendes R.W.B., Gonçalves C.A.H.
Occupational accidents investigated by CEREST Piracicaba: Confronting the traditional approach of safety at work
Acidente do trabalho investigado pelo CEREST Piracicaba: confrontando a abordagem tradicional da segurança do trabalho [in Portuguese]
Enterprises mostly present simplistic explanations of occupational accidents, whereby the victims are blamed for the events, and aspects of work organization or equipment design get ignored. This article presents the analysis of occupational accident data conducted by the System of Surveillance of Occupational Accidents (SIVAT) at the Centre of Reference on Workers' Health (CEREST) in Piracicaba, Brazil, using cases notified by all emergency rooms and hospitals of the municipal district. The methodology involves interviews, analysis of documents, photographic records, observation and investigation. Such an approach could suggest solutions for safety improvements.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-June 2007, Vol.32, No.115, p.29-40. Illus. 26 ref. [in Portuguese]

CIS 08-1201 Powell S.
Health and Safety Executive
Evaluation of the HSE slips and trips roadshows
This survey consisted of 102 interviews with persons who had attended an HSE slips and trips road show. The objectives of the survey were to establish the extent to which participants implemented changes to reduce risk levels since attending the road show, to better understand barriers that participants have faced in trying to make changes and to explore how else the HSE could support work to reduce risk levels. Overall, the road shows were found to be an effective way of raising awareness of slips and trips in workplaces. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. vi, 30p. 1 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-931 Chojnacka A., Sudoł-Szopińska I.
Standardization aspects of thermal comfort in office areas
Komfort termiczny w pomieszczeniach biurowych w aspekcie norm [in Polish]
It is known that providing thermal comfort to employees by means of adjustment and control of the relevant environmental parameters results in a decrease in the number of errors and accidents, and an increase in productivity and quality of products and services. According to a report published by the European Agency for the Safety and Health at Work, thermal discomfort is an important physical risk factor in the work environment. The possibilities of analysing the thermal comfort in the work environment according to various Polish and European standards are discussed, together with the design of buildings while taking into account thermal comfort criteria.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, June 2007, No.6 (429), p.16-19. 11 ref.

CIS 08-261 Accidents and lessons learned
Hawadeth wa Durus [in Arabic]
Folder containing a leaflet presenting the Occupational Safety Section of the Kingdom of Bahrain and a booklet describing various occupational accidents. In each case, the accident descriptions are followed by the causes and the lessons learned. The following accidents are described: bursting tire; trench collapse; clothing entanglement; fall from a hoist; truck overturning; collapse of a concrete pump arm; arm being caught in a cogwheel; explosion of a barrel containing residues of flammable chemicals; scaffold collapse; crushing by a moving shovel truck; electric shock; misuse of hoisting equipment.
Kingdom of Bahrain, Ministry of labour, Directorate of Labour Relations, P.O.Box 32333, Manama, Bahrain, [ca. 2007]. Folder containing a leaflet presenting the Occupational Safety Section (5p.) and a booklet describing various occupational accidents (14p. Illus.).


CIS 11-0165 Kuye R., Donham K., Marquez S., Sanderson W., Fuortes L., Rautiainen R., Jones M., Culp K.
Agricultural health in The Gambia II: A systematic survey of safety and injuries in production agriculture
This study was undertaken to provide baseline information on the injuries and safety and health conditions in Gambian agriculture. The objective was to produce information to guide the formulation of an agricultural safety and health policy for the country, future investigations, prevention and surveillance of the adverse health effects in agriculture. A cross-sectional survey of 20 farmers, 20 nurses, and 20 agricultural extension workers was conducted in two regions of Gambia. The survey was implemented by the means of questionnaires, walk-through surveys and hazard checklists. Seventy percent of farms reported an injury during the past year. Major sources and contributing factors for the injuries were characterized. Predisposing factors to the injuries were climatic conditions, working in static positions, bending and twisting and carrying heavy objects. Cuts and lacerations were identified as the commonest injury types and the most common sources were hand tools (hand hoe, cutlass, axe and knife) and animal-powered carts. A workshop for the major stakeholders in the country's agriculture was also held to identify problems and possible solutions for health promotion of Gambian farmers.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.119-128. Illus. 37 ref.
Agricultural_health.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-875 Randle I., Smith C.
Health and Safety Executive
Manual handling incidents database - A compilation and analysis of offshore industry reports
Analysis of a sample of 126 recent manual handling incident reports from the offshore industry indicated a variety of root causes, the most common being poor workplace design, poor equipment design and the use of inappropriate equipment. Inadequate risk assessment was found to be a root cause in only 5% of incidents. Other findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2006. vi, 56p. Illus. 3 ref. [in English]

CIS 08-487 Lindgren T., Andersson K., Norbäck D.
Perception of cockpit environment among pilots on commercial aircraft
Impaired cockpit environment may influence both well-being and performance of pilots. The purpose of this study was to assess the perception of cockpit environment among pilots in relation to demographic factors and type of aircraft. A standardized questionnaire was mailed to all pilots of one airline, among whom 622 responded (81%). Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied, controlling for age, gender, smoking, perceived psychosocial work environment and type of aircraft. Younger age, a history of atopy and stress due to excess work were the main predictors of symptoms and cockpit environment perceptions. The most common symptoms were fatigue, facial dermal and nasal symptoms. Other findings are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2006, Vol.77, No.8, p.832-837. 13 ref.

CIS 08-109 Le Bouar G., Chauvin C.
An analysis of the risk in the French sea fishing industry. Example of the dockside accident risk
When considering the risks of fishing, one generally thinks about major risks like collisions or vessels running aground, as well as accidents caused ropes or trawling equipment. However there is little data on accidents involving fishermen while the vessel is docked in port. In France, these accidents account for about 30% of all registered injuries for the sea fishing sector. This study analyses the data on the 5074 such accidents reported between 1996 and 2005. Findings are discussed and various preventive measures are proposed.
International Maritime Health, 2006, Vol.57, No.1/4, p.103-113. Illus. 11 ref.

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